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APHDAL, the Fatimite, expels the sons of
Ortok from Jerusalem, 1096.
APHELION of Venus, observed by Theon
of Smyrna, Oct. 10, 128-of Mercury,
July 5, 131.

APHIDES, K. of Athens, B.C. 1137 (1138 H., 1134 C.).

APION of Alexandria, fl. 39-sent as an ambassador to Rome, 40.

APIS, k. of Argos, B.C. 1747 (1693 C.).
APIS, K. of Sicyon, B.C. 1973 (1734 C.).
A POCHAS, Olympic victor, B.C. 520.
APOCRYPHAL and canonical books of the
Scriptures, distinguished by Gelasius,
494 declared by the Council of Trent
to be of equal authority, 1550.
APOKAUKUS, the grand admiral, supports
Anne of Savoy, regent for her son, John
V., emperor of the East, 1341-he fails
in his attempt against Cantacuzene at
Demotica, 1344-he is murdered, 1345.
APOLLINARIS, P. Cœlius, consul of Rome,

169. APOLLINARIS, Sidonius, celebrates the consulship of his father-in-law, the emperor Avitus, 456-addresses his panegyric to Majorian, 458-to Anthemius, 468-bp. of Clermont, 469. APOLLINARIUS. See ALEXANDRIA, bps. of. APOLLINARIUS, bp. of Hierapolis, 172. APOLLINARIUS, bp. of Laodicea, writes against Porphyry, and at last deviates into heresy, 366. APOLLO, Commodus places a head of himself on a statue of, 189.

APOLLODORUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 430. APOLLODORUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 350. APOLLODORUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 321. APOLLODORUS, chronologist, fl. B.C. 145. APOLLODORUS of Damascus, the architect, constructs Trajan's bridge over the Danube, 105—designs and executes Trajan's column; is also employed on the Odeum temples, triumphal arches, &c., 113. APOLLODORUS of Gela, the comic poet, fl.

B.C. 326.

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Titus in Cilicia, 71-returns to Rome; accused of conspiracy; suffered to escape, and goes to the Olympic games, 93 d. 97. For his biography, see PHILOSTRATUS of Lemnos. APOLOGETICUS. See TERTULLIAN. APOLOGIES for Christianity. See ARISTIDES, QUADRATUS, JUSTIN MARTYR, ATHENAGORAS, MELITO, and MILTIADES. APOLOGY for Quakerism. See BARCLAY. APOSTOLICALS, a sect, headed by Segarelli, denounce the licentiousness of the clergy, 1261-they are prohibited by the pope, 1286-again persecuted, 1290their leader burnt at Parma, and they retire into Dalmatia, under a new leader, Dolcino, 1300-return to Italy, and fix themselves on a mountain near Vercelli, 1304-crusade against them, 1306-dispersion of the sect, 1307. See SEGARELLI, and DOLCINO. APPELLÆUS, Olympic victor, B.C. 540. APPENZEL, invites the protection of the Swiss cantons against the abbot of St. Gall, 1411-joins the Swiss League, 1513. APPIAN of Alexandria, becomes known to Hadrian, and follows him to Rome, 130 -writes his History, 147.

APPIAN ROAD (Via Appia), constructed by the censor Appius Claudius Cæcus, B.C. 312.

APPIANO, Gherardo d', sells Pisa to Jo.

Galeazzo Visconte, duke of Milan, 1399. APPIUS, Sp. Decemvir, dies in prison, B.C. 449.

APPIUS CLAUDIUS. See CLAUDIUS. APPRENTICES, tumult of the, in Westminster, Dec. 28, 1641.

APPROPRIATION CLAUSE, in the Irish Church Bill, thrown out by the Lords, 1835-again, July 25, 1836. APPULEIUS, M., consul of Rome, B.C. 20. APPULEIUS, Sex., consul of Rome, B.C. 29subdues Pannonia, 8.

APPULEIUS, Sex., consul of Rome, 14. APRAXIN, the Russian adm., defeats the Swedish adm. Erenschild, and takes him prisoner, 1714.

APRIES, k. of Egypt, B.C. 594 C. APRONIANUS, C. Vipstanus, consul of Rome, 59. APRONIANUS, Vipstamus, consul of Rome, 117.

APRONIANUS, C. Ventidius, consul of Rome,

123. APRONIANUS, consul of Rome, 168. APRONIANUS, consul of Rome, 191. APRONIUS, defeated by the Frisians, 28. APSANDRUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 702. APSEPHION, Athenian archon, B.C. 470 H., 469 C.

APSEUDES, Athenian archon, B.C. 433. APSINES of Gadara, the sophist, fl. 236.

APULEIUS, leaves Madaura, studies at Carthage and Athens, and afterwards settles at Rome, 149-composes his works there, 174.

APULIA, a province in Southern Italy, occupied by Hannibal, who passes an idle winter there, B.C. 215 he returns after a march to the gates of Rome, 211. See ITALY, SOUTHERN. APULIA, part of the new Greek province, called the Theme of Lombardy, A.D. 890 revolt of Melo; he engages a band of Normans to assist him, 1017 -Basilio Bugiano sent against them, 1018- they are defeated, 1019-invasion of Henry II., emperor of Germany, 1022-more Normans arrive, 1026 -obtain Aversa, 1029-divide the province among them, making Melfi their common capital, 1042-visit of pope Leo IX., to hear the complaints of the people against them, 1050- Humphrey succeeds Drogo as their leader, 1051-on his death Guiscard assumes the command, 1057-he receives the title of duke of Apulia from pope Nicholas II., 1059revolt of Cannæ and other cities, 1083 -Edgar Atheling retires among the Normans, 1086-treaty with pope Pascal II., 1110-invasion of Roger, count of Sicily, 1121-acquired by him, 1127he is acknowledged duke of Apulia, 1128 -and Rainulph created count, 1137pope Innocent II. taken prisoner by Roger, restores Apulia to him, and creates his son duke, 1139-the province revolts, aided by Michael Palæologus, 1155conquered by Tancred, 1190-reconquered by the Sicilians, 1191-conquered by the emperor Henry VI. of Germany, 1194 by the emperor Otho IV., 1211pope Gregory IX. declares a crusade against Frederic II., and sends John de Brienne to reduce it, 1228-1229-the cardinals and prelates captured by the emperor on their way to hold a council at Rome, are confined by him in Apulia, 1241-papal agents form conspiracies, which he puts down in person, 1246he dies there, Dec. 13, 1250-pope Iunocent IV. excites a rebellion, which Manfred quells, 1251-Conrad arrives, 1252 -the pope advances with a strong force, which Manfred defeats, 1254-Apulia, with Sicily, given to Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX., by pope Urban IV., 1263-they form the kingdom of Naples, of which he is crowned k., 1265. See NAPLES, and SICILIES, the Two. AQUA APPIA, the first Roman aqueduct, constructed by Appius Claudius, the blind, B.C. 312.

AQUA CLAUDIA, an aqueduct of Rome, com

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AQUÆ SEXTIÆ, the first Roman colony in Gaul, founded by C. Sextius Calvinus, B.C. 122-battle of; Marius defeats the Teutones, 102. See AIX. AQUAVIVA, author of the school system of the Jesuits, d. 1615. AQUEDUCT. See AQUA.-Of New Athens, constructed by Hadrian, 140-of Ravenna, by Theodoric, 502-of Ecija, completed by Abderahman III., 949-of the Ellesmere canal, in the vale of Llangollen, completed by Mr. Telford, 1805. AQUEDUCTS, public, of Rome, superintended by Domitius Afer, 49-by Frontinus, 97-constructed in Spain by Abderahman II., to relieve a great drought, 847. AQUILA, battle of; Braccio defeated and

slain by Francesco Sforza, 1424. AQUILEIA, winter-quarters of the consuls, while conducting the war in Istria, B.C. 178-head-quarters of the emperors M. Aurelius and Verus against the Marcomanni, A.D. 167-besieged by Maximin, who is assassinated there, 238-battle of; Constantine II. defeated and slain by his brother, Constans, 340-synod of, held by Ambrose of Milan, against Palladius and Secundianus, 381. See RUFINUS. -siege and destruction of, by Attila, 452 -battle of; Theodoric defeats Odoacer, Aug. 28, 489-taken by the Lombards, 568-ceded by Berenger, k. of Italy, to Otho I., emperor of Germany, 952Richard I., of England, shipwrecked near, 1192. AQUILINUS, consul of Rome, 162. AQUILINUS, consul of Rome, 249. AQUILINUS, Lart. Herminius, consul Rome, B.C. 448. AQUILINUS, T. Herminius, consul of Rome, B.C. 506.

AQUILINUS, T. Vettius, consul of Rome, 125. AQUILINUS VETTIUS, consul of Rome, 286. AQUILIUS, M., consul of Rome, resisted by the slaves in Sicily, B.C. 101-restores tranquillity, 99-accused of malversa'ions, and eloquently defended by the orator Antonius, 98. AQUINAS, Thomas, studies at Paris, 1245— called" the angelic doctor"-dies on his way to the council of Lyons, 1274. AQUINO; Gregory VII. retires to, 1080. AQUITAINE, given to Wallia, kingdom of the Visigoths founded, 418-conquered by Clovis, 507 - independent under Eudes, 717--the Saracens expelled from, 732-occupied by Charles Martel, 735


held by Hunald, son of Eudes, as duke, 736-Waifar, son of Hunald, maintains himself against Pepin, 762 — is slain, and his duchy conquered, 768-Louis, son of Charlemagne, crowned k. of Aquitaine at Rome, 781-gives the title to his son, Pepin, 815-who dies, 838-his sons claim the inheritance, 840-the eldest of them, Pepin, acquires possession of it, 845-Charles the Bald takes him prisoner and seizes Aquitaine, 851 -the people offer it to a son of Louis of Germany, but Pepin escapes and places himself again at their head, 854-reduced by Charles, 865-governed by his son, Louis the Stammerer, 867-given by Lothaire to Hugh, count of Paris, 955becomes an appendage of the English crown, through the marriage of Henry (II.) Plantagenet to Eleanor of Guienne, 1152 Edward III. founds the princi-| pality of, for the Black Prince, 1362-the nobles of, refuse to pay the taxes levied by the prince for his Castilian campaign, and appeal to the k. of France, 1368. See GUIENNE.

AQUITANIA, disturbances in, settled by
Messalla, B.C. 27.
AQUITANUS, Victorius, writes his Canon
Paschalis, 457.

ARABIA; Ptolemy Energetes extends his empire on the western coast, B.C. 225unsuccessful expedition of Elius Gallus, gov. of Egypt, 24-part of Arabia Petræa conquered by Corn. Palma, A.D. 106-visit of Hadrian, 130-Sept. Severus gives the name of Arabia to Adiabene, which he forms into a new province, 195-the native land of Mohammed, in which he announces himself as a prophet, 610-conquered by him, 630-his successors take the title of caliphs, 632their first money coined by Abdelmelik, 695-their empire extends from Tartary and India in the East, to the shores of the Atlantic, 718-learning introduced by Almansor, 754-its magnificence under Haroun Al Raschid, 786-809-declines, 841-conquered by the Bowide Ahmed, who makes himself Emir Al Omra, 944-MSS. purchased in Arabia for the caliph of Spain, Al Hakem, 962Hulagou murders Al Mostasem, and puts an end to the caliphate, 1258-conquered by the Ottoman, Selim I., 1518-conquest completed by Soliman II., 1538-establishment of the British at Aden, 1839. ARABIA, caliphs of :

Abu Beker, 632-634.
Omar I., 634--641.
Othman, 644-655.
Ali, 655-661.

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Al Motassem, 833-841.
Al Wathek, 841-847.
Al Motawakkel, 847-861.
Al Mostanser, 861.

Al Mostain, 862-866.
Al Motaz, 866--869.
Al Mohtadi, 869.
Al Motamed, 870-892.
Al Motadhed, 892-902.
Al Moktafi, 902-908.
Al Moktader, 908--932.
Al Kaher, 932--934.
Al Radhi, 934-940.
Al Motaki, 940-944.
Al Mostakfi, 944.
Al Moti, 945-974.
Al Tai, 974-991.
Al Kader, 991-1031.
Al Kaim, 1031-1075.
Al Moktadi, 1075–1094.
Al Mortader, 1094-1118.
Al Mostarshed, 1118-1135.
Al Raschid, 1135.

Al Moktafi, 1136-1160.
Al Mostanjed, 1160--1170.
Al Mostadhi, 1170-1180.
Al Naser, 1180-1225.
Al Zaher, 1225.

Al Mostanser, 1226-1243. Al Mostasem, 1243-1258. ARABIAN numerals, introduced in France by Gerbert, from Cordova, 991. ARABIC, taught in Spain by schools which Hixem the caliph establishes for that purpose, 794.

ARABISSUS, a town of Cappadocia, to which Chrysostom is banished, 406.

ARABS (Saracens) invade Syria, and are repulsed by Eugenius, 497-invade Palestine, 502. See SARACENS and Mo


ARADUS, the island of, on the coast of Phoenicia, taken by Moawiyah, 649. ARAGO, D. F., b. 1786-d. 1853. ARAGO, Etienne, b. 1803. ARAGON, an independent power, under Aznar, son of Eudes of Aquitaine, 737. See ARAGONESE. Attacked by Muhamad, caliph of Spain, 860-the kingdom of, founded by Ramiro I., 1035-he adds Sobrarba to it, 1038-bequeathed by Alfonso I. to the Templars and Hospitallers, but the gift does not take effect, 1131-Ramiro II. resigns his kingdom to Raymond, count of Barcelona, and retires into a monastery, 1137-pope Martin IV. declares the kingdom forfeited by Peter III., and offers it to Charles de Valois, 1283-treaty of peace with France, 1287-concluded, 1288pope Innocent VI. endeavours ineffectually to restore peace between Castile and Aragon, 1359-they are reconciled by the treaty of Almazan, 1374-a contest arises between John II. and his nobles they invite Pedro, prince of Portugal, to take the throne, 1464-on his death, they offer the crown to Regnier d' Anjou, 1466. See ANJOU, Regnier d'.-United to Castile, under Ferdinand and Isabella, 1479- Don Carlos carries on a harassing warfare in, 1838. ARAGON, Sovereigns of:

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an army into the Archipelago, 1351defeated by the Genoese in a naval battle in the Bosphorus, Feb. 13, 1352-defeat the Genoese off Linghiera, in Sardinia, Aug. 29, 1353-they appoint nine judges to examine and decide on the claims of the candidates for their crown, 1411-they decide in favour of Ferdinand, regent of Castile, 1412-are excited to revolt by the severities of the Inquisition, and put to death the chief inquisitor, Peter Arbue, 1486-unsuccessfully attempt to regain their ancient privileges, 1725.

ARALEUS, k. of Assyria, B.C. 1897 (2020 C.) ARAM, Eugene, convicted of murder, Aug. 3, 1759-executed, Aug. 6. ARANDA, count, prime minister of Spain, 1766.

ARANIE, battle of; Mr. Clive defeats the French and their Indian allies, Dec. 3, 1751. ARANJUEZ, insurrection at, Mar. 17, 1808. ARARIC, the Gothic chieftain, is compelled by the Cæsar Constantine to make peace with the Sarmatians, and give his son as a hostage, 332. ARAROS, the son of Aristophanes, poet of the middle comedy at Athens, B.C. 375. ARATUS, restores freedom to Sicyon, B.C. 251-prætor of the Achæan league, 245sets Corinth free, 243-involves the Lacedæmonians and the Achæan league in war, 227-again prætor of the Achæans, 217-poisoned by Philip V., k. of Macedon. 213.

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Agesilans, 370-alliance with Athens, 366-war with Elis, 365-invaded by Archidamus, 364. ARCADIOPOLIS, battle of; the Bulgarians defeat the emperor Isaac Angelus, 1194.

ARCADIUS, son of Theodosius I., b. 377— receives the title of Augustus, 383becomes emperor of the East, and marries Eudocia, daughter of the Frank, Bauto, 395-birth of his daughter, Pulcheria-oration of Synesius addressed to him, 399-his son, Theodosius, b. 401 -Arcadius d. May 1, 408. ARCAS. See ARCADIA. ARCESILAUS I., son of Battus I., k. of Cyrene, B.C. 591-575.

ARCESILAUS IV., last of the race of Battus, killed, B.C. 431.

ARCESILAUS, consul of Rome, 267. ARCESILAUS, of the New Academy, fl. B.C. 299-head of the school, 278-d. 241. ARCH OF TITUS, at Rome, 80-of Sept. Severus, 203 of Constantine, 312-of Honorius, 404-at the entrance of the park, London; equestrian statue of Wellington placed on it, 1846. ARCHEANACTIDA, the earliest sovereigns of Bosporus, about B.C. 480. ARCHAGATHUS, the first Roman physician,

fl. B.C. 219. ARCHAMBAUD, Beatrice, heiress of Bourbon, marries Robert, sixth son of Louis IX., k. of France, about 1300. ARCHANGEL, the passage to, round the North Cape, discovered, 1553-the Norwegians attempt to interrupt the English commerce, 1578-the czar Peter acquires there a practical knowledge of navigation, 1694 a project of the Swedes against it defeated, 1702. ARCHBISHOP; the term first used instead of Metropolitan, in the acts of the synod of Maçon, 581. ARCHBISHOPS of Milan and Ravenna, dispute for precedence, 1027, 1047. ARCHDALE, John, a quaker, elected for Wycombe, refuses to take the oaths, 1698. ARCHELAUS, a priest of Sicyon, B.C. 1128; doubtful. ARCHELAUS, grandson of Orestes, forms a

settlement in Asia Minor, B.C. 1088. ARCHELAUS, Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 883-823. ARCHELAUS, the instructor of Socrates, B.C.


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with her in Egypt, and is expelled by the consul, Gabinius, B.C. 56. ARCHELAUS, son of the foregoing, is made k. of Cappadocia by M. Antony, B.C. 36 -Conon dedicates his history to him--dethroned by Tiberius, and detained at Rome, A.D. 15-d. there, 17. ARCHELAUS, eldest son of Herod, receives half Judæa from Augustus, with the title of ethnarch, B.C. 3-banished by him, A.D. 6. ARCHELAUS, bp. of Mesopotamia, writes against Manicheism, 278.

ARCHES, Athenian archon, B.C. 393 H. ARCHESTRATIDES, Athenian archon, B.C.

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ARCHIDAMUS V., Proclidan k. of Lacedæmon, and last of the line, B.C. 229-put to death by Cleomenes, 224. ARCHIDEMIDES, Athenian archon, B.C. 464. ARCHILOCHUS, the poet, fl. and invents Iambics, B.C. 708. ARCHILOCHUS, Olympic victor, B.C. 544. ARCHIMEDES, the geometrician b. B.C. 287 -fl., 221-assists in defending Syracuse, 214-killed, 212.

ARCHINUS, makes himself prominent at Athens, B.C. 402.

ARCHIPELAGO, an island thrown up in it by a submarine volcano near Thera, 726-Mark Sanudo founds his duchy, 1207. See SANUDO, NAXOS, and CRISPO. The Venetians and Pedro IV. of Aragon send a powerful army into, 1351-the Turks are expelled, 1472-regain their dominion, 1479. ARCHIPPUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 988 (1041 H).

ARCHIPPUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 321 (318 C.).

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