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CHESS introduced into Persia from India by Buzurg Mihir, 580. CHESTER, the Deva of the Romans, and station of Legio XX.Victrix. See CAERLEON.-Destroyed by the Danes; rebuilt by Edward the Elder, 907-recovered by him from the Dane, Leofrid, and Griffin ap Madoc, prince of West Wales, 924ravaged by the Danes, 980-Peter, bp. of Lichfield, transfers his see for a time to Chester, 1075-the bishopric erected by Henry VIII., 1541-railway to Crewe opened, Oct. 1, 1840-to Holyhead (in part), 1847-completed, Sept. 13, 1850. CHESTER, the earl of, besieged by Stephen in Lincoln castle, 1140.

CHESTERFIELD CANAL, the Norwood tunnel opened, May 8, 1775.

CHESTERFIELD, Philip Dormer Stanhope, earl of, b. 1694-d. 1773.

CHIARAMONTE, cardinal Gregory Barnabas.
See PIUS VII., pope.

CHIARI, battle of-prince Eugene defeats
Villeroi, Sept. 1, 1701.

CHICHELEY, Henry, archbp. of Canterbury,

founds All Souls' College, Oxford, 1437. CHICHESTER, a Roman station on the Saxon shore, made the seat of government of the kingdom of Sussex, by Cissa, and named after him, 540-the bishopric transferred there from Selsea, by Stigand, 1070 railway from Brighton opened, June 27, 1840.

CHILDE HAROLD. See BYRON, Geo., lord. CHILDEBERT I., son of Clovis. See FRANKS. CHILDEBERT II., son of Sigebert I.


VENANTIUS FORTUNATUS. Inherits Gontran's share of Chlotair's kingdom, 594. See AUSTRASIA.


CHILDERIC I., father of Clovis. See FRANKS. CHILDERICII., son of Clovis II. SeeFRANCE. CHILDERIC III., son of Chilperic II. See FRANCE.

CHILI. See ALMAGRO. Convulsed during twenty-seven days by an earthquakeSantiago nearly ingulfed, 1731-congress held at Santiago, O'Higgins president, Feb. 12, 1817-its independence confirmed by San Martin, the Buenos Ayres general, 1818-Freyre president, 1823Beneventi, 1827.

CHILLIANWALLAH, battle of-the Sikhs defeated by lord Gough, Jan. 13, 1849. CHILLINGWORTH, William, b. 1602-taken prisoner by sir Wm. Waller, at Arundel Castle-d. 1644.

CHILON, of Sparta, one of the seven sages of Greece, B.C. 593-Ephor, 556. CHILPERIC. See BURGUNDIANS.

CHILPERIC I., son of Chlotair. See FRANKS. CHILPERIC II., son of Childeric II. See FRANCE.

CHIMNEY-SWEEPING, a machine for, invented by Smart, 1805.

CHINA, the supposed age of Confucius (Kungfutze), lawgiver, philosopher, and teacher of religion, B.C. 555-conference between him and Lao-Tseu, another philosopher, 517-d. 473- the great wall built, 298-an embassy said to have been sent from Rome, A.D. 166-invaded by Dschingis-khan, 1210-the northern part conquered by his son, Octai, 1234-Kublai assisted in his conquest of Manji, the southern part, by mangonels, which the Polos, Venetian travellers, construct for him, 1273- Marco Polo introduces Christian missionaries, 1275. See CHANGHIAN-FU. Its conquest completed by Kublai, 1279-threatened by Timour, 1405.

The Portuguese trade at Macao, 1517convey the orange-tree into Europe, 1548 -invasion of the Mantchou Tartars, 1616 -the present dynasty established by them, 1647-tea introduced into England, 1660-the English East India Company opens commercial intercourse with Canton, 1680-Jesuit missionaries make converts, 1692-commercial relations formed with Russia, 1719, 1727-the Jesuits expelled, 1732-an English gunner put to death for having accidentally killed a Chinese, 1785-lord Macartney's embassy, 1792-death of the emperor Kien Long, 1799.

The monopoly of the Chinese trade continued by the East India Company's new charter, 1813-lord Amherst proceeds on his embassy, Feb. 8, 1816. See AMHERST. The East India Company's monopoly ceases - the trade thrown open, 1833- the opium dispute commences, 1834-the British trade suspended, and two ships fired upon-demolition of the Chinese forts-the trade restored-lord Napier, the superintendent, dies, and is succeeded by Mr. Davies, Oct. 11.

Captain Elliot, chief commissioner, 1836 he is arrested by the Chinese commissioner, Lin, and the surrender of opium demanded, Feb. 24, 1839-it is given up, May 21 the British leave Canton, 24-hostilities commence, July 7-Hong Kong taken, Aug. 23-Chinese junks destroyed, Nov. 3-all trade interdicted, Dec. 6 Canton blockaded by sir Gordon Bremer, June 28, 1840

Chusan taken, July 5 Lin degraded, Sept. 16 Kishin concludes a truce and treaty, Nov. 6; which the emperor rejects, Feb. 11, 1841 - Chusan

CHARLES V.-continued.

22-takes the field against the duke of Cleves, ally and general of Francis I., 1543-defeat of his army at Ceresuola; he invades France, but suddenly concludes a peace, and abandons Henry, 1544-promises his daughter, Maria, to the duke of Orleans, with Milan for her dowry, 1545-deprives the abp. of Cologne of his states, enters into a league with the pope, and commences hostilities against the Protestants in Germany, 1546-defeats them at Mühlberg, Apr. 24, 1547 forbids the removal of the Council of Trent to Bologna, 1547-holds a Diet at Augsburg, where an Interim is prepared, that satisfies neither Protestants nor Catholics; gives the electorate of Saxony to Maurice; calls his son Philip into Germany, and gives his daughter Maria in marriage to his nephew, Maximilian, 1548-protects the princess Mary in England; forms a league with pope Julius III., and endeavours to establish his Interim by force, 1551-is surprised at Inspruck by the elector Maurice, and obliged to take to flight, and to revoke the Interim, 1552 -is driven from the siege of Metz, and leaves the French in possession of their conquests in that quarter; negotiates the marriage of Mary, qu. of England, to his son Philip, 1553-gives up Naples and Sicily to him, 1554-the Netherlands, and also Sienna, 1555-concludes a truce with France, Feb. 5, 1556-resigns Spain and its dependencies to Philip, Feb. 6, and the imperial dignity to his brother, Ferdinand, Sept.; retires to the monastery of St. Just, near Placentia, in Spain, where he celebrates his own obsequies,| and soon after dies, Sept. 21, 1558. CHARLES VI., emperor of Germany. See CHARLES, archduke of Austria, and nominally CHARLES III. of Spain. - Opposes the intended congress of Utrecht, 1711-sends prince Eugene to London, to urge a continuance of the war; carries it on by himself unsuccessfully, 1712inclines to peace, 1713-adds to his dominions the Netherlands, Naples, Sardinia, and Milan, 1714-Barrier Treaty, 1715-alliance with the Southern States, to assist Venice against the Turks; prince Eugene expels them from Hungary, 1716-Belgrade taken, 1717-quadruple alliance with Great Britain, France, and Holland, July 22, 1718-war with the Turks, terminated by the peace of Passarowitz, June 24-Spanish aggression in Sicily repelled; East India Company founded, at Ostend, which the Dutch oppose, 1719-Sicily united to

Naples, 1720-his Pragmatic Sanction secures the succession in his hereditary States to his daughter, Maria Theresa, 1723-his alliance with Spain, 1725--causes imputations against him, and explanations at the Diet of Ratisbon, Apr. 7, 1727-offended by some of the articles of the treaty of Seville, collects an army in Milan, 1730-dissolves his Ostend Company, and Great Britain guarantees his Pragmatic Sanction, Mar. 5, 1731joins Russia to influence the choice of a king in Poland, 1733-war with France and Spain; campaign in Italy, and on the Rhine, 1734-peace of Vienna, Oct. 3, 1735-marriage of Maria Theresa; war with Turkey, 1736-Orsova taken by the Turks, 1738-Wallis defeated at Krotzka, July 22, 1739-peace of Belgrade, Sept. 22; Charles VI., last male of the House of Habsburg, d. Oct. 20, 1740. CHARLES VII., emperor of Germany. See CHARLES ALBERT, elector of Bavaria.Maria Theresa protests against his election, invades his States, and takes Münich, 1742-he solicits peace; she rejects the preliminaries of Hanau; he recovers Bavaria, 1744-d. Jan. 20, 1745.

CHARLES IV., the Simple, son of Louis the Stammerer, b. Sept. 17, 879-on the death of his brother, Carloman, is set aside by Charles the Fat, 884-again, by Eudes, 888-proclaimed k. of France by Fulke, bp. of Rheims; driven into Germany by Eudes, 892- Eudes relinquishes the eastern province of France to him, and recognizes his title, 896--sole king of France, 898-marries Eadgift, daughter of Edw. the Elder, k. of England, 911grants the province, afterwards called Normandy, to Rollo (Robert), 912-Robert, count of Paris, Herbert of Vermandois, and other nobles of France, conspire against him, 920-deposed, and Robert, count of Paris, elected k., 922-Charles defeats and slays Robert, at Soissons, 923-Rudolf, duke of Burgundy, k. of France; Charles put to flight, is shut up at Peronne; his queen, Eadgift, and son, Louis d'Outremer, take refuge in England, 923-d. in his captivity at Peronne, Oct. 7, 929..

CHARLES IV., le Bel, k. of France, son of Philip IV., succeeds his brother, Philip V.; unjustly claims Navarre, is resisted by the Navarrese in the battle of Beotibata, 1322-desires Isabella of England to leave his court, 1325-d. Jan. 21, 1328. CHARLES V., the Wise, k. of France, son of John II., b. 1336-escapes, while dauphin, from the battle of Poictiers, and acts as regent during his father's captivity, 1356-rejects the treaty concluded by his

father with Edw. III., 1357-his authority is disregarded, and France disturbed by violent commotions and insurrections, 1358-succeeds his father, 1364allows Henry de Trastamare to enlist the "Companies" in his service, 1365-the nobles of Aquitaine appeal to him, 1368 -he breaks the treaty of peace, by citing the prince of Wales, 1369 -- recovers most of the provinces conquered by the English, 1370-avoids a battle with John of Gaunt, 1373-concludes a truce with England, 1374-conquers the French provinces of Charles the Bad, k. of Navarre, and takes his children prisoners, 1377 supports Clement VII. as pope, 1378-d. Sept. 16, 1380.

CHARLES VI., k. of France, b. 1369---suc

ceeds his father, Charles V., 1380-during his minority, his uncles oppress his subjects; he releases his cousins, the family of Charles of Navarre, 1381-collects an armament at Sluys to invade England; some of his ships are captured, and the rest dispersed by a storm, 1386attacked by fits of melancholy madness; his uncles resume the government; cards are introduced for his amusement in his lucid intervals, 1392-his eldest daughter, Isabella, married to Richard II., k. of England, and a truce for twenty-five years concluded between the two countries, 1396-the French government endeavours to terminate the schism of the church, and withdraws its recognition of Benedict XIII., 1398-sends an army to besiege him in Avignon, 1399-visit of the Greek emperor, Manuel II., 1400after the death of Richard, Isabella refuses to marry the prince of Wales, and returns to her father, 1401-struggle for the regency between John, duke of Burgundy, and the duke of Orleans, 1404the latter assassinated, 1407-the former occupies Paris, and drives out the court, 1408-the Orleans party takes the name of Armagnacs; they and their adversaries both court the alliance of England, 1410 the duke of Burgundy assisted by Henry IV. with an auxiliary force, 1411 -transferred to the other side, 1412civil war rages violently, 1413-Henry V. claims the crown, and receives an insulting answer, 1414-invades France; battle of Agincourt, Oct. 15-a truce concluded, 1415-the emperor Sigismund visits Paris, 1416-the queen is imprisoned at Tours, and liberated by the duke of Burgundy, who becomes master of a great part of France, 1417-they negotiate with Henry, and obtain possession of the king's person, 1418-the duke of Burgundy assassinated, 1419

treaty of Troyes; Henry declared regent, and heir of the crown; marries Katharine, the king's youngest daughter, 1420-battle of Baugé, 1421-Charles VI. d., Oct. 22, 1422.

CHARLES VII., k. of France, son of Charles VI., b. 1403-while dauphin, joins the Orleans party, and quarrels with his mother, 1417-abets the assassination of the duke of Burgundy, 1419-is disinherited by the treaty of Troyes, 1420driven beyond the Loire by Henry V. 1421-succeeds his father on the throne, 1422-crowned at Poictiers; Henry VI., of England, proclaimed k. of France at Paris; John, duke of Bedford, regent; league with the duke of Burgundy renewed; defeat of the French, at Crevant sur Yonne, 1423-at Verneuil, Aug. 27, 1424-the duke of Britanny withdraws from the English alliance; his brother, the count de Richemont, appointed constable of France, 1425--the duke of Bedford reduces Britanny; the earl of Warwick compelled to raise the siege of Montargis, 1426-the constable de Richemont retires from court in disgust, 1427 -siege of Orleans, 1428-battle of Herrings; Joan of Arc relieves Orleans; the English defeated at Patay; Charles crowned at Rheims, July 17, 1429-Joan made prisoner at Compiègne; Henry VI. crowned at Paris, Dec. 17, 1430Joan of Arc barbarously put to death; the English power in France declines rapidly, 1431-defection of the duke of Burgundy, 1432-he obtains many concessions from Charles in the congress of Arras, 1433-treaty of alliance between them concluded, 1435-Paris recovered ; siege of Calais undertaken and abandon. ed, 1436-triumphal entry of Charles into Paris, 1437-the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges annuls the pope's fiscal rights in France, 1438-revolt of the dukes of Bourbon and Alençon, and many other nobles, 1440-Charles supports the claims of Francis I., duke of Britanny, for compensation from England, and prepares to renew the war, 1448-war renewed he and his generals conquer Normandy, 1449-the conquest completed, and Guienne invaded, 1450-the English government, under the influence of qu. Margaret, allow it to be conquered, 1451-the Gascon lords invite assistance to recover it, 1452- Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, sent with an inadequate force, is defeated and slain; Calais alone now remains to the English in France, 1453-hostilities cease, without any formal treaty of peace, 1454-Charles VII. d. July 22, 1461.

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1836--railway to Lancaster opened, Dec. | 16, 1846.

CARLISLE, the earl of, succeeds the earl of Halifax as lord treasurer, 1715. CARLISLE, earl of, appointed a commissioner to treat for a reconciliation with the American colonists, March 9, 1778is challenged by La Fayette, but declines to be answerable, as a private individual, for expressions used in a public document by the commissioners-leaves America, Oct.

CARLISLE, Christopher, commands the land forces sent with sir Francis Drake to attack the Spanish settlements in America, 1585.

CARLISLE, the earl of, b. 1775-d. 1848.
CARLISLE, earl of, appointed viceroy of Ire-
land, March 13, 1855.

CARLISLE, Oglethorpe, bp. of, crowns qu.
Elizabeth, Jan. 13, 1559.

CARLISLE, Sir Anthony, b. 1767-d. 1840.
CARLO, duke of Parma, 1731, and k. of the

Two Sicilies, 1735. See CARLOS, third
son of Philip V. of Spain.
CARLOMAN, son of Pepin, and younger bro-
ther of Charlemagne, b. 751-crowned, at
Soissons, joint k. of France with his bro-
ther, Oct. 9, 768-refuses to assist Char-
lemagne in his wars with the duke of
Aquitaine discord is engendered be-
tween them, 769-reconciled by their
mother, Bertha, 770-Carloman d., Dec.
3, 771-his widow and infant sons seek
the protection of Desiderius, k. of Lom-
bardy--are sent to France by Charle-
magne, 774.

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CARLOMAN, son of Louis the Stammerer, succeeds his father on the throne of France, in conjunction with his brother, LouisIII., 879-makes war on Boso, and besieges Vienne, 880-sole king of France, 882Vienne capitulates to him, 882-dies of a wound received from a wild boar, 884. CARLOMAN, eldest son of Louis II., emperor of Germany, b. 829-created duke of Carinthia, 855-revolts against his father, 862-inherits Bavaria, 876-acquires the crown of Italy, 877--detained in Bavaria by sickness, sends deputies to act for him in Italy, 878-disabled by paralysis, his brother, Charles the Fat, takes his place as k. of Italy, 879-d. 880. CARLOMAN, son of Charles Martel. See AUSTRASIA.

CARLOS, DON, eldest son of Philip II. of Spain, b. July 8, 1545-deprived of his intended bride by his father, 1559-is regarded by him with jealousy and aversion, 1563 delivered by him into the hands of the grand Inquisitor, Jan. 18d. in prison, July 30, 1568.

CARLOS, DON, third son of Philip V. of Spain, b. Jan. 20, 1716-affianced to the daughter of the late duke of Orleans, whom his mother sends back to France; this is followed by a treaty between Austria and Spain, by which the reversion of Parma and Tuscany is secured to him, 1725-he succeeds as Carlos, duke of Parma, 1731-arrives at Parma, 1732assisted by a Spanish army, under the count de Montemar, he conquers Naples, and is proclaimed king, May 10, 1734lands in Sicily, May 18, 1735-the island submits to him, and he is crowned at Palermo, July 3-by the peace of Vienna, he is acknowledged as Carlos, k. of the Two Sicilies, and resigns Parma, Oct. 3

collects an army at Orbitello, and threatens Milan, 1741-compelled to neutrality by a British fleet, under admiral Mathews, 1743-succeeds his brother, Ferdinand VI., k. of Spain, and transfers Naples and Sicily to his third son, Ferdinand IV. See CHARLES III., king of Spain.

CARLOS, DON (Carlos Maria Isidore), se-
cond son of Charles IV., k. of Spain, and
brother of Ferdinand VII., b. Mar. 29, 1788
-protests against the abolition of the
Salic law, 1830-is set up by his parti-
sans as Charles V., 1833-seeks refuge
in Portugal; expelled, 1834-his sup-
porters maintain an obstinate civil war
in Biscay and Aragon, 1835-massacre
of Carlist prisoners at Barcelona, Jan. 4,
1836-he joins his partisans, and, with
Cabrera, advances towards Madrid; they
are driven back over the Ebro, 1837-
maintains a harassing warfare in Valen-
cia, Aragon, and Murcia, 1838-retires
into France, 1839-the rebellion sup-
pressed, 1840-he resigns his pretensions
in favour of his son, the count de Monte-
molino, 1845-d. at Trieste, Mar. 10, 1855.
CARLOTTA, Joachima, qu. dowager of Por-
tugal, b. 1777-d. Jan. 6, 1830.
CARLOW, battle of; the Irish rebels re-
pulsed, May 24, 1798-railway to Dublin
opened, Aug. 10, 1846.

CARLOWITZ, negotiations at, for peace with
the Turks, 1698-treaty of, concluded,
Jan. 26, 1699.

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CARLTON CLUB founded, 1835. CARLTON GARDENS. See GAS LIGHTS. CARMAGNOLA, a condottiere, gen. of Philip Maria Visconte, duke of Milan, concludes peace with Genoa, and regains Bergamo, 1419-re-annexes Cremona, Parma, and Brescia, to Milan, 1420-Genoa surrenders to him, 1421-gov. of Genoa, 1422superseded by the duke of Milan, 1423dismissed, 1424-employed by the Venetians, 1425-he takes Brescia, 1426routed by Francesco Sforza, at Soncino, May 17, 1431-suspected of treachery by the Venetian government; imprisoned, put to the torture, and beheaded, May 5, 1432.

CARMANIA, Alexander marches overland

to, from the mouth of the Indus, B.C. 326. CARMATHIANS, in Eastern Arabia, revolt, 890 -plunder a rich caravan, and slay many thousand pilgrims, 903-plunder Mecca, and massacre the pilgrims, 929. See ASSASSINS.

CARMELITE ORDER, founded by Berthold, 1156.

CARNATIC, the, conquered by Hyder Ali, 1780-recovered by Sir Eyre Coote, June 2, 1782.

CARNEA, or trials of musical skill, instituted at Lacedæmon, B.C. 676. CARNEADES, b. at Cyrene, B.C. 213-founder

of the New Academy; sent on an embassy from Athens to Rome, 155 d. 129. CARNIOLA; Rachis, duke of Friuli, conquers the Slavonians in, 739-annexed to Austria, 1363.

CARNOT, appointed minister of war, Aug. 16, 1793-one of the Directory, 1795-appointed minister of war by Bonaparte, Dec., 1799 d. 1823.

CAROLINA, Locke draws up a constitution for, 1669. See UNITED STATES. CAROLINE, an American steam boat, employed in assisting the Canadian rebels, is set on fire, and precipitated down the Falls of Niagara, Dec. 29, 1837. CAROLINE WILHELMINA, of Anspach, b. 1683 -married to the electoral prince of Hanover, afterwards George II. of England, 1705-qu. of England, 1727-left regent on his departure for Hanover, May 17, 1729-again, June 3, 1732-d. Nov. 20, 1737.

CAROLINE MATILDA, daughter of Frederic, prince of Wales, b. July 22, 1751-married to Christian VII., k. of Denmark, Oct. 1, 1766-favours Struensee, 1770charges made against her, 1772-her brother, k. George III., sends a fleet for her protection; she retires to Zell; d. there, Mar. 10, 1775.

CAROLINE AMELIA AUGUSTA, second daughter of Charles Wm. Ferdinand, duke of

Brunswick, b. May 17, 1768-married to her cousin, George, prince of Wales, Apr. 8, 1795-birth of their daughter, Charlotte, princess of Wales, Jan. 7, 1796 -separated from him, Apr. 30, 1796"delicate investigation" into her conduct, May 22, 1806-charges against her again brought forward, and disproved, 1813-not being permitted to appear at court, she determines to travel, and embarks at Worthing, Aug. 8, 1814-commissioners sent to Milan to inquire into her conduct, 1818-becomes queen, Jan. 29, 1820-her name omitted from the Liturgy, Feb. 11 - appoints Messrs. Brougham and Denman her attorney and solicitor-general, Apr. 29-arrives from the continent, June 6-sends a message to the Commons, challenging inquiry, June 7--congratulatory addresses presented to her from the common council of London, and other cities; a Bill of Pains and Penalties brought in against her by lord Liverpool, July 5-the attorney-general opens the case against her, July 19 -her defence commenced, Oct. 3-the Bill abandoned, Nov. 10-she goes in State to St. Paul's to return thanks for her happy deliverance, Nov. 29-ar.nuity of £50,000 settled on her, Jan. 31, 1821 -her right to be crowned denied by the privy council, July 4-she is, in conse quence, refused admittance to Westminster Abbey on the day of the coronation, July 19-falls ill, July 30-d. Aug. 7— tumults at her funeral procession in London, Aug. 14-is buried at Brunswick. CAROLINE, qu. of Naples. See BONAPARTE, CAROLINE.

CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS, the retreat of Swatopolk, the expelled grand duke of Russia, who d. there, 1019. CARPENTER, gen., defeats a body of Jacobites at Preston, 1715. CARPENTER, Dr. Lant, b. 1780-d. 1840. CARPI, a German tribe on the Danube, defeated by Philip, 245-again, by Galerius, who assigns lands to them in some of the depopulated districts of the empire, 295.

CARPI, battle of; prince Eugene defeats Catinat, July 9, 1701.

CARR, Sir John, b. 1772-d. 1832. CARRACCI, Agostino, painter and engraver, b. 1558 d. 1602. CARRACCI, Annibale, b. 1568-d. 1609. CARRACCI, Ludovico, b. 1555-d. 1619. CARRANZA, abp. of Toledo, condemned by the Inquisition, 1568. CARRARA, Francesco da, lord of Padua : though supported by the dukes Albert and Leopold of Austria, and Louis, k. of Hungary and Poland, is compelled by

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