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| AREOBINDA, consul of Rome, 434- another,


ARCHIPPUS, obtains the prize for comedy,

B.C. 415.

ARCHITECTURE, flourishes in Greece, B.C.
552 and 442-the pointed Gothic, intro-
duced, A.D. 1180.

ARCHONS, first appointed at Athens on the
death of Codrus, hold their office for life,
B.C. 1044 (1070 H.)-limited to ten years,
752-made annual, 683.
ARCHYTAS of Tarentum, philosopher and
mathematician, redeems Plato when sold
as a slave by Dionysius, B.C. 360.
ARCOLA, victory of Bonaparte over Al-
vinzi at, Nov. 15, 16, 17, 1796.
ARCOT, taken by Mr. Clive, 1751-the na-
bob of, submits to Lally, Oct. 4, 1758-
taken by Col. Coote, Feb. 9, 1760-by
Hyder Ali, Oct. 30, 1780-the nabob of,
applies to the court of Chancery against
the East India Company, July 27, 1791.
ARCTINUS, poet, fl. at Miletus, B.C. 776.
ARDABURIUS, consul of Rome, 427-com-
mands the Roman army in Persia, 420-
defeats the Persian gen. Narses, 421-
sent by Theodosius against John Primi-
cerius, 424.

ARDABURIUS (called by some Ardabures),
son of Aspar, consul of Rome, 447-
killed with his father and brother by
the emperor Leo I., 471.
ARDEA, a Latin town to which Camillus re-
tires, when banished from Rome, B.C. 391.
ARDEN, Pepper, appointed solicitor-gene-
ral, July 10, 1782-master of the Rolls,
1788-created a peer, and Chief Justice
of the Common Pleas, 1801. See AL-

ARDISHEER II., or ARTAXER, K. of Persia,
379 d. 383.

ARDOUIN, marquis of Ivrea, declared a public enemy and deprived of his states, 999 obtains the throne of Italy, 1002defeated by Henry II., emperor of Germany, 1004-regains Pavia and other parts of Italy, 1008-d. 1015. ARDRES, near Calais, where Henry VIII. meets Francis I. of France, in the Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520. ARDSHIR, K. of Persia, 628-slain by Shak-"ARGONAUTICA." See VALERIUS FLACCUs. riah, 629. ARGONAUTS, their expedition to Colchis, B.C. 1263 (1225 C.)

ARDUASDES III., k. of Armenia, B.C. 10 A.D.

ARDUIN, leader of the Normans, 1039-ta-
blishes his head quarters at Melfi, 1040.
York, 992-d. 1002.

ARGOS, kingdom of, founded by the Pelasgi, time uncertain-its first known ruler, Inachus, is said to have lived B.C. 1856 (1803 C.) division of, 1344 (1313 C.)-Themistocles banished from Athens, retires to Argos, 471-the Temple of Juno burnt, 423--an alliance with Athens made by Alcibiades, 420-dis

ARDYS, k. of Lydia, B.C. 678-628.



AREOBINDUS, father of Dagalaiphus, called
Areobinda, as consul, 434-commands in
the African expedition sent by Theodo-
sius II., 441.
AREOBINDUS, Son of Dagalaiphus, sent
against the Persians, 503-called Areo-
binda, as consul, 506-engaged in the
circus-factions at CP., 507.
AREOBINDUS, defeated and slain by Gon-
tharis, in Africa, 545.
AREOPAGUS, an Athenian court of justice;
its power limited by Pericles, B.C. 461-
St. Paul appears before it, A.D. 52.
ARETE, daughter of Aristippus of Cyrene,
teaches the philosophy of Socrates in the
Cyrenaic school, B.C. 365,
ARETINO, Guido, invents his musical scale,

ARETINO, Leonardo Bruno, the future historian of Florence, is epistolary secretary to pope John XXIII., 1413-ď. 1444. AREUS I., Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C.

309-foils the attempt of his uncle, Cleonymus, to supplant him, 272-slain at Corinth, 265.

AREUS II., posthumous son of Acrotatus, Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 264-d. 256.

ARFBERG. Henry Dusner Von, grand master of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, 1345. ARGEUS, the mountain on which the Paulicians defend themselves, and fortify Tephrike, 845.

ARGAUS, K. of Macedon, B.C. 684-646, acc.
Eusebius; uncertain, C.
ARGEUS, the first opponent of Philip II.
of Macedon, defeated by him at Me-
thone, B.C. 359.

ARGAUM, battle of; Scindiah and the rajah
of Berar defeated by Sir Arthur Wel-
lesley, Nov., 1803.
ARGENTARIA (Colmar), battle of; Gratian
defeats the Allemanni, 378.
ARGIVES, at war with the Lacedæmonians,
B.C. 718-defeat them at Hysiæ, 669-
destroy Mycenæ, 468-attack Epidaurus,

ARGOLIS, invaded by Agesipolis, k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 390. See ARGIVES and ARGOS.

solved, 418-distracted by factions, 417joins with Athens and other States, defeats the Lacedæmonians at Haliartus, 895-stormed by Pyrrhus, 272-set free by Flaminius, to rejoin the Achæan league, 195.

ARGUELLES, the Spanish patriot, condemned by Ferdinand VII. to serve as a private soldier, May 23, 1815. ARGUS, K. of Argos, B.C. 1712 (1658 C.) ABGYLE, Archibald, marquis of, beheaded, May 28, 1661.

ARGYLE, Archibald, earl of, convicted of high treason in Scotland, escapes from prison, 1681-rebels, is defeated, and beheaded at Edinburgh, June 30, 1685. ARGYLE, John, duke of, b. 1678-sent as ambassador to Charles III., and commander of the British forces in Spainreturns to England, 1711-fights the battle of Dumblaine, or Sheriffmuir, Nov. 13-recovers Perth and Dundee, 30, 1715-deprived of his places and pension, 1716-d. 1743. ARGYLE, Archibald Campbell, duke of, b. 1682-d. 1761.

ARGYLE, John Campbell, duke of, d. 1770. ARGYLE, John Campbell, duke of, d. 1847. ARGYRUS, Son of Melo, ordered to oppose the Normans in Italy by Constantine XII., 1051.

ARGYRUS. See ROMANUS III. ARIADNE, wife of the emperor Zeno, accompanies him in his flight to Isauria, 475-marries the silentiary Anastasius, and makes him emperor, 491-d. 515. ARIAN creed, assented to by the synod of Antioch, 341-subscribed by Hosius, bp. of Cordova, 357.

ARIANISM prevails in the East, 335-conformed to by Liberius, bp. of Rome, who is restored to his see, 358-taught to the Goths by Ulphilas, 373-supported in Africa by the edict of Hunneric, 484renounced by the Suevi in Spain, 562by Hermenegild, son of Leovigild, 582 -by the Lombards, 602. See ARIANS and ARIUS.

ARIANO, given to Francesco Sforza by Jo

anna II., queen of Naples, 1416.' ARIANS, condemned for heresy by the council of Alexandria, 321-Eustathius, bp. of Bercea, writes against them, 324-coudemned by the council of Nice-the writings of Arius publicly burnt, and all in whose possession they are found capitally punished, 325-the severe laws against them are relaxed, and the exiles recalled; they hold a synod at Antioch, when Eustathius is deposed, and Paulinus II.made bp.,328-hold a council at Cæsarea, and vote the deposition of Athanasius, which he disregards, 334-Asterius

writes in favour of the Ariaus, 335-the emperor Constantius II., and the synod of Antioch, support them, 341-Julius, bp. of Rome, addresses an epistle to them, 342-publish a confession of their faith at Antioch, 345-the deposition of the Arian bps. voted in the council of Sardica; they secede to Philippopolis, and annul the acts of their opponents, 347-Antony the monk is called to Alexandria to assist in converting them, 352-favoured by Valens, 367--opposed by Theodosius and the council of Antioch, 380-Ambrose, bp. of Milan, refuses to allow one Arian church at Milan, 385 -violent proceedings of the Arians of CP. against Nectarius, 388-Arian bps. appointed by Genseric in Africa, 437exiles from Carthage, being Arians, are refused hospitality at Rome by the bp., Leo I., 440-Justin I., emperor of the East, issues edicts against the Arians, 623 Theodoric, the Ostrogoth, sends ambassadors to intercede for them, 524Vigilius urges Justinian to rescue Italy from the dominion of the Arians, 550. See ARIANISM. ARIARATHES I., loses his kingdom of Cappadocia, and his life in battle, against Perdiccas, B.C. 322.

ARIARATHES II., recovers Cappadocia, B.C.


ARIARATHES III, d. B.C. 220. ARIARATHES IV., marries Antiochis, daughter of Antiochus the Great, B.O 192-joins him in his war against the Romans-sues for peace, 188--ally of Eumenes II. of Pergamus, against Pharnaces I. of Pontus, 183-sends an embassy to Rome, 181-d. 162. ARIARATHES V. succeeds, B.C. 162-sends a golden crown to Rome, 160--expelled by Demetrius Soter, 158-restored by the Romans, 157-ally of Crassus against Aristonicus, falls in the war, 130. ARIARATHES VI. succeeds, B.C. 130-murdered by Mithridates, 93. ARIARATHES VII., son of Ariobarzanes II., k. B.C. 42-deposed and put to death by M. Antony, 36. ARIBERT I., k. of the Lombards, 653 finishes and endows the church of S. Salvatore at Pavia, 660-d. 661. ARIBERT II., k. of Lombardy, 701-defeats Ansprando, and puts Liutbert to death, 702-drives Ansprando from the lake of Como, to which he had fled, 703-conquered by Ansprando, and drowned in his flight, 712. ARIBERT, abp. of Milan, by his tyranny causes discord and confusion in Northern Italy, 1035-being condemned by Conrad to repair the wrong he had done, he


resists, 1037-reconciled to the emperor Henry III., 1040-expelled from Milan by the populace, 1041-d. 1045. ARIDEUS, or PHILIP III., half-brother of Alexander, succeeds him as k. of Macedon, B.C. 323-murdered by Olympias,


ARIGISUS, or ARECHIS, duke of Beneven. tum, d. 641.

ARIGISUS, duke of Beneventum, 774--pa

tronizes Paul Warnefrid, 782- attacks Amalfi, and is repelled, 786-does homage to Charlemagne, and gives his son as a hostage-d. soon after, 787. ARIGNA COMPANY, investigated by a parliamentary cominittee, Dec. 5, 1826. ARIMINUM, a colony of Rome, B.C. 268the Via Emilia constructed from it to Placentia, 182-occupied by Cæsar, 49 -synod of, A.D. 359-unsuccessfully attacked by Vitiges, 538-submits to Totila, 549. See RIMINI. ARIMNESTUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 416. ARINTHEUS is sent by Valens to Armenia against the Persians, 370-consul of Rome, 372.

ARIOBARZANES I., appointed by the Romans k. of Cappadocia, B.C. 93-expelled by Tigranes-restored by the Romans, 90-resigns his kingdom to his son, 63killed by Antony, 42. ARIOBARZANES II., k. of Cappadocia, B.C. 63. ARIOBARZANES I., k. of Pontus, named by Xenophon and Aristotle; his time uncertain.

ARIOBARZANES II., k. of Pontus, begins to reign, B.C. 363-joins in the rebellion of the Persian satraps against Artaxerxes Mnemon, 362-made a citizen of Athens, 952-d. 337. ARIOBARZANES III., k. of Pontus, succeeds his father Mithridates III., B.C. d. 240.

ARION, the lyric poet, patronized by Periander of Corinth, B.C. 625-escapes from pirates, 610.

ARIOSTO, b. 1474-d. 1533. ARIPHRON, Athenian archon, B.C. 821. ARISTA, Sancho, founds an independent State in Navarre, 858. ARISTÆNETUS, consul of Rome, 404. ARISTAGORAS, sent by Darius Hystaspes to restore the Naxian exiles, fails, and persuades the Ionian cities to revolt, 501 -can obtain no assistance from Sparta, but is supported by Athens and Eretria, 500-defeated in Caria, takes refuge in Thrace, where he is slain, 497. ARISTARCHUS, writes tragedies, B.C. 454. ARISTARCHUS, the critic, educates the son

commands in the battle of Platea, 479 -chief command of the Greek army transferred to him, 477-d. 468. ARISTIDES, the Christian philosopher, presents to Hadrian an "Apology for Christianity," 125.

ARISTIDES, the heathen philosopher, b. 129 -visits Rome, 161-presented to M. Aurelius, who attends his lectures, 176begs Aurelius to aid the rebuilding of Smyrna, Rhodes, and other cities that had suffered from earthquakes, 178. ARISTION, Athenian archon, B.C. 421. ARISTIPPUS, of Cyrene, and his daughter, Arete, give the form of the Cyrenaic school to the philosophy of Socrates, B.C. 365.

ARISTODEMUS, k. of Corinth, B.C. 834. 266-ARISTODEMUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 352. ARISTODEMUS, a Lacedæmonian general, defeats the allies near Corinth, B.C. 394. ARISTODEMUS, of Megalopolis, makes war on Lacedæmon, B.C. 264. ARISTODEMUS, of Nysa, teaches at Rome, and is a preceptor of Strabo, B.C. 60-50. ARISTOGITON assassinates Hipparchus,

of Ptolemy Philometor, B.C. 156. ARISTIDES, Athenian archon, B.C. 489-banished from Athens, 483-recalled, and

ARISTO, of Ceos, succeeds Lyco in the Lyceum, B.C. 226. ARISTOBULUS, one of Alexander's generals, writes a history of the campaign, about B.C. 320-the work is lost, but was one of Arrian's principal authorities. ARISTOBULUS I., son of John Hyrcanus, takes the title of king of the Jews, B.C. 107-d. 105. ARISTOBULUS II., usurps the throne of Judæa, to the prejudice of his brother, Hyrcanus, B.C. 70-at war with him, 65-deposed by Pompey, 63. ARISTOBULUS, consul of Rome, 285. ARISTOCLES, Athenian archon, B.C. 605. ARISTOCLES, the sophist, teaches at Pergamus, 144. ARISTOCRATES, Athenian archon, B.C. 399. ARISTODEMUS, Son of Aristomachus, returns with the other Heraclide into the Peloponnesus, conquers Sparta, and founds for his two sons the joint sovereignty, B.C. 1103.

B.C. 514. ARISTOLOCHUS, Olympic victor, B.C. 344. ARISTOMENES, Athenian archon, B.C. 570. ARISTON, Proclidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 560-510.

ARISTON, Athenian archon, B.C. 454. ARISTON, prætor of the Etolians, B.C. 221. ARISTONICUS, claims the kingdom of l'ergamus, when the consul Crassus is sent against him, B.C. 131-defeats and kills Crassus, 130-conquered by Perpenua, and put to death, 129. ARISTONYMUS, librarian at Alexandria, B.C.


ARISTOPHANES, Athenian archon, B.C. 331. ARISTOPHANES, exhibits his first play, Dæetales," and is awarded the second prize, B.C. 427-satirizes Socrates in his "Clouds," 423- brings out every year one or more of his comedies, 421"Batrachoi" appears, 405 - "Plutus," his last play, 388-d. about this time. ARISTOPHANES, of Byzantium, the grammarian, fl., B.C. 200.

ARISTOPHON, Athenian archon, B.C. 330. ARISTOPHON, orator, fl. B.C. 372. ARISTOTLE, the philosopher, b. B.C. 384comes to Athens, 367-retires from Athens to Atarnæ, 347-becomes the preceptor of Alexander, 342-lectures at the Lyceum, 334-Babylonian astronomical observations sent to him, about 330retires to Chalcis, and dies there, 322. ARISTOTLE'S WORKS, copied by Tyrannio, for Andronicus of Rhodes, B.C. 68-commentaries on, written by Alexander of Aphrodisius, 200-Boëthius writes commentaries on, 510- Aristotle's works ordered to be burnt-the reading of them and all future translations forbidden by the Council of Paris, 1210-translated by Michael Scott, 1249.

ARIUS, K. of Assyria, B.C. 1927 (2050 C.) ARIUS, preaches his doctrines, which are supported by most of the Asiatic bps., especially Eusebius of Cæsarea, and Eusebius of Nicomedia, 316-318-condemned for heresy, and ejected from the church by the Council of Alexandria, 321 -banished by the Council of Nice to Illyricum, 325 - readmitted into the church by the synod of CP.-dies soon after, 336. See ARIANS. ARIUS ANTONINUS, death of, 187. ARIWALD, K. of Lombardy, 625-d. 636. ARKANSAS, admitted into the American

Union, 1836.

ARKLOW, battle or skirmish of; a body of Irish insurgents repulsed by a detachment of gen. Lake's army, June 9, 10, 1798. ARKWRIGHT, Richard, obtains a patent for his spinning frame, 1769-his second patent, 1771-d. 1792.

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the citizens, 511 Augustin ordained there bp. of the English, 597-Eudes is defeated by the Saracens at, 731-council of, called by Charlemagne, 813-plundered by the Saracens, 850- Boso assumes the title of k. of, 879-his son, Louis, succeeds him in the government of, 888 -he retires there from Italy, 905. ARLES, kingdom of. See BURGUNDY, LOWER. ARLEUX, Marlborough drives the French from the lines of, Aug. 5, 1711. ARLINGTON, Lord, one of the "Cabal," 1670 -examined before the bar of the Commons, Jan. 14, 1674.

ARLOT, daughter of a townsman of Falaise, mother of William (afterwards k. of England), son of Robert, duke of Normandy, 1027.

ARMADA, the Spanish, prepared, 1587-destroyed, 1588.

ARMAGH, first bishopric in Ireland, founded by Patricius (St. Patrick) about 440battle of. See DUNDALK. ARMAGNAC, the count d', gives his daughter in marriage to the duke of Orleans, 1410 -he is murdered in his prison, 1418. ARMAGNAC, the count d', assassinated, 1473. ARMAGNACS, the faction of the duke of

Orleans, court the alliance of England against the Burgundians, 1410 the queen, Isabella of Bavaria, quarrels with them, 1417. ARMAIS, queen of Egypt, B.C. 1490. See AAHMES. ARMANITES, k. of Assyria, B.C. 1827 (1950 C.) ARMATUS, consul of Rome, 476. ARMED NEUTRALITY, the coalition so called, formed, 1780-joined by the emperor Joseph, and Frederic II. of Prussia, 1781 -revived by the northern powers, 1800joined by Prussia, 1801-crushed by the battle of Copenhagen, and the death of the emperor Paul of Russia, Apr. 2. ARMENIA, conquered by Divanubar, k. of Assyria, B.C. 900 La.-Tigranes I., king, 96-drives Ariobarzanes from Cappadocia, 90-invited to be k. of Syria, 83affords a refuge to Mithridates, 71-he declares himself an enemy of Rome, 70driven from Syria by Lucullus, 69submits to Pompey, 66-dies, and is succeeded by Artavasdes, 56-Armenia invaded by Antony, who sends Artavasdes a prisoner to Egypt, 34-conquered by the Parthians, who raise Artaxias to the throne, 33-recovered by Tiberius, who makes Tigranes II. k., 20-the designs of the Parthian k., Phraates, frustrated by Caius, grandson of Augustus, 1 -subject to Parthia, A.D. 15-reconquered by Germanicus, and remains a Roman province, 18-Caligula makes Cotys k. of


the Lesser Armenia, 38-Domitius Corbulo takes the command, 54-drives out Vologases, and gives Tiridates royal authority, 58-who goes to Rome, and is crowned there by Nero, 66-the Parthians, who had made themselves masters of Armenia, are driven out by Trajan, with Parthamasiris, whom they had set up as k., 115-Hadrian relinquishes the conquest, 117-a k. appointed by Hadrian, 140-the Parthians again expelled by Statius Priscus and Avidius Cassius, 163 -Sept. Severus forms part of Armenia into a kingdom, which he gives to Volagases, son of Sanatruces, 199-added to the Persian empire by Artaxerxes, 227 -Tiridates the younger supported by Diocletian to obtain the throne, 286expelled by Narses, 294-restored by Galerius, and his kingdom enlarged, 298on his death his country becomes tributary to Persia, 342-abandoned by Jovian in the treaty of Dura, 363-invaded by Sapor II., 365-Arinthæus sent by Valens to oppose the Persians, 370-murder of Para, by order of Valens, 374-treaty between Theodosius and Sapor III., leaves Armenia neutral, 384-divided by treaty between Rome and Persia, 443-plundered by the Huns, 532-by the Tzani, 558-seeks the protection of Justin II., 571 occupied by the Persians, 576 recovered by Maurice, 577-582 by Chosroes, 604-by Heraclius, 623-the Mardaites removed into Armenia by Justinian II., 687 conquered by the Mohammedans, 693 invaded by the Turks, 764-recovered by the Greeks from the Saracens, 956-John Zimisces brings a large colony of Paulicians from Armenia into Thrace, 970-conquered by the emperor Constantine XII., 1045by Alp Arslan, 1065 by the Mongol Batou, 1235-by Timour, 1383-by the Ottomans, 1516 by the Persians,



ARMENIANS, in alliance with the Parthians, defeat Crassus, B.C. 53-and Antony in Media, 36. ARMINIAN DOCTRINES, favoured by the church of England, and censured by Cromwell and the Commons, 1629. ARMINIANS. See REMONSTRANTS. ARMINIUS (Hermann), a leader of the Germans, defeats Varus, 9-his progress checked by Nonnius Asprenas, 10-by Tiberius and Germanicus, 11-overcome by Germanicus, 15-d. 17. ARMINIUS, professor of divinity at Leyden, b. 1560 dissents from the doctrines of

Calvin and is opposed by Gomarus, 1604 -d. 1609. See REMONSTRANTS. ARMORICA, the Veneti and other tribes in, conquered by Cæsar, B.C. 56-its independence is acknowledged by Honorius, A.D. 409-many native Gauls retire there from the Franks, and preserve the Celtic tongue, 584. See BRETONS and BRE


ARMSTRONG, Dr., d. 1770. ARMY OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT, collected at Northampton by the earl of Essex, Sep. 2, 1642-disbanded by a vote of parliament, April 17, 1647-refuse to lay down their arms; conduct the king to the camp and demand compensation for their services, June 5; occupy London, Aug. 7; demand that the king be brought to justice, Nov. 30, 1648-after Cromwell's death, commanded by Lambert, depose the Rump parliament, and appoint a military Committee of Safety, Oct. 26, 1659--desert him and join Fairfax and Monk, with whom they march into London, Feb. 4, 1660. ARMY OF THE FAITH, organized by the priests in Spain, 1821. ARMY OF RESERVE, proposed to parliament, June 18, 1803.

ARNAUD, ST., General, b. 1801-commanding in Algeria, subdues the Kabyles and the Beni Aissa, 1851-made minister of War, Oct. 27; leaves Paris to command the French army in the East, April, 15, 1854 resigns his command from ill health, and d. Sep. 29. ARNAULD, the Abbess, refounds the convent of Port Royal, 1626. ARNAULD, Antony, expelled from the Sorbonne, 1656. ARNE, Dr. d. 1778.

ARNO, Hannibal passes through the marshes of the, B.C. 217.

ARNOBIUS, teaches rhetoric at Sicca, 284—
writes" Adversus Gentes," 296.
ARNOLD, General, burns New London, in
Connecticut, Sep. 8, 1781.

ARNOLD, Mr., precipitated into the Thames
in a balloon, 1785.
ARNOLD, Samuel, Mus. D., d. 1802.
ARNOLD, Thomas, (afterwards) master of
Rugby school, b. 1795-d. 1842.
ARNOLD, of Brescia, denounces at Rome the
corruptions of the church, 1140-endea-
vours to restore the senate and ancient
form of government, 1143-given up to
pope Adrian IV., and burnt, 1155.
one of the three founders of Swiss inde-
pendence, 1308.

ARNOLD VON WINKELRIED, falls in the battle of Sempach, 1386. ARNULF, natural son of Carloman of Ba

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