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varia, inherits Carinthia, 880-elected k. of Germany, 887-gives Bohemia to his natural son Zwentibold, duke of Moravia; Ermengarda obtains his protection for her son Louis,890-he defeats the Normans near Louvaine, 881-employs Hungarian mercenaries to suppress the violence of Zwentibold; Berenger applies to him for assistance, 893-successful campaign in Northern Italy, 894extends his conquests to Lucca; gives Lotharingen to Zwentibold, 895-takes possession of Rome, and is crowned Emperor of the West; besieges Spoleto; Berenger, and Adalbert II., duke of Tuscany, conspire against him, and he retires into Bavaria, 896-d. 899. ARNULF, duke of Bavaria, is invited into Italy, and retires, defeated, 934. ARNULF I., count of Flanders, 918-965, takes Montreuil, 937.
ARNULF II., Count of Flanders, 965–989, ARNULF III., count of Flanders, 1070, 1071. ARNULF, chaplain of Robert, duke of Nor
mandy, elected first patriarch of Jerusalem by the crusaders; soon displaced by Daimbert, 1099. ARNULF, archbp. of Rheims, deposed, 991. ARPAD, leader of the Magyars, joins the Ungri, and settles in Hungary, 889; his line becomes extinct, 1301. ARPHAXAD or Phraortes, k. of Media, B.C. 656.
ARPINUM, birth-place of Cicero, B.C. 106. ARQUA, near Padua, Petrarch d. at, July 13, 1374.
ARQUES, near Dieppe, battle of; Henry IV., k. of France, defeats the duke de Mayenne, Sep. 21, 1589. ARRAN, Charles, earl of, brother of the duke of Ormond, elected chancellor of Oxford against the prince of Wales, Sep. 9. 1715-chosen high steward of Westminster by the dean and chapter, Feb. 28, 1716. ARRAS, treaty of, between the royal party in France and the duke of Burgundy, 1414-congress of, 1433-treaty of, concluded, Sep. 22, 1435-Alexander Farnese, duke of Parma, d. there, Dec. 2, 1592-taken by the French, 1640. ARREST of the Russian ambassador in London for debt, July 27, 1708-apology made for it to the czar Peter, Feb. 16, 1710.
ARRESTS, numerous, in France, on a charge
ARRIA, wife of Carina Paetus, death of, 42. ARRIAN, studies under Epictetus at Nico
polis, 103-governor of Cappadocia, 135 -patronized by Antoninus Pius, 148. ARRIANUS, consul of Rome, 243. ARRIUS, Qu., prætor of Rome, defeated by Spartacus, B.C. 72. ARRUNTIUS, L., consul of Rome, 6. ARSACES, revolts against Antiochus Theus, B.C. 254-founds the dynasty of the Arsacida in Parthia, 250. See PARTHIA. ARSACIUS. See CONSTANTINOPLE, bps. of. ARSENITE SCHISM, which divides the Greek
church nearly 50 years, begins, 1267. ARSENIUS I., Greek patriarch, 1255-the guardian of John Lascaris, emperor of Nicæa, 1258-excommunicates the emperor Michael VIII. 1262.
Christ, the first volume, published by the Benedictine, Francis Clement, 1783 ART OF POETRY. See BOILEAU. ARTA, Mavrocordato defeated at, 1822-its gulf bounds the new kingdom of Greece, 1832. See ACTIUM and AMBRACIA. ARTABANUS, assassinates Xerxes and is killed after an usurpation of 7 months, B.C. 465. ARTABANUS. See PARTHIA. ARTABAZUS, rebels in Persia against Ochus, B. C. 355-assisted by 5,000 Thebans, gains two great victories, 354-submits to Ochus, 349. ARTAPHERNES, left by Darius Hystaspes to govern Sardis, B.C. 505-invades Greece, and is defeated by Miltiades at Marathon, 490. ARTASIRES, kills Gontharis, a Moorish chief, at a banquet, 545. ARTAVASDES, k. of Armenia, B.C. 56-in alliance with the Parthians, against Crassus, 53-assists Pompey against Cæsar in Greece, 49-defeats Antony, 36-taken prisoner by him and sent in chains to Egypt, 34-led in chains of gold at the triumph of Antony in Egypt, 32. See ARMENIA and ARMENIANS. ARTAVASDUS, rebels against Constantine V., 741-finally defeated, 743. ARTAXER or Ardisheer II., k. of Persia, 379-d. 383.
ARTAXERXES LONGIMANUS kills Artabanus, the assassin of Xerxes, and obtains the throne of Persia, B.C. 465-supposed to be the Ahasuerus who, at the request of his queen, Esther, spared the Jews, 462-Inarus revolts in Egypt, 460-Ezra
permitted to return to Jerusalem, 458the Egyptian rebellion quelled, 455-the Persian fleet defeated by the Greeks at Salamis in Cyprus, peace concluded, 449 -Artaxerxes d. 425. ARTAXERXES MNEMON, k. of Persia, B.C. 405-defeats the rebellion of Cyrus, his brother, at Cunaxa, 401-continues the war against Greece, 399-defeated by Agesilaus near Sardis, 395- obtains absolute dominion over the Ionian cities by the treaty with Antalcidas, 387-the historian Ctesias leaves his court, 384Artaxerxes d. 360.
ARTE AMANDI, DE. See OVID.
fl. B.C. 103.
ARTICLES, Thirty Nine, adopted as the
ARTAXERXES (Ardisheer), begins the Per-
fails in his attempt to recover Sicily, 1287-defeats Guy, count of Flanders, and takes Furnes, 1297-defeated by the Flemings at Courtray, and falls, July 11,
ARTEMISIA, erects the splendid tomb at
Greeks and Persians, B.C. 480.
ARTEVELDE, James Van, a brewer of Ghent, drives Louis I., count of Flanders, into France, and rules that province, 1336supports Edward III. of England, 1337 -slain in a popular tumult, 1345. ARTHUR, son of Geoffrey, duke of Britanny, b. 1185 excluded from the English throne by John, but acknowledged in Maine, Poitou, and Touraine, 1199-his cause abandoned by Philip Augustus, 1200-death of his mother, Constance, 1201-made prisoner by John, and murdered, 1202. See BRETAGNE. ARTHUR, prince of Wales, son of Henry VII., b. Sep. 20, 1486-marries Katharine of Arragon, Nov. 14, 1501-d. April 2, 1502.
ARTICHOKES, introduced into England, from
ARTHUR PATRICK WILLIAM ALBERT, prince, third son of Queen Victoria, b. May 1, 1850.
ARTHUR, Sir George, d. 1855.
ARTICLES, of peace, the proposed bases of the Treaty of Utrecht, are laid before parliament by the queen, June 6, 1712. ARTICLES of Perth, in favour of religious ceremonies, reluctantly agreed to by the General Assembly of Scotland, 1618. ARTICLES, Law of the Six, passed, 1537repealed, 1547.
ARTOIS, Robert, III., count of, brother-inlaw of Philip VI., banished from France, 1330-received in England by Edward III., urges him to claim the crown of France, 1334-repulsed with a Flemish army at St. Omer, 1340-joins the English in Britanny, and is killed at Vannes, 1342.
ARTOIS, laid under contribution by the
ARUNDEL CASTLE, recovered from Lord
ARUNTIUS, L., consul of Rome, B.C. 22.
ARVINA, P. Cornelius, consul of Rome, B.C.
ASA, k. of Judah, B.C. 956-915-leagues with Benhadad, k. of Syria, B.C. 940. ASAMA, Saracen governor of Egypt, erects a new Nilometer, 716.
ASAN, k. of Bulgaria, defeats, makes prisoner, and blinds, Theodore Angelus, emperor of Thessalonica, 1230-expels Manuel, releases Theodore, marries his daughter, and places her brother John on the throne, 1232-leagues with John Vataces, 1234-withdraws from Romania to protect Bulgaria against the Mongols, 1236-changes his policy, and supports the falling empire of the Latins in Romania, 1237--d. 1241. ASANDER, K. of Bosporus, kills Pharnaces II., of Pontus, after his defeat by Cæsar, B.C. 47. See BOSPORUS. ASARDINUS, K. of Babylon, B.C. 680. ASCALON, battle of; the Fatimite army from Egypt is defeated by the Crusaders, Aug. 12, 1099-unsuccessful siege of, by the Christians, 1148-taken by Baldwin III., k. of Jerusalem, 1153-surrenders to the Christians, 1191.
ASCATADES, K. of Assyria, B.C. 1520 (1490 C.) ASCHAFFENBURG, the town where George
II. takes the command of the combined army, June 9, 1743.
ASCHAM, Roger, tutor of Elizabeth, 1545-of lady Jane Grey, 1551-d. 1568. ASCLEPIADES, the elder, of Mylea, in Bithynia, fl. B.C. 196.
ASCLEPIADES. See ANTIOCH, bishops of. ASCLEPIODOTUS, consul of Rome, 292-as
lieutenant of Constantius, he defeats and kills Allectus, and regains Britain, 296. ASCLEPIODOTUS, consul of Rome, 423. ASCOLI, the ancient Asculum, battle of; the count of Andria, general of the emperor Henry VI., defeated by Tancred, and slain, 1190.
ASCOLI, Cecco d', burnt at Florence for
heresies discovered in his poetry, 1327. ASCULUM, a town of Picenum, battles of; defeat of the Romans by Pyrrhus, B.C. 279-by the Picentines, 90-taken by Totila, A. D. 545. See AsCOLI. ASELLIO, Sempronius, the historian, serves under Scipio in the Numantine war, B.C. 134. ASHANTEES, attack the British colonies on the gold coast, 1824-defeated by Col. Purdon, Aug. 7, 1826. ASHBURTON, lord (Alexander Baring), sent on a special mission to the United States, Dec. 31, 1841-concludes a treaty at Washington, Aug. 9, 1842-d. 1848. See BARING, Alexander.
ASHLEY, lord, one of "the Cabal," and created earl of Shaftesbury, 1670. SHAFTESBURY, earl of.
ASHLEY, lord (now earl of Shaftesbury),
procures the passing of an act to prohibit the employment of females in mines and collieries (4 and 5 Victoria, c. 99), 1842 -tells the electors of Dorsetshire that "the destiny of the corn laws is fixed," Oct. 10, 1845-succeeds his father as earl of Shaftesbury, 1851. AsUMOLE, Elias, the antiquary, and founder of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, d. 1692.
ASHURAKHBAL, or Sardanapalus I., k. of Nineveh or Assyria, leads an expedition to Carchemish, to the country of the Khabour and Euphrates, and to Syria, B.C. 930 (La.).
ASHURAKHBAL, or Sardanapalus III., son of
ASIA, the first seat of civilization and empire. See ASSYRIA, BABYLON, MEDIA, NINEVEH, PALESTINE, PERSIA, PHOENICIA, and ASIA MINOR. First Asiatic invasion of Europe by Darius, B.C. 507-first warlike enterprise of Greeks in Asia to assist the Ionian cities, 500-the Athenians enter Lydia, 409-an auxiliary force sent by them to Cyrus the younger, 401 hostilities against Persia commenced in Asia by the Lacedæmonian generals Thimbron and Dercyllidas, 399 -after a truce, the war renewed, 398Agesilaus II. takes the command, 396rebellion of the Asiatic satraps against Artaxerxes Mnemon, 362-entrance of Alexander into Asia, 334- Antigonus establishes his kingdom, 318-contest between him and Eumenes, 316 in which he finally prevails, 315-Seleucus Nicator founds his kingdom of Syria, 312. See SYRIA. A temporary peace concluded among the competitors for power, 311-Asia invaded by Lysimachus from Thrace and by Ptolemy from Egypt, 302-Antigonus totally defeated and slain at Ipsus; the allied kings divide his dominions; his son Demetrius Poliorcetes escapes and retains Cilicia, 301-is defeated by Seleucus and made prisoner; his kingdom merges in that of Syria, 286-The Parthian and Bactrian kingdoms founded, 250. See PARTHIA and BACTRIA. The Roman arms first carried into Asia by L. Scipio, 190 overthrow of the Parthian kingdom, and restoration of the Persian, A.D. 226. See PERSIA. Violent earthquakes in many parts of Asia,-B.C. 227, A.d. 63, 105, 124, 152, 178, 358, 525 and 526the Turks begin their conquests, 545Empire of Mahmoud the Ghiznivide, 999. See GHIZNI. Of Togrul Beg, 1038.
See SELJUKIANS. After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins, many Greeks retire into Asia and found the empires of Nicea and Trebizond, 1204. See EASTERN EMPIRE and TREBIZOND. Conquests of Dschingis khan, 1206. See MONGOLS, and DSCHINGIS KHAN. The Asiatic provinces of the Latin empire lost by Baldwin II., 1240-Timour's first campaign, 1357. See MONGOLS, TARTARS, and TIMOUR. Restoration of Persia by Ismail I., founder of the Sofi dynasty, 1501. See PERSIA.
ASIA MINOR. See TROY. First settlement of the Ionians, 1043. See IONIA and IONIAN CITIES, CYME, SMYRNA, MILETUS, ABYDOS, ASTACUS, CYZICUS, CHALCEDON, EPHESUS, CARIA, and LYDIA. First entrance of the Cimmerians, driven there by the Massagetæ, 635-they settle in Galatia, 617. See GALATIA and GALATA. Conquest of Lydia by Cyrus, 546-first attack on the Ionian cities, 544-Asia Minor contended for by Antigonus and his rivals, 321-becomes the seat of his kingdom, 318-Philetarus, lieutenant of Lysimachus, founds the independent kingdom of Pergamus in Bithynia, 283. See PERGAMUS. Nicomedes founds the independent kingdom of Bithynia, 278 See BITHYNIA. Conquests of Manlius in Asia Minor, 189-the dominion of the Romans established by the treaty of peace with Antiochus, 188-totally subject to them by the seizure of Cappadocia, A.D. 15-visited by Hadrian, 130 -possessed by the Persians, 609-recovered by Heraclius, 628-- predatory invasion of Haroun al Raschid, 781-repeated, 803-overrun by the Paulicians, 868-they are expelled by the emperor Basil, 870-he recovers many provinces from the Saracens, 874-conquered by Soliman, who founds the Seljukian kingdom of Roum at Iconium, 1074- Kilidsch Arslan massacres a great number of the crusaders in Asia Minor, 1096 and 1101-campaign and death of the emperor Frederic Barbarossa, 1190 foundation of the Ottoman power by Orthogrul, 1231. See OTTOMANS. Invaded by Timour, 1402-reunited to Romania by Mahomet I. and forms the Ottoman or Turkish empire, 1413. ASIATICUS. See SCIPIO, L. CORNELIUS. ASIATIOUS, L. Corn. Scipio, consul of Rome, B.C. 83.
ASIATICUS, P. Corn. Scipio, consul of Rome II., 125.
ASIATICUS, Valerius, consul of Rome II., 46-put to death through the arts of Messalina, 47.
ASINA, Ca. Corn., consul of Rome, B.C. 260254.
ASINA, P. Corn. Scipio, consul of Rome, B.C. 221.
ASINIUS, Pollio, b. B.C. 76-governor of
secuted by Henry VIII., 1546. ASLETT, a bank clerk, embezzles exchequer bills, April 28, 1803--condemned, and reprieved, 1804.
AsOF, taken from the Turks, by the Cossacks of the Don, 1637-recovered by the Turks, 1642-attacked by Peter the Great of Russia, 1695-taken by them, 1696restored to the Turks, 1711-taken by the Russians, 1736 again, 1771 - the Allies enter the sea of, May 24, 1855. See MEOTIS, PALUS. AsOMATON, near C.P., fort built there by Mahomet II., 1452. AsORDANES, k. of Babylon, B.C. 699. ASORDANUS, or Nergilus, k. of Nineveh or Assyria, B.C. 691.
ASPAR, son of Ardaburius, consul of Rome, 434-sent by Theodosius II.against John Primicerius, 424-takes Ravenna, makes John prisoner, and beheads him, 425reinforces Bonifacius in Africa, 431checks an invasion of the Persians, 441 -assists the elevation of Leo I. to the throne of the East, 457-accused of having caused the failure of the African expedition by his treacherous advice, 468-he and his sons are put to death by Leo I., 471. ASPARAGUS introduced from Asia into England, 1602. ASPASIA, mistress of Pericles, accused of impiety, B.C. 432. ASPASIUS, of Ravenna, secretary to Alexander Severus, 231. ASPENDUS, a town of Pamphylia, where
Thrasybulus is killed, B.C. 890-Antiochus Grypus retires there, 113. ASPERN and ESSLING, battles of, May 2122, 1809. ASPORACIUS, consul of Rome, 452. ASPRENAS, L. Nonnius, consul of Rome, 94 ASPRENAS, Nonnius, checks the progress of
ASPRENAS, P. Nonnius, consul of Rome, 38. ASPROS, the Catalans defeat Andronicus at, 1307.
ASSAM, ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Yandabu, 1826-Tea Company established, 1839.
ASSAN BEN AHI GIAFAR, the Arabian poet, d. 794.
ASSASSINS, a band of Carmathians collected
by Hassan, Subah of Nishapur in Cho | rasan, 1090 extirpated in Persia by Hulagou, 1256.
ASSAYE, victory of, gained by Sir Arthur Wellesley, Sept. 23, 1803. ASSEMBLY, House of. See CANADA. ASSENS, battle of; the revolted Danes defeated by Christian III., 1535. ASSER, bp. of Sherburn, the friend and biographer of Alfred, d. 910. ASSESSED TAXES trebled, Jan. 4, 1798. ANSIENTO CONTRACT, for supplying the Spanish colonies with slaves, an article in the treaty of Utrecht, 1713-expires, 1743-disputes concerning it, arranged by the treaty of commerce with Spain, 1750. ASSIGNATS issued, in France, Dec. 17, 1789 -superseded by mandats territoriaux, March 18, 1796.
ASSISE OF JERUSALEM, framed by Godfrey de Bouillon, for the government of his kingdom, 1099.
Assisi, Francis of, or JOHN BERNADONI, founds the Order of Franciscans, 1207— d. 1226.
ASSOCIATION, NATIONAL, formed by Leicester to protect the life or avenge the death of Elizabeth, 1584. ASSOCIATION, LOYAL, formed, Nov. 29, 1792 -meeting in Merchant Tailors' Hall, expressive of attachment to the British constitution, Dec. 1-the original declaration deposited among the records in the Tower. ASSOCIATION. See BRITISH, CATHOLIC,
and CATHOLIO DEFENCE. ASSYRIA, early astronomical observations,
2234 (2230 H., 2233 C.)-conquest of Babylon, 2059 (2233 C.)-separation of Babylon, 747-revolt of the Medes, 711 C. -invasion of, by Alexander, 331-by Trajan, A.D. 116-by Julian, 363-the emperor Maurice gains victories in, 580Heraclius, and his Turkish allies, penetrate into, 627-conquered by the Saracens, 637. See NINEVEH. ASSYRIA, monarchs of, according to the 2nd Book of Kings, Herodotus, Ctesias, Diodorus Siculus, Eusebius, and Layard:
Nimrod, or Belus, B.C. 2245 (H. 2554, C. 2235)
Ninus, 2069 (C. 2182.)
ASSYRIA, monarchs of:-contiuued.
Derceto, 1250 La.
Divanukha, or Divanurish, 1220 La.
Teutæus, 1156 (C. 1154.)
Anakbarbeth-Hira, or Shimishbal
Bithkira, 1180 La. Dercylus, 1084. Mardokempad. Mesessimordacus, La. Eupales, 1044. Laosthenes, 1006.
Adrammelech I., 1000 La.