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THIS Index is intended as a companion to the CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES, published by Mr. BоHN in 1856, and was announced in the Preface to that volume. To render it as complete as possible, it has been thought desirable to introduce many additional details, for which the TABLES' afforded neither opportunity nor space. Among these will be found the origin of countries, states, dynasties, and eminent families; synoptical views of the succession of sovereigns, and of public functionaries, civil and ecclesiastical; together with many supplementary notices of battles, sieges, shipwrecks, eruptions, fires, floods, and other events, which had not found a place under their respective dates.
The authorities for the facts and dates have been generally stated in the Preface to the Chronological Tables,' to which few of importance have been added, excepting some government publications, especially the Liber Munerum Publicorum Hiberniæ, which, for all that concerns the official lists of Ireland, is invaluable.
The labour of collecting, investigating, and arranging such a mass of materials as are compressed into this Index, and the time required to read it through the press with sufficient care, have retarded its completion considerably beyond the period
originally contemplated. It has therefore been determined to publish as much of it as is ready-about one-half-without further delay.
The remainder is fast advancing, and will follow, it is expected, in the course of the year.
DECEMBER 28, 1857.
INDEX OF DATES.
The Dates before the Christian Era are denoted by B.C.; where a series of such dates occur under one name, this prefix is not repeated; all other dates are those of the Christian Ero. B. before a date signifies according to Bunsen; Cl. Clinton; H. Hales; L. Lepsius; and La. Layard.
AAHMES, queen of Egypt, B.C. 1638 (B. | ABBOTT, Charles, b, 1762-appointed chief-. and L.). See ARMAIS, B.C. 1490. justice, 1818-created a peer. See TENAARGAU, dissension in Switzerland reTERDEN, LORD. specting the convents of, 1844. AARHUUS, the Prussians defeated at, May 31, 1849.
AARON, b. B.C. 1574 (1731 H.; 1708 C.)
ABBRUZZO, a Neapolitan province, receives
ABAS, king of Sicyon, B.C. 1384 (1353 C.)
ABBAS, uncle of Mohammed. See ABBAS-
ABDALLAH, Succeeds as caliph in Spain,
ABBAS Pasha, viceroy of Egypt, 1848-
Spain, deposes Abulmelic, king of Murcia, 1224 succeeded by Abulola, 1227. ABDALLAH el Zagal, obtains the crown of Granada, 1484-is defeated by Ferdinand of Spain, 1486-gives up his territories, and retires to an estate allotted to him, 1490.
ABBEYS, foundation of, see under their respective heads.
ABBO, founds and endows the monastery of Novalesa, at the foot of Mount Cenis, 739.
ABBO, a monk and astronomer, d. 1003. ABBOT, George, archbishop of Canterbury, 1610, d. 1633.
ABBOTT, Charles, b. 1757-Speaker of the House of Commons, Feb. 10, 1802 speaks (in committee) against the Catholic claims, 1813-resigns the speakership, and is created a peer, 1817. See COLCHESTER, LORD.
ABDALLAH, son of Abderahman I., con-
Amrou, 688-as also Musab, 690-recovers Persia, 691-undisputed caliph, 692 -coins the first Arabian money, 695d. 705. See ARABIA, caliphs of. ABDARRHAMAN, son of Caled, poisoned in Syria, 666 ABDARRHAMAN, son of Mohammad, rebels at Bassorah, is defeated, and kills himself, 701. ABDELAZIZ, son of Musa, makes a treaty with Theodemir of Murcia, and marries Egilona, widow of Roderic, 713-commands in Spain, 714-assassinated at Cordova, 716. ABDELHAMID, Gen. of the Saracens, taken
prisoner, and his army cut to pieces, 885. ABD EL KADER, maintains war with the French in Algeria-Mar. Clauzel sent against him, 1835-continues his incursions, 1843-is abandoned by his men, 1844 instigates the Kabyles to attack the French, 1845-surrenders, 1847-is set at liberty by Louis Napoleon, 1852arrives at the residence assigned to him, Boursa, in Asia Minor, 1853. ABDELMELIC, Son of Almansor of Toledo,
kills Calib in single combat, 979-defeats Zeir Ben Atia, 997-succeeds to his father's offices, and defeats the Christians at Lerida, 1003-his defeat and death, 1008. ABDELMELIK, successor of Abderahman, remains inactive in Spain, 732-put to death at Cordova, 743. ABDELMUMEN, succeeds El Mehedi as chief of the Almohades, 1129-totally defeats Taxfin in Africa, 1144-takes Morocco, and sends an army into Spain, 1145 makes conquests in Africa, 1151-takes Tunis, 1158-passes over from Africa to Spain, 1160-d. 1163.
ABDERA, a town of Thrace, built B.C. 654 -birth-place of Protagoras, 470-and of Democritus, 460.
ABDERAHMAN BEN MOAWIYAH, escapes from the massacre of the Ommiades, into the valleys of Mount Atlas, 750chosen ruler by the Saracens in Spain, 754-lands there, defeats Yussef and Samail at Musara, takes Cordova, and is acknowledged king. See ABDERAHMAN I. ABDERAHMAN I., caliph of Spain, 755compels Yussef and Samail to a peace. which the former soon breaks-birth of his son Hixem, 756-invites his friends from Syria and Egypt,gives them honourable appointments, and makes Cordova his capital-Samail enters into his service, but Yussef still persists in rebellion, 757-gives a letter of protection to the Christians in Spain, and fixes an annual tribute to be paid by them-de
feats Yussef, who is slain, and puts Samail to death, 758-recovers Toledo and Seville from Yussef's sons, 759-subdues the rebel, Hixem Ben Adra, at Toledo, 760-defeats an African expedition sent against him, and kills Ali, the commander, 762-again recovers Toledo from insurgents, 765-receives tribute from Aurelius, king of the Goths, 769-fits out a fleet, and appoints an admiral to guard his coasts, 772-provides for the education of his sons, and institutes academies of learned men, 773-still disturbed by his rebellious subjects, 782gains a victory over them at Castalona, 784-in a progress through Spain, builds and endows mosques, 785-builds the great mosque and court of justice at Cordova (Aljama), 786-d. 787. ABDERAHMAN II,, son of Al Hakem I., delivers Tortosa, 808-proclaimed as his father's vicegerent and successor, 815-called from war with the Franks on the Ebro to Cordova by his father's illness, 820-succeeds as caliph, and quells the rebellion of Abdallah, 821--takes Barcelona and Urgel, 822-receives an embassy, and a proposal of alliance from the emperor Michael, 823-establishes schools, constructs public works, and patronizes the learned, 826-revolt of Merida, 827-quelled; Toledo revolts, 828 -and Merida again, 831-he defeats the rebels, 832, 833-and finally subdues them, 834-is invited by Theophilus to assist him against Al Motassem, 839fits out a fleet to protect Cadiz and Seville against the Danes, 844-relieves the distress caused by a great drought In Spain, 847-paves Cordova, builds palaces there, and punishes Christians who speak against Mahomet, 850-d. 852. ABDERAHMAN III., caliph of Spain, 912equips a fleet against the African pirates -obtains Saragossa, 917-overcomes the Christians of Leon and Castille, in the valley of Junquera, 921-obtains Toledo from Giafar Ben Hafsun, 927-assists the Edrisites in Fez, 929-occupies Ceuta and Tangier, 930-is proclaimed king at Fez, 931-builds his magnificent palace of Azahra, 936-said by Arabian writers to have gained a victory at Alhandic, and captured Zamora, 938 (doubtful) makes a five years' truce with Ramiro, 941-improves the harbour of Tortosa, 944-puts his son Abdallah to death for a conspiracy, and renews his attempt to conquer Fez. 949-assists to restore Sancho I. to the throne of Leon, 957-d. 961. ABDERAHMAN IV., caliph of Spain, opposed by Alcasim, 1017-withstands the Afri