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so powerful withal. So Herod yielded to wives Phedra and Elpis ; by whom he had his him, and changed his resolution at his en- | daughters Roxana and Salome. As for his treaty: and the determination now was, that elder daughters by the same mother with Antipater himself should marry Aristobulus's Alexander and Aristobulus, and whom Pherodaughter; and Antipater's son should marry ras * neglected to marry, he gave the one in Pheroras's daughter. So the espousals for marriage to Antipater, the king's sister's son ; the marriages were changed after this man- and the other to Phasaelus, his brother's son. ner; even without the king's real approba- | And this was the posterity of Herod.t tion. Now Herod had at this time nine wives.

CHAP. II. Antipater's mother ; and the high-priest's aughter, by whom he had a son of his own name. He had also one of his wives who was his brother's daughter; and another who was his sister's daughter: which two had no chil. dren. One of his wives also was of the Sama ND now deritan nation; whose sons were Antipas, Ar sirous chelaus; and whose daughter was Olympias ; || the Trachonites, resolved to build a village, which daughter was afterward married to as large as a city, for the Jews, in the middle Joseph, the king's brother's son. But Arche- ||of that country; which might make his own laus and Antipas were brought up with a cer country difficult to be assaulted; and whence tain private man at Rome. Herod had also he might be at hand to make sallies upon to wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem, and by her them, and do them a mischief. Accordingly, he had his sons Herod and Philip, which last when he understood that there was a man that was also brought up at Rome. Pallas also was a Jew came out of Babylon, with five was one of his wives, which bare him his son hundred horsemen; all of whom could shoot 'Phasaelup. And besides these he had for his their arrows as they rode on horseback; and,



firenis one
of his wives
also was of the Sama: A sipons of securing himself

on the side of

* See Book XVI. chap. 7. + Those who have a mind to know all the family and descendants of Antipater the Idumean, and of Herod the Great, his son; and have a memory to preserve them all distinctly; may consult Josephus, both here and XVIII. 5, and of the War, I. 28, and Noldius in Havercamp's edition, p. 336, and Spanheim, ibid. pag. 402-405, and Reland Palestin. Pt. 1. pag. 175, 176. I shall content myself with a scheme of his own wives and children; with those that are mentioned or intimated in the New Testament. Autipater of Idumea had four sons : Phasaelus, Herodes, Josephus, and Pheroras; and 'a daughter Salome,

itiq. XIV.7. Phasaelus killed himself, XIV. 13. Josephus died in a battle against Antigonus, XIV. 15. Herod was king of Judea ; and Pheroras was tetrach of Perea, Of the War, I. 29, 30, and died before Herod, in his bed, · Antiq. XVII. 3. He had also one daughter, Salome. She outlived Herod,

Chap 8, 11, Herodos principal wife, or queen, was Mariamne, of the royal blood of the Asmoneans; by whom he had three

sons ; Alexander, and Aristobulus, and another not named, and two daughters; one of whose names was Salamipso, the other Cypros. Besides whom Herod had nine wives : whose names, and the names of whose children, here follow :

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with an hundred of his relations, had passed wiiom when the Romans have now taken the over Euphrates, and now resided at Antioch government into their own hands, they still by Daphne of Syria : where Saturninus, who give them the privilege of their freedom; but was then president, had given them a place oppress them entirely with the imposition of for habitation, called Valatha : he sent for taxes. this man, with the multitude that followed At length Zamaris, the Babylonian, to him, and promised to give him land in the whom Herod had given that country for a toparchy called * Batanea : wbich country is possession, died : having lived virtuously, and bounded by Trachonitis : as desirous to make left children of a good character behind him. that habitation a guard to himself. He also one of which was Jacim ; who was famous engaged to let him hold the country free from for his valor, and taught bis Babylonians how tribute; and that they should dwell entirely to ride their horses. And a troop of them without paying such cụstoms as used to be were guards to the aforementioned kings. And paid, and gave it him tax-free.

when Jacim was dead in his old age, he left The Babylonian was induced by these offers a son, whose name was Philip; one of great to come hither. So he took possession of the strength in-bis hands, and in other respects land, and built in it fortresses, and a village; also more eminent for his valor than any of his and named it Bathyra. Thus this inan be contemporaries. On which account there was came a safeguard to the inhabitants against a confidence and firm friendship between him the Trachonites ; and preserved those Jews and king Agrippa. He had also an army, who came out of Babylon, to offer their sacri- which he maintained, as great as that of a fices at Jerusalem, from being hurt by the king: which he exercised, and led wheresoTrachonite robberies. So that a great number ever he had occasion to march. came to him from all those parts where the When the affairs of Herod were in the conancient Jewish laws were observed ; and the dition I have described, all the public affairs country became populous, by reason of their depended upon Antipater : and his power was universal freedom from taxes. This continued such, that he could do good turns to as many during the life of Herod. But when Philip, las be pleased ; and this by his father's conwho was tetrarch after him, took the govern- cession : and in hopes of his good will and ment, he made them pay some small taxes, fidelity to him: and this till he ventured to and that for a little while only. But Agrippa use his power still farther : because liis wicked the Great, and his son, of the same name, designs were concealed from his father, and although they harassed them greatly, yet he made hin believe every thing he said. He would not take their liberty away.

From was also formidable to all : not so much on

( Antipater: slain by his father five days before he died, Antiq. XVII. 7 and 8. Of the War, I. 33. He was one of those that sought the young child's life, Matt. ii. 20. The other was Herod himself.

1 Agrippa, or Ferod the Great: made by Caius 7 1 Agrippa, jun. king of a coun

king ut Judea : who slew St. James; and sought try near Judea, Acts xxv. 13, Aristobulus the to slay St. Peter, Acts xii, 1–20. He died 23, Almost a Christian. Acts husband of Ber miserably, verse 21, 22, 23. Antiy. XIX. 8. xxvi. 28. nice; Salome's 2 Herodias, wife to Herod-Philip. Matt. xiv. 3. 2 Bernice, his sister, ib, and wife

daughter ; and Antiq. XVIII. 5. as well as to Herod-Antipas. to his brother Herod, king of HEROD son of the famous

She, anil her daughter Salome, caused Jobs the Chalcis, Antig. XIX. 5, the Great Mariamne.

Baptist to be beheaded, Matt. xiv. 6-12. 3 Drusilla, his other sister, Acts
Antiq. XVIII. 5.

xxiv. 24. and wife to Felix

the Jewish governor.
Archelaus : king or ethnarch of Jullea, Matt. ii. 22. Antiq. XVIII. 8 -13. the son of Malthace.
Herod-Antipas : tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, Luc. iii. 1. and passim. Antiq. XVIII. 8, &c, the son of

Philip: tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, Luc. iii. 1. Antiq. XVIII. 8. the son of Cleopatra.

ried Salome, the daughter of Herodias, by Herod-Philip, Antiq. XVIII, 5. not Herodias herself.
Herod-Philip: the first husband of Herodias; and the father of her daughter Salome: he was the son of

Mariamne, the high-priest Simon's daughter, of the War, I. 28. Of these see also Prid. at the year 4, * The Bashan of the Old Testament.


He mar

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account of the power and authority he shad, as || chief; but agree perfectly when they are out
for the shrewdness of his vite attempts, before of the sight of the multitude. For when they
band. But he who principally cultivated a are alone by themselves, they act in..concerta
friendship with him was Pheroras ; who re- || and profess that they will never leave off their
ceived the like marks of his friendship; while friendship, but will fight against those from
Antipater had cunningly encompassed him whom they conceal their designs.” And thus
with a company of women, whom he placed || did she search out these things, and get a
as gwards about him. For Pheroras was greatly || perfect knowledge of them ; and then told her
enslaved by his wife, and her mother, and sis. brother of them. He, indeed, understood of
ter; and this notwithstanding the batred he bimself a great deal of what she said ; but
bare them, for the indignities they bad offered || still durst not depend upon it: because of the
to his virgin daughters. Yet did he bear them, || suspicions he had of his sister's calumnies. For
and pothing was to be done without the wo- there was a certain sect of men that were
men who had got this man into their circle,Jews, who valued themselves highly upon the
and continued stil} to assist each other in all exact skill they had in the law of their fathers,
things : insomuch that Antipater was entirely | and † made men believe they were highly
addicted to them, both by himself and by his favored by God, by whom this set of women
mother. For these * four women said all one were inveigled. These are those that are
and the same thing. But the opinions of called the sect of the Pharisees; who are in a
Pberoras and Antipater were different in some capacity of greatly opposing kings.
points of no consequence. But the king's sis- | ning seet

, they were ; and soon elevated to a ter Salome was their antagonist; who for a pitch of open fighting, and doipg mischief. good while had Jooked about all their affairs, Accordingly, when all the people of the Jews and was apprized that this their friendship was gave assurance of their good will to Cæsar, and made in order to do Herod some mischief ; || to tbe king's government; these did not and was disposed to inform the king of it. I swear; being above six thousand. And when And since these people knew that their friend. || the king imposed a fine upon them, Pheroras's ship was very disagreeable to Herod; as wife paid their fine for them. In order to tending to do him a mischief; they contrived requite, which kindness of her, since they that their meetings should not be discovered all were believed to bave the foreknowledge So they pretended to hate one another, and of things to come, by divine inspiration ; to abuse each other when time served; and they foretold how God had decreed that He, especially when Herod was present, or when rod's government should cease, and his posany one was there that would tell him, Butterity should be deprived of it; but that the still their intimacy was firmer than ever, when || kingdom should conse to her, and Pheroras, they were private. They could not, however, and to their children. Tbese predictions were conceal from Salome their first contrivance, not concealed from Salome, but were told when they set about these their intentions ; || the king: as also how they had perverted nor when they had made some progress in some persons about the palace. So the king them. But she searched out every thing; and, || slew such of the Pharisees as were principally aggravating the relations to her brother, de-accused, and Bagoas the eunuch; and one clared to him as well their secret meetings Carus, who exceeded all men of that time iu as their counsels taken in a clandestine man-comeliness; and one that was bis catamite, ner: which if they were not in order to destroy || He also slew, all those of his own family, who bim,, they might well have been open and had consented to what the Pharisees foretold. public. Now,” said she, “ to appearance And for Bagoas, he had been puffed up by they are at variance, and speak about one them, as though he should be named the father another as if they. intended one another a mis- || and benefactor of bim wbo, by the prediction,

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* Pheroras's wife, with her mother and sister, and Do- suspicious, and proceeds from bad motives. It is cerris, Antipater's another.

tainly criminal when it is-advanced-in-order to depreciate + Great pretensions to the favor of God is frequently others. B.




was foretold to be their appointed king. For| merry meetings. It was also reported that that this king would have all things in his || Antipater had criminal conversation with power ; and would enable Bagoas to marry, Pheroras's wife ; and that they were brought and to have children of his own body. together by Antipater's mother.

Antipater had now a suspicion of his father; CHAP. III.

and was afraid that the effects of this hatred

to him might increase. So he wrote to his HEROD AND PHERORAS; AN- friends at Rome, and bade them to send to tipater's JOURNEY TO ROME; AND THE death of Herod, that he would immediately send Anti

pater to Cæsar. Which, when it was done, WHE

HEN Herod had punished those Pha- | Herod sent Antipater thither; and sent most

risees who had been convicted of the noble presents along with him; as also his foregoing crimes, he convened an assembly of testament: wherein Antipater was appointed his friends, and accused Pheroras's wife : and to be his successor. And that, if Antipater ascribing the abuses of the virgins to the im- should die first, his * son by the high-priest's pudence of that woman, laid an accusation daughter should succeed. And together with against her for the dishonor she had brought | Antipater, there went to Rome Sylleus, the upon them : saying that she had studiously Arabian : although he had done nothing of introduced a quarrel between him and his all that Cæsar had enjoined him. Antipater brother; and, by her natural ill temper, had also accused him of the same crimes of which brought them into a state of war ; both by her he had formerly been accused by Herod. words and actions : that the fines which he Sylleus was also accused by Aretas, that withhad imposed had not been paid, and the of- out his consent he had slain many of the chief fenders had escaped punishment, by her means: of the Arabians at Petra ; and particularly and that nothing of late bad been done with Soemus; a man that deserved to be honored out her. “ For these reasons,” said he, “ thou by all men ; and that he had slain Fabatus, Pheroras wilt do well, of thine own accord, a servant of Cæsar's. These were the things and not at: my entreaty,' or as following my of which Sylleus was accused ; and that on opinion, to put thy wife away; as one that the following occasion : There was one Co. will still be the occasion of war between thee rinthos belonging to Herod, of the king's and me. And now, if thou valuest thy relation-body guards; and one who was greatly trusted ship to me, put this wife of thine away. For by him. Sylleus had persuaded this inan, by this means thou wilt continue to be a bro- with the offer of a great sum of money, to kill ther, and wilt abide in thy love to me." Herod : and he had promised to do it. When Pheroras, although pressed hard by the former Fabatus had been made acquainted with this, words, replied, that although he would not do(for Sylleus had himself told him of it,) he so unjust a thing as to renounce his brotherly informed the king of it; who caught Corinthus, relation, yet would he not leave off his affec- and put him to the torture ; and thereby got tion for his wife : for he would rather choose out of him the whole conspiracy. He also to die, than to live and be deprived of a wife caught two other Arabians, who were disthat was so dear to bim. Hereupon Herod put covered by Corinthus ; the one the head of a off his anger against Pheroras on these ac-tribe, and the other a friend to Sylleus; who counts : although he himself thereby under-both were brought to the torture, and confessed went a very uneasy punishment. However, that they were come to encourage Corinthus he forbade Antipater and his mother to have not to fail of doing what he had undertaken ; any conversation with Pheroras, and ordered and to assist him with their own hands, if need them to take care to avoid the assemblies of should require their assistance. So Saturninus, the women. This they promised to do ; but upon Herod's discovering the whole to him, still got together, when occasion served ; and sent them to Rome. both Pheroras and Antipater had their own At this time Herod commanded Pheroras,

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* Herod-Philip.


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that, since he was so obstinate in bis affection this potion was brought out of Arabia by a for his wife, he should retire into his own woman, under pretence of being a love-potion, tetrarchy. This he did very willingly; and but in reality to kill Pheroras. For that the sware that he would not come again, till he Arabian women are skilful in making such beard that Herod was dead. And, indeed, poisons ; and the woman, to whom they aswhen upon a sickness of the king's he was cribe this, was confessedly a most intimate desired to come to him before be died, that he friend of one of Sylleus's mistresses; and that might intrust him with some of his injunctions, both the mother and the sister of Pheroras's he had such a regard to bis oath, that he would wife had been at the places where she lived, not come to him. Yet did not Herod so re- and had persuaded her to sell them this potion, tain his hatred to Pheroras ; but remitted of and had come back, and brought it with them his purpose not to see him, which he before the day before that of his supper.”+ Hereupon had; and that for such great causes as have the king was provoked, and put the women been already mentioned: but as soon as he slaves to the torture; and some that were free began to be ill, he came to bim, and this with with them. And as the fact did not yet apout being sent for; and, when he was dead, he pear, because none of them would confess: at took care of his funeral, and bad his body length one of them, under her utmost agonies, brought to Jerusalem, and buried there; and said, she prayed that God would send the like appointed a solemn mourning for him. This agonies upon Antipater's mother, who had death of Pheroras became the origin of Anti- been the occasion of these miseries to all of pater's misfortunes; although he were already them.

. This prayer induced Herod to insailed for Rome; God now being about to crease the women's tortures, till thereby all punish him for the murder of his brethren. 1 was discovered : their merry meetings, their will explain the history of this matter very secret assemblies, and the disclosing of what distinctly, that it may serve as a warning to he had said to his son alone unto Pheroras's mankind, that they take care of conducting women. (Now what Herod had charged their whole lives by the rules of virtue. Antipater to conceal was the gift of an hun

dred talents to him, not to have any conversaCHAP. IV.

tion with Pheroras.) And what haired he

bore to his father : and that he complained to OF THE ACCUSATIONS LAID AGAINST THE WIFE OF PHERO

his mother, how very long his father lived li RAS; AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE DANGEROUS DESIGNS

and that he was himself almost an old man;

insomuch that if the kingdom should come to A

S soon as Pheroras was dead,* and bis him, it would not afford him any great pleafuneral was over, two of Pheroras's freed

And that there were a great many of men, who were much esteemed by him, came his brothers, or brothers' children, bringing to Herod, and entreated him not to leave the up, that might have hopes of the kingdom as murder of his brother without avenging it; but well as himself. All which made his own to examine into such an unreasonable and hopes of it uncertain. For that even now, if unhappy death. When he was moved with he should not live, Herod had ordained that these words, they said, that." Pheroras supped the government should be conferred, not on with his wife the day before he fell sick; and his son, but rather on a brother. He also had that a certain potion was brought him in such accused the king of great barbarity, and of the a. sort of food as he was not used to eat. But slaughter of his sons; and that it was out of that when he had eaten he died of it: that the fear he was under lest he should do the



* An. 4.

pears now going forward. It was only the supposal of + It seems by this whole story that Pheroras was not iwo of his freedmen that this love-potion, or poison, hinuself poisoned, as is commonly supposed. For Anti- which they knew was brought to Pheroras's wife, was pater had persuaded him to poison Herod, Chap.5.which made use of for poisoning him: whereas it appears to have would fall to the ground if he were himself poisoned. Nor been brought for her husband to poison Herod withal ; as could the poisoning of Pheroras serve any design that ap the future examinations demonstrate. 2. VOL. 11.-(54).



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