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What was done if he refused.



when taken.

If a brother refused to marry his

brother's widow, he was to go before the judges and gay so.

The widow was then to take off his shoe, spit in his face, and call him the unshod.* (Deut. xxv. 5-10.) How adultery An adulteress, if a free woman, was was punished.

stoned to death; but, if a slave, was scourged with 39 blows. Ordeal oaths, If a husband were jealous, he could

conduct his wife to the house of God, and compel her to take what was termed the ordeal oath, in proof of her innocence. I The law of A wife was divorced at the discretion divorce.

of her husband; but the man was obliged to give her a bill of divorce stating the cause of separation. Both parties, after this, might marry again. (Deut. xxiv. 1, &c.)

A mother was churched, as we call

it, by going to the house of God and offering for sacrifice either a lamb or two turtle doves for her purification. (Luke ii. 21.) When children Boys were circumcised and named

on the 8th day. Upon which they became members of the Jewish covenant, as

* When the kinsman of Boaz pulled off his shoe and gave it to his neighbour, it was not because he refused to marry her, but because he consented to the transfer of the estate, (Ruth iv. 7.)

Lev. xx. 10. Ezek. xvi. 38–40.

I Num. v. 11-31.

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How women were churched.

about children.

The law about parents.

How estates were divided.

we are made partakers of the Christian covenant by baptism. The Jewish law Children might be stoned to death

for ill-treating or cursing their parents; for being idle or prodigal, stubborn or rebellious, saucy or incorrigible. *

Poor parents were supported by

their children, who were also expected to give them presents from time to time. (Matt. xv. 5, 6.) Estates were divided


the sons, but the eldest son had always a double portion. How daughters Daughters employed themselves at were employed.

home in domestic duties, needlework, music, and dancing. They seldom went abroad, except to fetch water from the neighbouring well!

The book of Ruth is a supplement to the book of Judges, and an introduction to the history of David. It was probably written by the prophet Samuel.

Ruth was a young widow, born of a Moabitish father and Jewish mother. During the troublous times of the Judges, this family had left Judea to dwell in Moab; but on the death of Elimelech (Ruth's father) the widow Nao'mi, with her daughter Ruth, return to Bethlehem. They were very poor, and Ruth went to glean in the fields of one * Exodus xxi. 15, 17. Lev. xx. 9. Dout. xxi, 18-21.

Boaz, a near relation. Boaz was struck with the appearance of Ruth, and behaved to her with great kindness.

In the evening she told her mother of this civility, and was then informed that Boaz was her late husband's near kinsman. By the end of harvest Boaz became so attached to Ruth that he offered to marry her; the marriage was effected, and Ruth became the mother of Obed, who was the father of Jessé, and the grandfather of David, the king of Israel.




Why the Books of Samuel are 80 called.

Author of the rest.

The 2 Books of Samuel de

rive their name from Samuel the prophet, who wrote the first 24 chapters of the 1st Book.

The rest of the 1st Book, and all the 2nd, were probably written by the prophets Gad and Nathan.

The 1st Book contains the history of Israel from the birth of

The contents of the first Book.

The second

Samuel to the death of Saul, a period of about 100 years.

The 2nd Book contains the history of David, and extends over & period of about 40 years.


B.C. 1151-1053,

COTEMPORARY EVENTS. 1122. The third dynasty of China, that of Tchéou, began.

The Vedas, or sacred books of the Hindoos, compiled

about this time. 1104. The return of the Heraclidæ. 1100. The twenty-first dynasty of Egypt, that of Bubastis, began. 1075. Corinth founded by Alētés.

Section I,


B.C. 1151-1112.


Who Samuel was.

Samuel was the son of Elka nah and Hannah. Before his birth


What happened.

Eli's age at the time.

His sons.

Hannah, who had no child, made a vow, if God would give her a son, to devote him from infancy to His service.

God heard her vow; and when Samuel was born, Hannah took him to the temple, and committed him to the care of Eli, the high-priest.

Eli was at the time about 76 years

of age, and had been high-priest of Israel for 19 years.

He had four sons, two of whom, Hophni and Phin'ehas, assisted him in his administration; but they were wicked men, and Eli was too indulgent to remove them from office. Ther of They were guilty of many of

fences; amongst others, of purloining parts of the sacrifices, and of grossly insulting the women who went to the tabernacle to worship.

God admonished Eli of these abuses; but as the old man did not remove his sons, God said both he and


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The warning
God gave.

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