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The guiding The PILLARS of cloud and of FIRE pillars types.

were both TYPES OF JESUS CHRIST: (1.) They prefigured Christ clouded in flesh, yet bright with his Father's glory;

(2.) As the pillar guided the Israelites for 40 years, so Christ is a lamp unto our feet and a light unto our path;

(3.) As the pillar protected the Israelites from their pursuers, so Christ is unto us " for walls and bulwarks;"

(4.) As the pillar gave light by night, so Jesus Christ is the light that shineth in darkness; and

(5) As the pillar served to screen the Israelities, that “the sun might not smite them by day, nor the moon by night,” so Jesus Christ protects his people as a hen her brood when she gathers them under her wing.




At what the The plagues of Egypt had especial plagues point

reference to the idolatry of the Egyptians; hence God said

said to Moses : Against all the gods of Egypt will I execute judgment.” (Exod. xii. 12, and Num. xxxiii. 4.)

(1.) The Nile was turned into blood for seven days. Now the Nile was held sacred by

the Egyptians, who looked upon blood with abhorrence. This judgment would shew the Israelites the impotency of such a deity.

(2.) Frogs were symbols of inspiration, and as such commanded a species of reverence. This plague was especially directed against the Reptile worship of the people, and as it proceeded from the Nile, the sacred river became a second time a plague to the people.

(3.) Lice. The Egyptian priests were superstitiously cleanly; they shaved off all their hair, and wore only linen, in order that no vermin might harbour about their persons. This plague, therefore, was especially directed against the Egyptian priests, who acknowledged it to be the finger of God."

(4.) Flies were considered as deities by the Egyptians and by the neighbouring people of Ekron. But Baalzebub, though the god of flies, could not protect his worshippers from the poisome swarm.

(5.) Murrain. This plague was directed against the animal worship of the Egyptians, shewing how impotent were such gods against the God of the Hebrews.

Almost every city in Egypt had its animal deity; thus, Apis, Mnevis, and Ononphis, (the

* Herculés, among the Greeks, was reverenced as the erpeller of flies, and even Zeus (Jupiter) gloried in the title of fly-expeller.



sacred bulls) were worshipped respectively at Memphis, Heliopolis, and Hermonthis; a cow was the presiding deity of Momemphis; a lion of Leontopolis; a goat of Mendez; a crocodile of Mæris; a ram in two or three other cities, &c.; and all these deities were kept in temples, fed on delicate meats, anointed with perfumes, had colleges of priests, and sumptuous funerals at death.

(6.) Boils and blains. This plague had reference : (1) To the Egyptian custom of burning men alive, and scattering their ashes in the air as charms; the ashes which Moses sprinkled brought boils and blains instead of blessings; (2) It punished the priests in much the same way as the third plague had done; and (3) It shewed how impotent were the gods they worshipped for their healing art.

(7.) Fire and rain. The Egyptians worshipped fire and water, which now became their plagues. They also idolized certain plants, which were by this judgment destroyed.

(8.) Locusts. The Egyptians worshipped their idol Serăpis, in order that it might guard the land from the terrible locusts; but by this judgment they were taught that Serăpis had no power against the God of gods.

(9.) Darkness for three days. The Egyptians worshipped the sun as Isis, and the


moon as Osīris ; but neither of these deities could now dispel the darkness which might be felt throughout all the land of Egypt.*

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* All these paragraphs, except the first, may be turned into questions by putting the words Why were before the part in Italics, and adding “sent :as “Why were frogs sent pu &c.


The people


What was done.

even followed the people in all their encampments till they came to Ka'desh, where (for some unknown cause) it failed them.

At Reph-id'-im the people were attacked by the Amalekites, a powerful horde dwelling in Arabia Petræa.

Moses appointed Joshua to repel the assault; and whenever Moses held his rod on high, Joshua prevailed, but immediately Moses dropped his hands, the Amalekites prevailed. How victory. In this emergency Aaron and Hur seated Moses on a stone, and held up his hands, one on one side and one on the other.

This was done till night-fall, when Joshua obtained a complete victory, and returned to the camp in

, triumph.

Great advantages were de. rived from this victory; for immense


How long this was done.

The advantages gained therefrom.

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