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illiterate, with all the narrowness and bigotry belonging to their countrymen, with no marks of superior minds, having low notions concerning Christ and his kingdom, in fear leaving their master in the hour of trial. But Penticost comes, the Spirit is poured out upon them, and immediately these illiterate fishermen speak all manner of languages ! What moral heroism characterizes them, braving dangers the most formidable, 'not counting their life dear' in the work of the world's renovation. Ignorance and bigotry disappear. The light of heaven breaks in upon their souls; and they are filled with the deepest compassion for their fellow-beings. Now I meet the infidel on his own ground, that we are to receive the Bible in the same way that we receive other human works, and ask him to account for these things if the apostles were not inspired

men.

W. P.

EXCELLENCE.--The true way to excel in any work is to propose the brightest and most perfect example for our imitation. We must improve by the attempt, even though we fall short of the full perfection.— Tillotson.

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS, DELTA writes :— Our friends should be careful in calling names. • Observer' calls the Reasoner? more properly calumniator.' I should much like to see this system banished from the columns of all publications, especially Christian publications. Let the

Defender' set this good example.? We certainly think that the simple statement of facts often produces a deeper impression than the strongest declamation. We advise all our correspondents to avoid offensive personalities; still we must allow them their own mode of uttering their sentiments. Even where names are warranted by acts, there is the possibility of overcharging the style with them. If, however, our friend 'Delta' knew, as we do, the whole course of the periodical referred to, he would agree with us in thinking that the descriptive is far from undeserved.

* Oculus' is not satisfied with the literary character of No. 18; and seems to think that some future number will be improved by the insertion of his querulous letter. We respectfully differ from him. It is just the insertion of such letters in extenso that would give our readers good reason to complain. In our anxiety to give a patient and cordial hearing to the other side, a large amount of our space has been occupied with very

indifferent matter. But there is no satisfying our ci-devant free-thinkers. If we do not admit all their lucubrations, they accuse us of injustice; and if we do the Defender is filled with “trash.” Cannot “Oculus” prevail upon some accredited representative of infidelity to enter the lists against us. And then if our defence is feeble, he will be the more likely to conquer.

RECEIVED.-W. L., Middlesbro; 'Omega,' Stockport; “Observer.'

CHRISTIAN PROPAGANDIST FUND, for the support and gratuitous circulation of the Defender. George Hudson and Friends, Farsley, 3s. 6d.

The real names and addresses of correspondents required, though not for publication. The Editor does not undertake to return rejected communications.

Our correspondents in different places will do us service by giving us prompt information of what goes on in their localities.

Communications and works for review to be addressed to the Editor, 50, Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne, either direct, or through the publishers.

London; HOULSTON & STONEMAN, 65, Paternoster Row.

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS.

Hunter & Co., Printers, Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

a Weekly Ilagazine,

OF CHRISTIAN EXPOSITION AND ADVOCACY.

Who knows not that truth is strong, next to the Almighty; she needs no policies, nor stratagems, nor licensings to make her victorious, those are the shifts and the defences that error uses against her power.—MILTON.

No. 22.]

SATURDAY, JUNE 2, 1855.

[PRICE 1D.

EIGHT OF THE ARTICLES. Dialogue on Infidelity

337 Willis Knowles again. Carlyle and Holyoake

341 An Opponent at last ....... Is God's Foreknowledge of a Human Action

Man and Circumstances consistent with its Freedom ?

344 The Question of the Age.............

346 347 348 350

DIALOGUES ON INFIDELITY.

No. I.

SCENE.--A Cell in the Calton Jail, Edinburgh.
PERSONS.--A Minister of the Gospelma Magistrate— Prisoner.
TIME.— A year of political conv

on.
Mag.--I hope I see you well, this morning.
Pris.--Very well, thank you.
Mag.--I have brought a friend of mine to see you.

Pris.- I'm very glad to see him. When we get in here, it is not many people that care to look after us; and when any do speak to us, it is generally in a repulsive tone. For my part, I would far rather none ever visited me, than that they should take it for granted that my principles are false, without ever attempting to reason with me on the subject.

Mag.–Well, you know, we have had several discussions on your principles, and I hope we have conducted them in a tone of candour and kindliness,

Pris. -of your tone and manner, baillie, I have no reason to complain. I am very much obliged to you for coming so often to see me, and although wo do not agree in our religious sentiments, our conversations, at least, have helped to relieve the tedium of my confinement.

No. 22, Vol. I.

illiterate, with all the narrowness and bigotry belonging to their countrymen, with no marks of superior minds, having low notions concerning Christ and his kingdom, in fear leaving their master in the hour of trial. But Penticost comes, the Spirit is poured out upon them, and immediately these illiterate fishermen speak all manner of languages! What moral heroism characterizes them, braving dangers the most formidable, ‘not counting their life dear' in the work of the world's renovation. Ignorance and bigotry disappear. The light of heaven breaks in upon their souls; and they are filled with the deepest compassion for their fellow-beings. Now I meet the infidel on his own ground, that we are to receive the Bible in the same way that we receive other human works, and ask him to account for these things if the apostles were not inspired

men.

W. P.

EXCELLENCE.—The true way to excel in any work is to propose the brightest and most perfect example for our imitation. We must improve by the attempt, even though we fall short of the full perfection.— Tillotson.

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. DELTA writes :— Our friends should be careful in calling names. Observer' calls the Reasoner? more properly calumniator.' I should much like to see this system banished from the columns of all publications, especially Christian publications. Let the • Defender' set this good example.? We certainly think that the simple statement of facts often produces a deeper impression than the strongest declamation. We advise all our correspondents to avoid offensive personalities; still we must allow them their own mode of uttering their sentiments. Even where names are warranted by acts, there is the possibility of overcharging the style with them. If, however, our friend 'Delta' knew, as we do, the whole course of the periodical referred to, he would agree with us in thinking that the descriptive is far from undeserved.

Oculus' is not satisfied with the literary character of No. 18; and seems to think that some future number will be improved by the insertion of his querulous letter. We respectfully differ from him. It is just the insertion of such letters in extenso that would give our readers good reason to complain. In our anxiety to give a patient and cordial hearing to the other side, a large amount of our space has been occupied with very indifferent matter. But there is no satisfying our ci-devant free-thinkers. If we do not admit all their lucubrations, they accuse us of injustice; and if we do the Defender is filled with “trash.” Cannot “Oculus” prevail upon some accredited representative of infidelity to enter the lists against us. And then if our defence is feeble, he will be the more likely to conquer.

RECEIVED.-W. L., Middlesbro; Omega,' Stockport; Observer.'

CHRISTIAN PROPAGANDIST FUND, for the support and gratuitous circulation of the Defender. George Hudson and Friends, Farsley, 3s. 6d.

The real names and addresses of correspondents required, though not for publication. The Editor does not undertake to return rejected communications.

Our correspondents in different places will do us service by giving us prompt information of what goes on in their localities.

Communications and works for review to be addressed to the Editor, 50, Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne, either direct, or through the publishers.

London ; HOULSTON & STONEMAN, 65, Paternoster Row.

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS.

Hunter & Co., Printers, Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

a Weekly Magazine,

OF CHRISTIAN EXPOSITION AND ADVOCACY.

Who knows not that truth is strong, next to the Almighty; she needs no policies, nor stratagems, nor licensings to make her victorious, those are the shifts and the defences that error uses against her power.—MILTON.

No. 22.]

SATURDAY, JUNE 2, 1855.

[PRICE 1D.

EIGHT OF THE ARTICLES. Dialogue on Infidelity

337 Willis Knowles again. Carlyle and Holyoake

341 An Opponent at last ......... Is God's Foreknowledge of a Human Action

Man and Circumstances consistent with its Freedom ?

344 The Question of the Age..

346 347 348 350

DIALOGUES ON INFIDELITY.

No. 1.

Sceng.--A Cell in the Calton Jail, Edinburgh.
PERSONS.--A Minister of the Gospelma Magistrate-a Prisoner.
TIME.—A ycar of political convulsion.

Mag.--I hope I see you well, this morning.
Pris.--Very well, thank you.
Mag.-I have brought a friend of mine to see you.

Pris.—I'm very glad to see him. When we get in here, it is not many people that care to look after us; and when any do speak to is, it is generally in a repulsive tone. For my part, I would far rather none ever visited me, than that they should take it for granted that my principles are false, without ever attempting to reason with me on the subject.

Mag.–Well, you know, we have had several discussions on your principles, and I hope we have conducted them in a tone of candour and kindliness,

Pris.—Of your tone and manner, baillie, I have no reason to complain. I am very much obliged to you for coming so often to see me, and although wo do not agree in our religious sentiments, our conversations, at least, have helped to relieve the tedium of my confinement,

No. 22, Vol. I.

Mag. I think I have proved that some of your views of Christianity are altogether unfounded in fact; but as my friend here has had much intercourse with persons of your opinions, and has thought much on the questions that we have discussed, I thought I should bring him here that he might have a little conversation with you.

Pris.-Well, I do not think that he or anybody else can change my mind. I can't see what good Christianity does its professors, and I can't think it true.

Min.-Don't you think that if people did to others, as they would that others should do to them, that the world would be a great deal better than it is ?

Pris.—No doubt; but then that is just what people do not do.

Min.—But you cannot deny that Christianity requires nothing less of them than this, and if they do not love their neighbours as themselves, it is because they do not obey the precepts of the Bible.

Pris.- The precepts of the Bible may be very good, but where do we find the people that keep them? I have never met with any persons so inconsistent as Christians.

Min.—No, perhaps you never have. Their theory is so much better than their practice that you

look upon them as the most inconsistent of all beings. But this is a silent eulogium upon the beauty of their moral theory, a tribute to the moral perfection of their religion. If their theory were bad, you would say that in doing wrong they were consistent people. if a man's theory is to steal, and deceive, and lie just to suit himself, and if he is a thief and a cheat, you call him aconsistent man; but if he does all these things while his theory condemns them utterly, you properly regard him as thoroughly inconsistent.

Přis.- I cannot see that men's religion is worth anything.

Min.-It must be worth a great deal if it does no more than show when human conduct is unbecoming and morally wrong, and if it furnishes neither justification nor excuse for wrong-doing, Man's religion may not do this, but the religion of the Bible does. And it does more than this ; for it furnishes the most powerful motives to obedience and love.

Pris. Well, all can say is this,-I have found some that have had a little religion tolerably decent sort of people; but I dread those who are religious over much.

Min.— The less of religion the better,' seems to be your motto. Pris.-That is about it; I strongly suspect people who talk much about religion.

Min.—But if their religion were a life and not a 'talk' you would have little reason to suspect them. You seem to take hypocrites as your specimens of true Christians. Now, no doubt, there are men who profess to believe and feel what they do not; but does this prove that if they really believed and felt what they profess to do they would be bad men ? Is it not just because they do not believe aud feel what they profess that they are wicked men? If you

could show that Christianity sanctions and smiles upon hypocrisy and wickedness, your position would be established, but that you cannot du. It contains the most terrible denunciations against hypocrisy; the deceiver finds no shelter in any of its teachings or precepts. Now, can you hold a religion responsible for what it condemns ? When it teaches men, and leads them, to love their neighbours às themselves, surely the more of it the better.

Pris.-I never saw any religion of that kind; it looks all very well to talk about, but we want to see it acted.

Min. That is what I want to see too. I am no advocate for a profession of religion, where there is none.

Pris.--I must say that I have not met with the people you speak about.

Min. The question is not whether you have met with such people, nor even whether there are such people, but whether if men really believed the

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