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it as a present to them when they were desirous of purchasing it. 70. For this reason, then, and because he had selected them from all the Greeks, and desired their friendship, the Lacedæmonians accepted his offer of alliance; and in the first place, they promised to be ready at his summons; and in the next, having made a brazen bowl, and covered outside to the rim with various figures, and capable of containing three hundred amphoræ, they sent it to him, being desirous of making Croesus a present in return. But this bowl never reached Sardis, for one of the two following reasons: the Lacedæmonians

say

that when this bowl, on its way to Sardis, was off Samos, the Samians, having heard of it, sailed out in long ships, and took it away by force. On the other hand, the Samians affirm, that when the Lacedæmonians who were conveying the bowl found they were too late, and heard that Sardis was taken, and Croesus a prisoner, they sold the bowl in Samos, and that some private persons, who bought it, dedicated it in the temple of Juno. And perhaps they who sold it, when they returned to Sparta, might say that they had been robbed of it by the Samians. So it is, then, respecting this bowl.

71. Croesus then, mistaking the oracle, prepared to invade Cappadocia, hoping to overthrow Cyrus and the power of the Persians. While Croesus was preparing for his expedition against the Persians, a certain Lydian, who before that time was esteemed a wise man, and on this occasion acquired a very great name in Lydia, gave him advice in these words (the name of this person was Sandanis): “O king, you are preparing to make war against a people who wear leather trowsers, and the rest of their garments of leather; who inhabit a barren country, and feed not on such things as they choose, but such as they can get. Besides, they do not habitually use wine, but drink water; nor have they figs to eat, nor any thing that is good. In the first place, then, if you should conquer, what will you take from them, since they have nothing? On the other hand, if you should be conquered, consider what good things you will lose; for when they have tasted of our good things, they will become fond of them, nor will they be driven from them. As for me, I thank the gods that they have not put it into the thoughts of the Persians to make war on the Lydians.” In saying this, he did not

persuade Croesus. Now before they subdued the Lydians, the Persians possessed nothing either luxurious or good. 72. The Cappadocians are by the Greeks called Syrians; these Syrians, before the establishment of the Persian power, were subject to the Medes; but then to Cyrus; for the boundary of the Median empire and the Lydian was the river Halys, which flows from the mountains of Armenia through Cilicia ; and afterward has the Matienians on the right and the Phrygians on the other side; then passing these and flowing up toward the north, it skirts the Syrian Cappadocians on one side, and the Paphlagonians on the left. Thus the river Halys divides almost the whole of lower Asia, from the sea opposite Cyprus to the Euxine: this is the isthmus of that whole country: as to the length of the journey, it takes five days for a well-girt man.6

73. Croesus invaded Cappadocia for the following reasons; as well from a desire of adding it to his own dominions, as, especially, from his confidence in the oracle, and a wish to punish Cyrus on account of Astyages ; for Cyrus son of Cambyses, had subjugated Astyages, son of Cyaxares, who was brother-in-law of Croesus, and king of the Medes. He had become brother-in-law to Cresus in the following manner: a band of Scythian nomades having risen in rebellion, withdrew into Media : at that time Cyaxares, son of Phraortes, grandson of Deioces, ruled over the Medes; he, at first, received these Scythians kindly, as being suppliants; so much so, that, esteeming them very highly, he intrusted some youths to them to learn their language and the use of the bow. In course of time, it happened that these Scythians, who were constantly going out to hunt, and who always brought home something, on one occasion took nothing. On their returning empty-handed, Cyaxares (for he was, as he proved, of a violent temper) treated them with most opprobrious language. The Scythians, having met with this treatment from Cyaxares, and considering it undeserved by them, determined to kill one of the youths that were being educated under their care; and having prepared the flesh

they used to dress the beasts taken in hunting, to serve it up to Cyaxares as if it were game, and then to make their escape immedi

6 The long flowing dresses of the ancients made it necessary to gird them up when they wished to move expeditiously.

ately to Alyattes, son of Sadyattes, at Sardis. This was accordingly done; and Cyaxares and his guests tasted of this flesh; and the Scythians, having done this, became suppliants to Alyattes. 74. After this (for Alyattes refused to deliver up the Scythians to Cyaxares when he demanded them), war lasted between the Lydians and the Medes for five years ; during this period the Medes often defeated the Lydians, and often the Lydians defeated the Medes ; and during this time they had a kind of nocturnal engagement. In the sixth year, when they were carrying on the war with nearly equal success, on occasion of an engagement, it happened that in the heat of the battle day was suddenly turned into night. This change of the day Thales the Milesian had foretold to the Ionians, fixing beforehand this year as the very period in which the change actually took place. The Lydians and Medes seeing night succeeding in the place of day, desisted from fighting, and both showed a great anxiety to make peace. Syennesis? the Cilician, and Labynetuse the Babylonian, were the mediators of their reconciliation ; these were they who hestened the treaty between them, and made a matrimonial connection ; for they persuaded Alyattes to give his daughter Aryenis in marriage to Astyages, son of Cyaxares; for without strong necessity, agreements are not wont to remain firm. These nations in their federal contracts observe the same ceremonies as the Greeks; and in addition, when they have cut their arms to the outer skin, they lick up one another's blood.

75. Cyrus had subdued this same Astyages, his grandfather by the mother's side, for reasons which I shall hereafter relate. Crcesus, alleging this against him, sent to consult the oracle if he should make war on the Persians; and when an ambiguous answer came back, he, interpreting it to his own advantage, led his army against the territory of the Persians. When he arrived at the river Halys, Croesus transported his forces, as I believe, by the bridges which are now there. But the common opinion of the Grecians is, that Thales the Milesian procured him a passage ; for, while Creesus was in

Syennesis seems to have been a name common to the kings of Cilicia. In addition to the one here mentioned, we meet with another in the time of Darius (V. 118), and a third in the time of Xerxes (VII. 98). 8 The same, says Prideaux, with the Nebuchadnezzar of Scripture.

See ch, 121--130.

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doubt how his army should pass over the river (for they say that these bridges were not at that time in existence), Thales, who was in the camp, caused the stream, which flowed along the left of the army, to flow likewise on the right; and he contrived it thus: having begun above the camp, he dug a deep trench, in the shape of a half moon, so that the river, being turned into this from its old channel, might pass in the rear of the camp pitched where it then was, and afterward, having passed by the camp, might fall into its former course; so that as soon as the river was divided into two streams, it became fordable in both. Some say that the ancient channel of the river was entirely dried up; but this I can not assent to; for how then could they have crossed it on their return ? 76. However, Croesus, having passed the river with his army, came to a place called Pteria, in Cappadocia. (Now Pteria is the strongest position of the whole of this country, and is situated over against Sinope, a city on the Euxine Sea.) Here he encamped, and ravaged the lands of the Syrians; and took the city of the Pterians, and enslaved the inhabitants ; he also took all the adjacent places, and expelled the inhabitants, who had given him no cause for blame. But Cyrus, having assembled his own army, and having taken with him all who inhabited the intermediate country, went to meet Croesus. But before he began to advance, he sent heralds to the Ionians, to persuade them to revolt from Croesus: the Ionians, however, refused. When Cyrus had come up and encamped opposite Cresus, they made trial of each other's strength on the plains of Pteria ; but when an obstinate battle took place, and many fell on both sides, they at last parted on the approach of night, neither having been victorious. In this manner did the two armies engage.

77. But Croesus laying the blame on his own army on account of the smallness of its numbers, for his forces that engaged were far fewer than those of Cyrus—laying the blame on this, when on the following day Cyrus did not attempt to attack him, he marched back to Sardis, designing to summon the Egyptians according to treaty, for he had made an alliance with Amasis, king of Egypt, before he had with the Lacedæmonians; and to send for the Babylonians (for he had made an alliance with them also, and Labynetus at this time reigned over the Babylonians), and to require the presence of

ately to Alyattes, son of Sadyattes, at Sardis. This was accordingly done; and Cyaxares and his guests tasted of this flesh; and the Scythians, having done this, became suppliants to Alyattes. 74. After this (for Alyattes refused to deliver up the Scythians to Cyaxares when he demanded them), war lasted between the Lydians and the Medes for five years ; during this period the Medes often defeated the Lydians, and often the Lydians defeated the Medes; and during this time they had a kind of nocturnal engagement. In the sixth year, when they were carrying on the war with nearly equal success, on occasion of an engagement, it happened that in the heat of the battle day was suddenly turned into night. This change of the day Thales the Milesian had foretold to the Ionians, fixing beforehand this year as the very period in which the change actually took place. The Lydians and Medes seeing night succeeding in the place of day, desisted from fighting, and both showed a great anxiety to make peace. Syennesis? the Cilician, and Labynetus& the Babylonian, were the mediators of their reconciliation ; these were they who hestened the treaty between them, and made a matrimonial connection ; for they persuaded Alyattes to give his daughter Aryenis in marriage to Astyages, son of Cyaxares; for without strong necessity, agreements are not wont to remain firm.

These nations in their federal contracts observe the same ceremonies as the Greeks; and in addition, when they have cut their arms to the outer skin, they lick up one another's blood.

75. Cyrus had subdued this same Astyages, his grandfather by the mother's side, for reasons which I shall hereafter relate. Crosus, alleging this against him, sent to consult the oracle if he should make war on the Persians; and when an ambiguous answer came back, he, interpreting it to his own advantage, led his army against the territory of the Persians. When he arrived at the river Halys, Crosus transported his forces, as I believe, by the bridges which are now there. But the common opinion of the Grecians is, that Thales the Milesian procured him a passage ; for, while Creesus was in

Syennesis seems to have been a name common to the kings of Cilicia. In addition to the one here mentioned, we meet with another in the time of Darius (V. 118), and a third in the time of Xerxes (VII. 98). 8 The same, says Prideaux, with the Nebuchadnezzar of Scripture.

See ch, 121-130.

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