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Bacchus, and the rest of the ceremonies to Melanippus. This he did with reference to Adrastus. 68. He also changed the names of the Dorian tribes, in order that the Sicyonians and Argives might not have the same; and in this he very much ridiculed the Sicyonians ; for, changing their names into names derived from a swine and an ass, he added only the terminations, except in the case of his own tribe; to this he gave a name significant of his own sovereignty, for they were called Archelai; but others Hyatæ, some Oneatæ, and others Chæreatæ.9 The Sicyonians adopted these names for their tribes, both during the reign of Clisthenes, and after his death, during sixty years; after that, however, by common consent they changed them into Hylleans, Pamphylians, and Dymanatæ; and they added a fourth, after Ægialeus, son of Adrastus, giving them the name of Ægialeans. ·

69. Now the Sicyonian Clisthenes had done these things ; and the Athenian Clisthenes, who was son to the daughter of this Sicyonian, and had his name from him, from contempt for the Ionians, as appears to me, that the Athenians might not have the same tribes as the Ionians, imitated his namesake Clisthenes; for when he had brought over to his own side the whole of the Athenian people, who had been before alienated from him, he changed the names of the tribes, and aug. mented their number; and established ten phylarchs instead of four, and distributed the people into ten tribes; and having gained over the people, he became much more powerful than his opponents. 70. Isagoras, being overcome in his turn, had recourse to the following counterplot: he called in Cleomenes the Lacedæmonian, who had been on terms of friendship with him from the time of the siege of the Pisistratidæ; and besides, Cleomenes was suspected of having had intercourse with the wife of Isagoras. First of all, therefore, Cleomenes, sending a herald to Athens, required the expulsion of Clisthenes, and with him of many other Athenians, as being 66 under a curse.” He sent this message under the instruction of Isagoras ; for the Alcmæonidæ, and those of their party, were accused of the following murder ; but neither he himself had any share in it, nor had his friends. 71. Those of the Athenians who were “ accursed” obtained the name on the

9 Hyatæ, from us, a sow ; Oneatæ, from óvos, an ass; Chæreatæ, from χοίρος, α pig.

following occasion. Cylon, an Athenian, had been victorious in the Olympic games; he, through pride, aspired to the tyranny ; and having associated with himself a band of

young men about his own age, attempted to seize the Acropolis, and, not being able to make himself master of it, he seated himself as a suppliant at the statue of the goddess. The prytanes of the Naucrari, who then had the administration of affairs in Athens, removed them, under promise that they should not be punished with death. But the Alcmæonidæ are accused of having put them to death. These things were done before the time of Pisistratus.

72. When Cleomenes sent a herald to require the expulsion of Clisthenes and the accursed, Clisthenes himself withdrew. But, nevertheless, Cleomenes came afterward to Athens with a small force, and, on his arrival, banished seven hundred Athenian families, whom Isagoras pointed out to him. Having done this, he next attempted to dissolve the senate, and placed the magistracy in the hands of three hundred partisans of Isagoras. But when the senate resisted and refused to obey, Cleomenes and Isagoras, with his partisans, seized the Acropolis; and the rest of the Athenians, who sided with the senate, besieged them two days: on the third day, as many of them as were Lacedæmonians left the country under a truce. And thus an omen, addressed to Cleomenes, was accomplished; for when he went up to the Acropolis, purposing to take possession of it, he approached the sanctuary of the goddess to consult her; but the priestess, rising from her seat before he had passed the door, said, “ Lacedæmonian stranger! retire, nor enter within this precinct; for it is not lawful for Dorians to enter here.” He answered, “ Woman, I am not a Dorian, but an Achæan.” He, however, paying no attention to the omen, made the attempt, and was again compelled to withdraw with the Lacedæmonians. The Athenians put the rest in bonds for execution ; and among them Timesitheus of Delphi, of whose deeds both of prowess and courage I could say much. These, then, died in bonds. 73. After this the Athenians, having recalled Clisthenes, and the seven hundred families that had been banished by Cleomenes, sent embassadors to Sardis, wishing to form an alliance with the Persians; for they were assured that the Lacedæmonians and Cleomenes would make war upon them. When the em

bassadors arrived at Sardis, and had spoken according to their instructions, Artaphernes, son of Hystaspes, governor of Sardis, asked who they were, and what part of the world they inhabited, that they should desire to become allies of the Persians. And having been informed on these points by the embassadors, he answered in few words, that if the Athenians would give earth and water to king Darius, he would enter into an alliance with them; but if they would not give them, he commanded them to depart. The embassadors, having conferred together, said that they would give them, being anxious to conclude the alliance : they, however, on their return home, were greatly blamed.

74. Cleomenes, conceiving that he had been highly insulted in words and deeds by the Athenians, assembled an army from all parts of the Peloponnesus, without mentioning for what purpose he assembled it; but he both purposed to revenge himself

upon the Athenians, and desired to establish Isagoras as tyrant, for he had gone with him out of the Acropolis. Cleomenes accordingly invaded the territory of Eleusis with a large force, and the Bæotians, by agreement, took Ænoe and Hysiæ, the extreme divisions of Attica, and the Chalcidians attacked and ravaged the lands of Attica on the other side. The Athenians, though in a state of doubt, resolved to remember the Baotians and Chalcidians on a future occasion, and took up their position against the Peloponnesians, who were at Eleusis. 75. When the two armies were about to engage, the Corinthians first, considering that they were not acting justly, changed their purpose and withdrew; and afterward, Demaratus, son of Ariston, who was also king of the Spartans, and joined in leading out the army from Lacedæmon, and who had never before had any difference with Cleomenes, did the same. In consequence of this division, a law was made in Sparta that the two kings should not accompany the army when it went out on foreign service ; for until that time both used to accompany it; and that when one of them was released from military service, one of the Tyndaridæ likewise should be left at home; for before that time both these also used to accompany the army as auxiliaries. At that time the rest of the allies, perceiving that the kings of the La

1 Castor and Pollux, the guardian deities of Sparta.

cedæmonians did not agree, and that the Corinthians had quitted their post, likewise took their departure. 76. This, then, was the fourth time that the Dorians had come to Attica; having twice entered to make war, and twice for the good of the Athenian people. First, when they settled a colony in Megara, when Codrus was king of Athens, that may properly be called an expedition ; a second and third, when they were sent from Sparta for the expulsion of the Pisistratidæ; and a fourth time, when Cleomenes, at the head of the Peloponnesians, invaded Eleusis. Thus the Dorians then invaded Athens for the fourth time.

77. When this army was ingloriously dispersed, the Athenians, desirous to avenge themselves, marched first against the Chalcidians. The Baotians came out to assist the Chalcidians at the Euripus; and the Athenians, seeing the auxiliaries, resolved to attack the Baotians before the Chalcidians. ACcordingly, the Athenians came to an engagement with the Beotians, and gained a complete victory; and having killed a great number, took seven hundred of them prisoners. On the same day, the Athenians, having crossed over to Eubea, came to an engagement also with the Chalcidians; and having conquered them also, left four thousand men, settlers, in possession of the lands of the Hippobotæ ;? for the most opulent of the Chalcidians were called Hippobotæ. As many of them as they took prisoners, they kept in prison with the Baotians that were taken, having bound them in fetters; but in time they set them at liberty, having fixed their ransom at two minæ. The fetters in which they had been bound they hung up in the Acropolis, where they remained to my time, hanging on a wall that had been much scorched by fire by the Mede, opposite the temple that faces the west. And they dedicated a tithe of the ransoms, having made a brazen chariot with four horses, and this stands on the left hand as you enter the portico in the Acropolis ; and it bears the following inscription : “ The sons of the Athenians, having overcome the nations of the Bæotians and Chalcidians in feats of war, quelled their insolence in a dark iron dungeon: they have dedicated these mares, a tithe of the spoil, to Pallas.” 78. The Athenians accordingly increased in power; and equality of rights shows, not in one instance only, but in every way, what an excel

2 Feeders of horses."

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lent thing it is; for the Athenians, when governed by tyrants, were superior in war to none of their neighbors, but when freed from tyrants, became by far the first. This, then, shows that as long as they were oppressed they purposely acted as cowards, as laboring for a master ; but when they were free, every man was zealous to labor for himself. They accordingly did this.

79. After this the Thebans sent to the god, wishing to revenge themselves on the Athenians; but the Pythian said " that they would not obtain vengeance by their own power, but bade them refer the matter to the many-voiced people, and ask the assistance of their nearest friends." Those who were sent to consult the oracle having returned, called a general assembly, and referred the oracle to them. But when they heard them say that they were to ask the assistance of their nearest friends, the Thebans, on hearing this, said, "Do not the Tanagræans, Coronæans, and Thespians live nearest to us, and do not they always fight on our side, and heartily share with us in the toils of war? What need have we, then, to ask their assistance ? But probably this is not the meaning of the oracle.” 80. While they were discussing the matter, one, having at length comprehended it, said, " I think I understand what the oracle means. Thebe and Ægina are said to be daughters of Asopus. Now, because these were sisters, I think the god has admonished us to entreat the Æginetæ to become our avengers.” As no better opinion than this was brought forward, they immediately sent and entreated the Ægineta, calling upon them to assist them, according to the admonition of the oracle, as being their nearest friends ; but they, on their petition, promised to send the Æacidæ3 to their assistance. 81. The Thebans, relying on the assistance of the Æacidæ, having tried the fortunes of war, and being roughly handled by the Athenians, sent again, and restored the Æacidæ, and requested a supply of men; whereupon the Æginetæ, elated with their present prosperity, and calling to mind the ancient enmity they had toward the Athenians, at the request of the Thebans, levied war upon the Athenians without proclamation ; for while they were pursuing the Boeotians, having sailed in long ships to Attica, they ravaged Phalerum, and many villages on the rest of the coast; and

Meaning “the statues of the Æacidæ.”

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