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revolted a second time from the Persians. 105. In this battle, of the Greeks the Athenians most distinguished themselves; and of the Athenians, Hermolycus, son of Euthynus, who had practiced in the pancratium. It befell this Hermolycus after these events, when there was war between the Athenians and the Carystians, to die fighting at Cyrnus of the Carystian territory, and to be buried at Geræstus. After the Athenians, the Corinthians, Troezenians, and Sicyonians distinguished themselves. 106. When the Grecians had killed most of the barbarians, some fighting and others flying, they burned the ships and the whole fortification, having first brought out all the booty on the beach ; and they found several chests of money; and having burned the fortification and the ships, they sailed away. The Greeks, having arrived at Samos, consulted about transplanting the Ionians, and in what part of Greece, of which they themselves were masters, it would be best to settle them, intending to leave Ionia to the barbarians; for it was clearly impossible for them to protect and guard the Ionians forever, and if they did not protect them, they had no hope that the Ionians would escape unpunished by the Persians. Upon this it seemed expedient to the men of rank among the Peloponnesians to remove the marts of the Grecian nations that had sided with the Medes, and give their territory to the Ionians to inhabit; but it did not appear at all expedient to the Athenians that the Ionians should be removed, or that the Peloponnesians should give advice respecting their colonies. However, as they opposed, the Peloponnesians readily gave way; and accordingly they took into the alliance the Samians, Chians, Lesbians, and other islanders, who were then serving with the Greeks, binding them by pledges and oaths that they would remain firm and not revolt. When they had bound them by oaths, they set sail to destroy the bridges, for they expected to find them still stretched across; accordingly, they sailed to the Hellespont.

107. The barbarians who fled, and were shut up in the heights of Mycale, not many in number, got safe to Sardis. But as they were marching, on their way, Masistes, son of Darius, having been present at the defeat, uttered many hard words to the general Artayntes; saying, among other things,

3 The Ionians were first subjugated by Harpagus (i. 164, &c.), afterward revolted (v. 28), and were again reduced (vi. 32).

that he was more cowardly than a woman for having commanded the army in such a manner, and that he deserved the most extreme punishment for having brought mischief on the king's house. Now, among the Persians, to be called more cowardly than a woman is the greatest affront; he, therefore, when he heard a good deal, being exceedingly indignant, drew his cimeter upon Masistes; but Xenagoras, son of Praxilaus, a Halicarnassian, who stood behind Artayntes, perceiving him rushing forward, seized him round the middle, and having lifted him up, threw him on the ground; and in the mean while the guards of Masistes came to his assistance. Xenagoras did this, thereby laying an obligation both on Masistes himself and on Xerxes, by saving his brother; and for this action Xenagoras received the government of all Cilicia as the gift of the king. While they were marching on the road, nothing more than this occurred, but they arrived at Sardis. At Sardis the king happened to be from the time when he fled thither from Athens, after his failure in the seafight.

108. While he was at Sardis he fell in love with the wife of Masistes, who was also there; but when she could not be moved by sending to solicit her, and he did not offer violence, out of regard for his brother Masistes (and this same circumstance restrained the woman, for she well knew that she would not meet with violence); thereupon Xerxes, being shut out from any other resource, brought about the marriage of his son Darius with the daughter of this woman and Masistes, thinking that he should get possession of her if he did thus. Having, therefore, concluded the marriage and performed the usual ceremonies, he departed for Susa. When he arrived there, he introduced the wife of Darius into his own house; and then his passion for the wife of Masistes ceased ; and having changed his inclinations, he fell in love, and succeeded, with the wife of Darius, the daughter of Masistes: the name of this woman was Artaynte. 109. In course of time the matter was discovered in the following manner. Amestris, the wife of Xerxes, having woven a large, various-colored, and beautiful mantle, presented it to Xerxes, and he, being delighted, put it on, and went to Artaynte. Being pleased also with her, he bid her ask whatever she pleased as a reward for the favors she had granted him, for that she should have whatever she

asked. Thereupon, for it was fated that misfortune should befall the whole family by her means, she said to Xerxes, “ Will you give me whatever I shall ask of you ?” He, imagining she would ask for any thing rather than what she did, promised and swore; and she, when he had sworn, boldly asked for the mantle. Xerxes used every expedient, not wishing to give it; for no other reason than that he was afraid of Amestris, lest, having before suspected what was going on, he should thus be detected; he therefore offered her cities, and a vast quantity of gold, and an army, which no one but herself should command; but an army is a common Persian gift. However, as he could not persuade her, he gave her the mantle; and she, being overjoyed with the present, wore it, and prided herself in it; and Amestris was informed that she had it. 110. Having learned what had been done, she was not angry with the woman herself; but believing that her mother was the cause, and that she had done this, she planned the destruction of the wife of Masistes. Having, therefore, watched the time when her husband Xerxes should give the royal feast (this feast is prepared once a year, on the day on which the king was born ; and the name of this feast is, in the Persian language, “tycta,” and in the Grecian language, “perfect;" and then only the king washes his head with soap, and makes presents to the Persians), Amestris then, having watched that day, asked Xerxes to give her the wife of Masistes. He considered it a dreadful and cruel thing first of all to give up the wife of his brother, and next, one who was innocent of what had taken place ; for he understood why she made this request. 111. At last, however, as she persisted, and being constrained by custom, for it is not allowed for any petitioner to be denied when the royal feast is spread, he therefore very reluctantly granted her request; and having delivered the woman to her, he did as follows. He bade her do what she pleased, and then, having sent for his brother, spoke thus: “ Masistes, you are the son of Darius, and my brother, and, moreover, you are also a brave man. Cohabit, then, no longer with the wife you now have; and instead of her I will give you my own daughter. Cohabit with her ; but the wife whom you now have, as it does not seem well to me, no longer retain.” Masistes, astonished at what was said, answered, “Sire, what mischievous language do you hold to

my life.”

me, bidding me put away a wife, by whom I have three young sons, and daughters, of whom you have married one to your own son, and this wife too is very much to my mind; you bid me put away her and marry your own daughter? I, however, O king, though I deem it a great honor to be thought worthy of your daughter, will do neither of these things, and do not you use force in your desire to accomplish this end. Some other man, not inferior to me, will be found for your daughter, but let me cohabit with my own wife.” Such was the answer he gave; but Xerxes in a rage replied, “Masistes, you have thús done for yourself; for neither will I give you my daughter in marriage, nor shall you any longer cohabit with your present one, that so you may learn to accept what is offered.” He, when he heard this, withdrew, having said this much : “ Sire, you have not yet taken away

112. In the intermediate time, while Xerxes was in conference with his brother, Amestris, having sent for the body-guards of Xerxes, mutilated the wife of Masistes : having cut off her breasts, she threw them to the dogs, and also her nose, ears, and lips, and then, having cut out her tongue, she sent her home thus mutilated. 113. Masistes, who had not yet heard any thing of this, but suspecting some evil had befallen him, rushed home in great haste, and seeing his wife utterly destroyed, he thereupon consulted with his sons, and set out with them and some others for Bactria, designing to induce the Bactrian district to revolt, and to do the king all the mischief he could, which, in my opinion, would have happened, if he had been beforehand in going up to the Bactrians and Sacæ, for they were attached to him, and he was governor of the Bactrians; but Xerxes, being informed of his intentions, sent an army after him, and slew him and his sons and his forces upon the way.

Such were the circumstances respecting the amour of Xerxes and the death of Masistes.

114. The Greeks having set out from Mycale toward the Hellespont, being overtaken by a storm, anchored near Lectis, and from thence they went to Abydos, and found the bridges broken in pieces, which they expected to find stretched across, and for this reason chiefly they came to the Hellespont. Upon this the Peloponnesians with Leotychides determined to sail back to Greece, but the Athenians and their

commander Xanthippus resolved to stay there and make an attempt on the Chersonesus. The former, therefore, sailed away, but the Athenians, having crossed over from Abydos to Chersonesus, besieged Sestos. 115. To this Sestos, as being the strongest fortress in these parts, when they heard that the Greeks were arrived in the Hellespont, there came together men from other neighboring places, and among others

obazus, a Persian from Cardia, who had had all the materials of the bridges conveyed thither. Native Æolians occupied it, and there were with them Persians, and a great body of other allies. 116. Xerxes's viceroy Artayctes ruled over this district, a Persian wicked and impious, who had even deceived the king on his march to Athens by secretly taking away from Elæus the treasures of Protesilaus, son of Iphiclus; for in Elæus of the Chersonesus is a sepulchre of Protesilaus and a precinct around it, where were great treasures, both gold and silver vessels, and brass, and robes, and other offerings, which Artayctes plundered by permission of the king. By speaking as follows he deceived Xerxes: “Sire, there is here the habitation of a certain Grecian, who, having carried arms in your territories, met with a just punishment and perished. Give me this man's house, that every one may learn not to carry arms against your territory.”. By saying this he would easily persuade Xerxes to give him the man's house, as he had no suspicion of his intentions. He said that Protesilaus had carried arms against the king's territory, thinking thus: the Persians consider that all Asia belongs to them and the reigning monarch. When, however, the treasures were granted, he carried them away from Elæus to Sestos, and sowed part of the precinct and pastured it, and whenever he went to Elæus, he used to lie with women in the sanctuary. At this time he was besieged by the Athenians, neither being prepared for a siege nor expecting the Greeks, so that they fell upon

him somewhat unawares. 117. But when autumn came on, as they were engaged in the siege, and the Athenians were impatient at being absent from their own country, and not able to take the fortification, they besought their leaders to take them back; they, however, refused, until either they should take the place, or the people of Athens should recall them; accordingly, they acquiesced in the present state of things.

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