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Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians, who took them on shore, and stoned them to death. But afterward, all animals belonging to the Agyllæans that passed by the spot where the Phocæans who had been stoned lay, became distorted, maimed, and crippled, as well sheep as beasts of burden and men.

The Agylizans, therefore, being anxious to expiate the guilt, sent to Delphi; and the Pythia enjoined them to use those rites which the Agyllæans still observe; for they commemorate their death with great magnificence, and have established gymnastic and equestrian contests. This was the fate of these Phocæans; but the others who fled to Rhegium left that place, and got possession of that town in the territory of Enotria, which is now called Hyela, and they colonized this town by the advice of a certain Posidonian, who told them the Pythia had directed them to establish sacred rites to Cyrnus, as being a hero, but not to colonize the island of that name.

168. The Teians also acted nearly in the same manner as the Phocæans; for when Harpagus, by means of his earthworks, had made himself master of their walls, they all went on board their ships, and sailed away to Thrace, and there settled in the city of Abdera, which Timesius of Clazomenæ having formerly founded, did not enjoy, but was driven out by the Thracians, and is now honored as a hero by the Teians of Abdera.

169. These were the only Ionians who abandoned their country rather than submit to servitude. The rest, except the Milesians, gave battle to Harpagus, and as well as those who abandoned their country, proved themselves brave men, each fighting for his own; but, being defeated and subdued, they severally remained in their own countries, and submitted to the commands imposed on them. But the Milesians, as I have before mentioned, having made a league with Cyrus, remained quiet. Thus, then, was Ionia a second time enslaved ;6 and when Harpagus had subdued the Ionians on the continent, those that occupied the islands, dreading the same fate, made their submission to Cyrus.

170. When the Ionians were only to mean that “they happened to take them”—“it was their lot to take them.” Indeed, I believe that wherever Herodotus speaks of an actual casting of lots, he always adds some word that expresses the action or method of allotting, as κλήρο λαχόντα, iii. 83; παλλομένων δε hayxúvel, iii. 128 ; Tòv túño haxóvta, iv, 94 and 153.

6 See ch. 6 and 28. D

5 Ch. 143.

brought to this wretched condition, and nevertheless still held assemblies at Panionium, I am informed that Bias, of Priene, gave them most salutary advice, which if they had hearkened to him, would have made them the most flourishing of all the Grecians. He advised that the Ionians, having weighed anchor, should sail in one common fleet to Sardinia, and then build one city for all the Ionians: thus, being freed from servitude, they would flourish, inhabiting the most considerable of the islands, and governing the rest; whereas, if they remained in Ionia, he saw no hope of recovering their liberty.” This was the advice of Bias, the Prienean, after the Ionians were ruined. But, before Ionia was ruined, the advice of Thales, the Milesian, who was of Phænician extraction, was also good. He advised the Ionians to constitute one general council in Teos, which stands in the centre of Ionia, and that the rest of the inhabited cities should nevertheless be governed as independent states. Such was the advice they severally gave.

171. Harpagus, having subdued Ionia, marched against the Carians, Caunians, Lycians, Ionians, and Æolians. Of these the Carians had come from the islands to the continent; for, being subjects of Minos, and anciently called Leleges, they occupied the islands without paying any tribute, as far as I am able to discover, by inquiring into the remotest times; but, whenever he required them, they manned his ships; and as Minos subdued a large territory, and was successful in war, the Carians were by far the most famous of all nations in those times. They also introduced three inventions which the Greeks have adopted. For the Carians set the example of fastening crests upon helmets, and of putting devices on shields; they are also the first who put handles to shields; but, until their time, all who used shields carried them without handles, guiding them with leathern thongs, having them slung round their necks and left shoulders. After a long time had elapsed, the Dorians and Ionians drove the Carians out of the islands, and so they came to the continent. This, then, is the account that the Cretans give of the Carians. The Carians themselves, however, do not admit its correctness, but consider themselves to be aboriginal inhabitants of the continent, and always to have gone under the same name as they now do; and, in testimony of this, they show an ancient temple of Jupiter Carius at Mylasa, which the Mysians and Lydians share, as

kinsmen to the Carians, for they say that Lydus and Mysus were brothers to Car. Now they do share the temple, but none who are of a different nation, though of the same language with the Carians, are allowed to share it. 172. The Caunians, in my opinion, are aboriginals, though they say they are from Crete. However, they have assimilated their language to that of the Carians, or the Carians to theirs ; for this I can not determine with certainty. Their customs are totally distinct from those of other nations, even from the Carians; for they account it very becoming for men, women, and boys to meet together to drink according to their age and intimacy. They had formerly erected temples to foreign deities, but afterward, when they changed their minds (for they resolved to have none but their own national deities), all the Caunians armed themselves, both young and old, and, beating the air with their spears, marched in a body to the Calindian confines, and said they were expelling strange gods. They then have such customs. 173. The Lycians were originally sprung from Crete, for in ancient time Crete was entirely in the possession of barbarians. But a dispute having arisen between Sarpedon and Minos, sons of Europa, respecting the sovereign power, when Minos got the upper hand in the struggle, he drove out Sarpedon with his partisans; and they, being expelled, came to the land of Milyas in Asia; for the country which the Lycians now occupy was anciently called Milyas; but the Milyans were then called Solymi. So long as Sarpedon reigned over them, they went by the name of Termilæ, which they brought with them, and the Lycians are still called by that name by their neighbors. But when Lycus, son of Pandion, who was likewise driven out by his brother Ægeus, came from Athens, the Termilæ, under Sarpedon, in course of time, got to be called Lycians after him.

Their customs are partly Cretan and partly Carian; but they have one peculiar to themselves, in which they differ from all other nations; for they take their name from their mothers and not from their fathers; so that if any one ask another who he is, he will describe himself by his mother's side, and reckon up

his maternal ancestry in the female line. And if a free-born woman marry a slave, the children are accounted of pure birth ; but if a man who is a citizen, even though of high rank, mar

ry a foreigner or cohabit with a concubine, the children are infamous.

174. Now the Carians were subdued by Harpagus without having done any memorable action in their own defense ; and not only the Carians, but all the Grecians that inhabit those parts, behaved themselves with as little courage ; and among others settled there are the Cnidians, colonists from the Lacedæmonians, whose territory juts on the sea, and is called the Triopean ; but the region of Bybassus commenced from the peninsula, for all Cnidia, except a small space, is surrounded by water (for the Ceramic gulf bounds it on the north, and on the south the sea by Syme and Rhodes): now this small space, which is about five stades in breadth, the Cnidians, wishing to make their territory insular, designed to dig through while Harpagus was subduing Ionia; for the whole of their dominions were within the isthmus; and where the Cnidian territory terminates toward the continent, there is the isthmus that they designed to dig through. But as they were carrying on the work with great diligence, the workmen appeared to be wounded to a greater extent and in a more strange manner than usual, both in other parts of the body, and particularly in the eyes, by the chipping of the rock; they therefore sent deputies to Delphi to inquire what was the cause of the obstruction; and, as the Cnidians say, the Pythian answered as follows in trimeter verse: * Build not a tower on the isthmus, nor dig it through, for Jove would have made it an island had he so willed.” When the Pythia had given this answer, the Cnidians desisted from their work, and surrendered without resistance to Harpagus as soon as he approached with his army.

175. The Pedasians were situate inland above Halicarnassus; when any mischief is about to befall them or their neighbors, the priestess of Minerva has a long beard: this has three times occurred. Now these were the only people about Caria who opposed Harpagus for any time, and gave him much trouble by fortifying a mountain called Lyda. 176. After some time, however, the Pedasians were subdued. The Lycians, when Harpagus marched his army toward the Xanthian plain, went out to meet him, and, engaging with very inferior numbers, displayed great feats of valor; but, being defeated and shut up within their city,


they collected their wives, children, property, and servants within the citadel, and then set fire to it and burned it to the ground. When they had done this, and engaged themselves by the strongest oaths, all the Xanthians went out and died fighting. Of the modern Lycians, who are said to be Xanthians, all, except eighty families, are strangers; but these eighty families happened at the time to be away from home, and so survived. Thus Harpagus got possession of Xanthus and Caunia almost in the same manner; for the Caunians generally followed the example of the Lycians.

177. Harpagus therefore reduced the lower parts of Asia, but Cyrus conquered the upper parts, subduing every nation without exception. The greatest part of these I shall pass by without notice; but I will make mention of those which gave him most trouble, and are most worthy of being recorded.

178. When Cyrus had reduced all the other parts of the continent, he attacked the Assyrians. Now Assyria contains many large cities, but the most renowned and the strongest, and where the seat of government was established after the destruction of Nineveh, was Babylon, which is of the following description. The city stands in a spacious plain, and is quadrangular, and shows a front on every side of one hundred and twenty stades; these stades make up the sum of four hundred and eighty in the whole circumference. Such is the size of the city of Babylon. It was adorned in a manner surpassing any city we are acquainted with. In the first place, a moat deep, wide, and full of water, runs entirely around it; next, there is a wall fifty royal cubits in breadth, and in height two hundred; but the royal cubit is larger than the common one by three fingers' breadth. 179. And here I think I ought to explain how the earth taken out of the moat was consumed, and in what manner the wall was built. As they dug the moat they made bricks of the earth that was taken out, and when they had moulded a sufficient number they baked them in kilns. Then, making use of hot asphalt for cement, and laying wattled reeds between the thirty bottom courses of bricks, they first built up the sides of the moat, and afterward the wall itself in the same manner; and on the top of the wall, at the edges, they built dwellings of one story, fronting each other, and they left a space between these dwellings

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