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THE SCHOOL BOARD FOR LONDON.
The following is the composition of the Board elected 1880, with the divisions represented, the new members being distinguished by an asterisk against their names:
Angus, Rev. Dr. J., Marylebone *Belcher, Rev. B., Westminster *Berkeley. Captain H., Chelsea
Bonnewell, W. H., City of London Buxton, E. N., Tower Hamlets Buxton, S. C., Westminster *Charrington, S. C., Tower Hamlets *Corry, E. C., Southwark
Coxhead, Rev. J., Marylebone
Hill, Miss R. D., City of London
Lacraft, B, Finsbury
Mills, A., M.P., Marylebone
*Morse, Rev. T., Greenwich
*Muller, Miss, Lambeth
Murphy, Rev. G. M., Lambeth
Pearce, W., Tower Hamlets
Reed, Sir C., Hackney
Stanley, Hon. E L., Marylebone
Surr, Mrs. E., Finsbury
Wilks, M., Finsbury
Wylie, A., Lambeth
Out of the total of 50 members 22 had not seats on the late board, while the number of new members in 1876 and also in 1873 was 25.
From the School Board Report, issued for the half year ending March, 1880, we learn that the anticipated difficulty of carrying out the Act has not been at all equal to what was expected. In 1870 the number of children on the registers of elementary schools in England and Wales was 1,693,000; in 1674 it had risen to 2,497,000; and in 1879 to 3,710,000, showing an increase of 119 per cent in nine years. The number of children in actual attendance in 1870 was 1,152,000; in 1874 it was 1,679,000; in 1879 it was 2,595,000, an increase of 125 per cent. The next point was the amount of accommodation. In 1870 there were 1,817,000 places; in 1874 there were 2,872,000; in 1879 there were 4,142,000, an increase of 121 per cent. The grant in 1870 was at the rate of 9s. 114d. per child; in 1874 it was 12s. 5d.; in 1879 it was 15s. 54d., an increase of 56 per cent. The percentage of population on the school registers was 77 in 1870, 10 6 in 1874, 147 in 1879. These figures were almost startling. The outlay on school buildings by School Boards and voluntary bodies has been £20,000,000 in the nine years, of which the School Boards had spent over £13,0.0,000. The total cost of elementary education in schools under inspection in England and Wales had never been given. In 1870 it was £1,527,000, or an average of £1 58. 5d. per scholar; in 1874 it was £2,620,000, the average being £1 118. 24d.; in 1879 it was £4,775,000, the average being £1 168. 5d. The money in 1879 was made up of £136,000 from endowments, £754,000 from voluntary contributions, £636,000 from the rates, £1.372,000 in school fees, £49,000 from miscellaneous sources, and £1,828,000 from imperial funds; total, £4,755,000. In addition the cost of administration had been £987,000, 80 that voluntary subscriptions exceeded the contributions from the rates, and school fees exceeded both. In 1870 the average amount of school fees paid by each scholar was 8s. 44d.; in 1874, 98. 84d.; and in 1879, 10s. 51d. The population under the Boards numbered about 13,000,000. The total expenditure of the Boards last year was £3,700,000, of which only £243,000 went for administration. The percentage of average attendance in 1870 was 68 1. In 1874 it had fallen to 67 2, but last year it had risen to 69 9, and that average was considerably less than it would have been if it were not for the half-timers, who caused a depreciation of at least 10 per cent. The proportion of scholars examined in the fourth standard and upwards in 1870 was 19 per cent; in 1874, 181 per cent; and in 1879, 22:1 per cent. The numbers examined were, in 1870, 102,630; and in 1879, 388,680. There are 77 blind children taught in 29 different schools; and there are also 162 deaf mutes under instruction on what is termed the" Dual System "-that is, sign and lip teaching, and there are many more children waiting for school accommodation. The rise in the number of certificated teachers had been from 12,647 in 1870 to 29,766 in 1879. Assistant teachers had increased from 1262 to 6616, and pupil teachers from 14,300 to 33,195.
Amount of Salaries of Head and Assistant Teachers.
merited the gracious consideration of their Sovereign and the gratitude of their country." Forty-three years have seen the list of these pensioners very much thinned by death. The finance accounts for 1879 showed that the total amount of the pensions then payable was but £22,108, and the accounts for 1880 show that there was not a net increase of £1200 in the year, the total being still only £22,467.
The additions to the List last year were as follows:-
Mrs. Sarah Vargas, £25, in consideration of the long and meritorious services of her late husband, Mr. Peter Vargas, superintendent of the Parliamentary messengers under the Secretary to the Treasury.
Miss Sarah Sophia Vargas, £25; Miss Clara Vargas, £25; Miss Louisa Emily Vargas, £25; Miss Rosa Vargas, £25; Miss Henrietta Vargas, £25, in consideration of the long and meritorious services of their father, the late Mr. Peter Vargas, superintendent of the Parliamentary messengers under the Secretary to the Treasury.
Miss Mary Ann Sydney Turner, £75, in consideration of the services rendered by her father, the late Very Rev. Sydney Tuner, as inspector of reformatories and industrial schools.
Miss Millicent Flora Louisa MacLeay, £100, in consideration of the services rendered to art by her father, the late Mr. Kenneth MacLeay, a life visitor of the Royal Scottish Academy.
Mr. Richard Henry Hengist Horne, £50, in addition to the pension of £50, granted in 1874, in recognition of his contributions to literature.
Mrs. Marian Hepworth Dixon, £100, in consideration of the literary services of her late husband, Mr. Willism Hepworth Dixon.
Mr. Walter Hood Fitch, £100, in recognition of his long and valuable services towards the advancement of botanical science.
Mr. William Thomas Best, £100, in consideration of his services to music.
Mr. Samuel Carter Hall, £150, in recognition of his literary services. Dr. Henry Dunbar, £80, in consideration of his services to classical literature.
Miss Georgina Jackson, £40, in consideration of her philological researches. Lady Goss, £70, in consideration of the services rendered to music by her husband, the late Sir John Goss.
Mrs. Anne Jane Sampson and Miss Julia Goss, £60 (jointly) in similar consideration of the services of their father, the late Sir John Goss. Mrs. Broun, £75, in consideration of the services rendered to science by her husband, the late Mr. J. A. Brown, F.R.S.
Lady Fothergill-Cooke, £50, in consideration of the services of her husband, the late Sir W. Fothergill-Cooke, in connection with the introduction of the telegraphic system into this country.
TRADE AND COMMERCE.
evenly distributed or otherwise. This wealth is of the kind which is rather A good harvest is plainly an addition to the wealth of the country, whether an addition to revenue than to capital. Abundant crops at once improve the circumstances of the farmer who sows and reaps them; the landowner is also put in a better position, for rent depends upon the average yield of land, and a good year raises the average. The consumer should, of course, be benefited, for the cheapness and abundance of food leave them profits are thereby increased, and wages tend to rise in all industries. more to spend on the secondary necessities and luxuries of life. Trade and the United Kingdom reached 59,815,691 cwt., equal to 13,8 3,621 qrs., and In the twelve months ending Aug. 31, 1880, the import of wheat into 10,431,726 cwt., or 2,980,493 qrs., we find that we received from abroad no when we add to this the import of wheat flour, which amounted to the twelvemonth ending Aug. 31, 1878, the amount was 62,255,125 cwt., or fewer than 70,247,417 cwt., or 16,784,114 qrs. of wheat and wheat flour. 60,849,823 cwt., or 14,543,607 qrs. Our other imports of corn in the twelve14,808,966 qrs., and in the twelvemonth ending Aug. 31, 1879, it was month ending Aug. 31, 1880, comprised 31,870.896 cwt., or 7,436,542 qrs., of Indian corn or maize; 12,382,665 cwt., or 3,467,147 qrs. of bailey; the very large quantity of 15,622,912 cwt., or 5,681,059 qrs. of oats; 2,002,772 cwt., or 445,061 qrs. of peas; and 2,754,518 cwt., or 645,721 grs. of beans. classed under the title of "corn," amounted to 134,430,348 cwt., or The grand totals are as follows:-In 1877-8, the twelvemonth's import thus 33,858,689 qrs.; in 1878-9 it was 124,866,538 cwt., or 31,510,900 qrs.; and in 1879-80 it reached 134,881,180 cwt., or 24,456,644 qrs.
The American wheat crop of 1880 was estimated to yield 450,000,000 bushels, and the home consumption 250,000,000 bushels, thus leaving an available surplus for exportation of 200,000,000 bushels, which is much above the average of previous years. The value of the exports of American bread and breadstuffs during each of the last two years has exceeded in value the exports of any other commodity, and it is of interest to know that there was in 1879 an increase in the value of breadstuffs of 28,577,687 dollars over that of 1878, an increase of 15 72 per cent. The splendid harvests enabled the American farmers to send us in 1878 and 1879 150,000,000 bushels of wheat and flour. The actual exports of breadstuffs from the United States for the calendar year 1879 amounted to 177,908,553 £ s. d. bushels-that is, 147,265,648 bushels of wheat, against 134,319,966 bushels 64,467 15 2 for the year 1878. 78,958 6 0 97,653 13 5 124,809 17 2
£ £ s. d. 274 44,720 0 252 19,847 15 2 500 53,672 0 465 25,286 6 0 897 78,458 0 807 19,195 13 5 1458 100,635 10 1163 24,174 7 2 3129 277,385 10 2687 88,504 1 9 365,889 11 9
The following table shows the several crop products of the United States for the calendar year 1879:
CIVIL LIST PENSIONS.
The grant of a Civil List Pension of larger amount than usual may call attention to this class of pensions and their limitations. They are granted under the Civil List Act of 1 Vict., c. 2, whereby it is provided that there shall be paid quarterly out of the Consolidated Fund, such pensions, at the rate of £1200 a year for each year of her Majesty's reign as may be granted by her Majesty, chargeable on the Civil List revenues. But the statute enacts that such pensions shall be granted to such persons only as have just claims on the Royal beneficence, or who, by their personal services to the Crown, by the performance of duties to the public, or by their useful discoveries in science and attainments in literature and the arts, have
Full Moon on the 7th at 59 minutes after 1h. in the afternoon. Last Quarter morning. New Moon morning. First Quarter morning.
VENUS is a morning star, rising on the 8th at 3h. 8m. a.m., or 3h. 6m.;
before sunrise; on the 18th at 3h. 37m. a.m., or 2h 53m. before the Sun,
MARS rises at 9h. 3m. p.m. on the 7th, at 8h. 38m. p.m. on the 17th, and at 8h. 11m. p.m. on the 27th. He is due south on the 1st at 5h. 34m. a m. on the 15th at 5h. 4m. a.m., and on the last day of the month at 4h. 21m. a.m. He is near the Moon on the 13th.
JUPITER rises on the 7th at 6h. 47m. p.m., or 1h. 23m. after sunset; on She is nearest the Earth on the 4th, and again on the last day of the month, the 17th at 6h. 5m. p.m., or 1h. 3m. after sunset; and on the 27th at 5h. 23m.
and most distant from it on the 16th.
p.m, or 42 minutes after sunset. He is due south on the 1st at 2h. 55m. and on the last day at Oh. 46m. a.m. He
MERCURY is an evening star, setting at 6h. Om. p.m. on the 3rd, at 5h. 51m. a.m., on the 15th at 1h. 56m. a.m.,
p.m. on the 8th, at 5h. 40m. p.m. on the 13th, at 5h. 29m. p.m. on the 18th, at 5h, 18m. p.m. on the 23rd, and at 5h. 4m. p.m. on the 29th, being, respectively, 25 minutes, 29 minutes, 30 minutes, 29 minutes, 28 minutes, and 25 minutes after sunset on these evenings. He is at his greatest eastern elongation (21 deg. 33 min.) on the 16th, near the Moon on the 24th, and stationary among the stars on the 28th.
is near the Moon on the 10th.
SATURN rises on the 7th at 6h. 21m. p.m., or 57 minutes after sunset; on the 17th at 5h. 40m. p.m., or 38 minutes after sunset; and on the 27th at 4h. 59m. p.m., or 18 minutes after sunset. He is due south on the 1st at 1h. 59m. a.m., on the 15th at 1h. Om. a.m, on the last day at 11h. 48m. p.m. He is near the Moon on the 9th.
AREA AND POPULATION OF AFRICA.
The African Continent has a population of 205,679,000, and the total area, as the result of a new estimate, is given as 29,283,000 square kilomètres. Of these the forest and cultivated lands are taken to occupy 6,376,725 square kilomètres; savannas and light woods, 6,235,878; bush, 1,572,431; steppe, 4,269,027; desert, 10,659,133, of which the Sahara occupies upwards of 9,000,000 kilomètres, including many oases and cultivated patches. The area and population of Africa are divided among the chief countries and regions as follows:
Area. Square kilos,
Tripoli, &c. ...
Population, 7,829,000 2,867,626 2,100,000 1,010,000 2,850,000
The principal states and territories in this vast continent areAFGHANISTAN. Ares, 212,000 square miles; population, 5,000,000; prevailing religion, Mohammedan (Sunnite). Capital, Cabul; population, 60,000.
ARABIA. The entire peninsula embraces an area of 1,200,000; population, 8,000,000; religion, Mahommedan. Chief Town, Mecca; population, 40,000. BELOOCHISTAN.-Area, 200,000; religion, Mahommeban (Sunnite); revenue estimate, 30,000. Capital, Kelat; population, 12,000.
BORNEO.-Sultan, Abdul Mumein; area, 300,000; population, 250,000. The island is divided into a large number of petty sovereignties; among them, Sarawak, on the west coast, population 130,000, is governed by Rajah Brooke, nephew of Sir J. Brooke.
BURMAH-Area, 157,500 square miles; population, 3,000,000; religion, CHINA-Tsai Tien, Emperor; area, 4,000,000; population, 470,000,000; prevailing religion, Confucianism-Buddhism; revenue estimated about £60,000,000. Capital, Pekin, population, 1,700,000.
JAPAN.-Mustsu Hito, Mikado; area, 260,000; population, 34,338,500; prevailing religion, Buddhism; revenue, £9,750,000; army, 80,000. Capital, Jedo, 1,200,000.
JAVA (Dutch Colony).-Baron Van Lansberge, Governor-General; area, 51,336; population, 16,671,286, Mohammedan; revenue, £10,460,374. Capital, Batavia; population, 180,000.
PERSIA-Nassr-ed-Din, Shah; area, 560,000 square miles; population, 3,500,000; religion, Mahommedan (Sheah); revenue, £2,000,000; army, 105.000. Capital, Teheran; population, 130,000.
TUBKEY IN ASIA.-Area, 664,272 square miles; population, 16,463,000. Capital city, Smyrna, 160,000.
The Census will, no doubt, show a large increase in the population of England,
Australia, taken with recent annexations to Queensland of islands in Scotch
1875 43,867 9,044 20,749 10,880 84,540
34,612 6,227 20,582
Is the year 1881 there will be two Eclipses of the Sun and two of the Moon. The first is a Partial Eclipse of the Sun, on May 27-28, invisible at Greenwich. It begins at 9h. 45m. p.m. on May 27, in longitude 104 deg. E. of Greenwich, and latitude 39 deg. N. Its greatest phase, when about three-fourths of the Sun's diameter will be obscured, is at 11h. 49m. p.m., in longitude 131 deg. E. of Greenwich, and latitude 68 deg. N. The eclipse ends on May 28 at 1h. 52m. a.m., in longitude 944 deg. W. of Greenwich, and latitude 46 deg. N.
The Eclipse will be visible from the NE. of Asia and NW. parts of America. The second is a Total Eclipse of the Moon, on June 12, invisible at Greenwich. It begins at 5h, 11m. a.m., Greenwich mean time, in longitude 784 deg. W. of Greenwich, and latitude 23 deg. 8. The middle of the Eclipse will take place at 6h. 53m. a.m., and it will end at 8h. 36m. a.m., longitude 128 deg. W. of Greenwich, and latitude 23 deg. S.
The third is an Annular Eclipse of the Sun, on Nov. 21, invisible at Greenwich. It begins at 2h. 18m. p.m., mean time at Greenwich, in longitude 137 deg. W. of Greenwich, and latitude 26 deg. S., and ends at 6h. 49m. p.m., in longitude 14 deg. E. of Greenwich, and latitude 39 deg. 8. The fourth is a Partial Eclipse of the Moon, on Dec. 5, partly visible at Greenwich. It begins at 3h. 28m. p.m., Greenwich mean time, in longitude The middle of the 125 deg. E. of Greenwich, and latitude 22 deg. N. Eclipse will be at 5h. 8m. p.m., in longitude 100 deg. E. of Greenwich, and latitude 22 deg. N., and the end will be at 6h. 49m. p.m., in longitude 76 deg. E. of Greenwich, and latitude 224 deg. N. At Greenwich the Moon will rise at 3h. 50m. p.m.
Shopkeepers, Shopmen, Warehousemen,
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Gentlemen, Professional Men, Merchants,
Miners and Quarrymen
Painters, Paperhangers, Plumbers and