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PUBLIC ACTS OF PARLIAMENT PASSED DURING made to the Mercantile Fund and to expenses of prosecutions for offences committed at sea.
THE SESSION 1882,
IN THE 45TH YEAR OF HER MAJESTY'S REIGN.
** The figure before each Act denotes the Chapter.
1. An Act to supply the sum of three hundred and thirteen thousand two hundred and seventy pounds out of the Consolidated Fund to the service of the year ending March 31, 1882.
2. An Act to authorise the use of Reply Post-Cards, March 13, 1882. 3. An Act to amend the law relating to the use of gunpowder in slatemines or quarries.
4. An Act to apply certain sums out of the Consolidated Fund to the service of the year ending March 31, 1882, &c.
5. An Act to enable her Majesty to provide for the establishment of his Royal Highness the Duke of Albany and her Serene Highness Princess Helen Frederica Augusta of Waldeck, and settle an annuity on her.
6. An Act to amend the law in regard to Householders under the General Police and Improvements Acts in Scotland.
7. An Act to provide during twelve months for the Discipline and Regulation of the Army.
8. An Act to apply the sum of nine millions two hundred and eighty-two thousand four hundred and thirty-five pounds out of the Consolidated Fund to the service of the year ending March 31, 1883.
9 An Act to amend the Documentary Evidence Act, 1868, and other enactments relating to documents printed by the Government printers. 10. An Act for making provision for facilitating the manoeuvres of troops to be assembled during the present summer.
11. An Act to amend the Publie Health (Scotland) Act, 1867. 12. An Act to amend the laws relating to the application of money arising from the sale of militia store-houses.
13. An Act for the Improvement of Arklow Harbour.
14. An Act to confer further powers upon the Metropolitan Board of Works with respect to 8treets and Buildings in the Metropolis.
15. An Act to provide the better application of moneys paid by way of compensation for the compulsory acquisition of common lands and adjustment of rights of common.
16. An Act to amend the Irish Reproductive Loan Fund Act, 1874. 17. An Act for the transfer of the property in Ireland held for the service of her Majesty's Customs and of the Inland Revenue to the Commissioners of Public Works, Ireland.
18. An Act to regulate the procedure of School Boards in Scotland in the dismissal of teachers.
19. An Act to amend the law re'ating to the interment of any person found jelo de se
20. An Act to amend the Foor-Rate Assessment and Collection Act, 1869. 21. An Act to Amend the Places of Worship Sites Act, 1873.
22 An Act to make better provision for inquiries with regard to boiler explosions.
23. An Act to extend the Public Health Act, 1875, to the making of byelaws for fruit-pickers.
24. An Act to Amend the Petty Sessions (Ireland) Act, 1851. 25. An Act for the prevention of crime in Ireland.
26. An Act to amend the law relating to the election of lords temporal to serve in Parliament for Ireland.
27. An Act to extend cartain provisions of the Poor-Rate Assessment and Collection Act, 1869, to the highway rate, &c.
28. An Act to apply the sum of five millions seven hundred and three thousand eight hundred and ninety-one pounds out of the Consolidated Fund to the service of the year ending March 31, 1883.
29. An Act to amend the Acts relating to the County Courts in Ireland, and make better provision for appeals under the said Acts. 30. An Act to amend the Baths and Washhouses Acts.
31. An Act to render judgments obtained in certain inferior Courts in England, Scotland, and Ireland, respectively, effectual in any other part of the United Kingdom.
32. An Act for the acquisition of property and the provision of new buildings for the Admiralty and War Office. 33. An Act further to amend the Acts relating to the raising of money by the Metropolitan Board of Works, and for other purposes.
34. An Act to amend the Beerdealers' Retail License Act, 1880. 35. An Act to amend so much of the Friendly Societies Act, 1875, as relates to quinquennial returns of sickness and mortality.
36. An Act to amend the Pauper Inmates Discharge and Regulation Act,
37. An Act to amend the law respecting the obtainment of corn returns. 38. An Act for facilitating sales, leases, and other dispositions of settled land and for promoting the execution of improvements thereon.
39. An Act for further improving the practice of conveyancing, and for
40. An Act to amend the law of copyright relating to musical compositions. 41. An Act to grant certain duties of customs and inland revenue, to alter other duties, and to amend the law relating to customs and revenue.
42. An Act to amend the law relating to civil imprisonment in Scotland. 43. An Act to amend the Bills of Sale Act, 1878.
44. An Act to authorise the commutation of a portion of a pension in pursuance of the Pensions Commutation Act, 1871.
45. An Act to make provision for the transfer of the assets and liabilities of the Provident Branch of the Bombay Civil Service Fund and other funds to the Secretary of State for India in Council.
46. An Act to amend the Isle of Man (Officers) Act, 1876.
56. An Act to facilitate and regulate the supply of electricity for lighting and other purposes in Great Britain and Ireland.
59. An Act to amend the law relating to costs and salaries in county
58. An Act to amend the Divided Parishes and Poor Law Amendment Act, 1876, &c.
59. An Act to reorganise the educational endowments of Scotland. 60. An Act to amend and extend the provisions of the Land Law (Ireland) Act, 1881, relating to labourers' cottages and allotments.
61. An Act to codify the law relating to bills of exchange, cheques, and promissory notes.
Loan Commissioners and the Commissioners of Public Works in Ireland 62. An Act to grant money for the purpose of loans by the Public Works and the Irish Land Commission, and for other purposes relating to loans by the Commissioners.
63. An Act to amend the Acts regulating the pay of certain officers of the Royal Irish Constabulary Force, and for other purposes connected therewith. 64. An Act to continue various expiring laws. 65. An Act to make provision respecting certain prison charities. 66. An Act to amend the law relating to licenses to retail intoxicating liquors on passenger vessels in Scotland."
67. An Act to further amend the law relating to turnpike roads in South Wales.
the holding of an election of a member or members to serve in Parliament 68. An Act to suspend for a limited period, on account of corrupt practices, for certain cities and boroughs.
69. An Act to amend the Intermediate Education (Ireland) Act, 1878. 70. An Act to amend the Supreme Court of Judicature Act (Ireland),
71. An Act to apply a sum out of the Consolidated Fund to the service of the year ending March 31, 1883, and to appropriate the supplies granted in this Session of Parliament.
72. An Act for amending the Laws relating to Customs and Inland Revenue, and postage and other stamps, and for making further provision respecting the National Debt and charges payable out of the public revenue or by the Commissioners for the reduction of the National Debt, and other
Revenue and Postage and other stamps, &c. 72. An Act for amending the Laws relating to Customs and Inland
73. An Act for the better protection of Ancient Monuments.
of Parcels. 74 An Act to amend the Post Office Ac.s with respect to the Conveyance
married women. 75. An Act to consolidate and amend the Acts relating to the property of
respect to Colonial Courts of Inquiry. 76. An Act to amend the Merchant Shipping Acts 1852 to 1880, with
77. An Act to amend the law of Citation in Scotland. 78. An Act to establish a Fishing Board of Scotland.
the Commissioners of her Majesty's Treasury and the Secretary of State in 79. An Act to make provision for the Arrangement of Accounts between Council in India in respect of certain home charges for her Majesty's forces serving in India.
80. An Act for the extension of Allotments.
81. An Act for disannexing the Rectory of Somersham from the office of making better provision for the cure of souls within the said Rectory. Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge, and for 82. An Act for amending the Lunacy Regulation Acts.
THE WORK OF THE SESSION, 1882.
No less than 208 Public Bills were introduced into the House of Commons, and in addition 40 Provisional Order Bills. Of the former $2 became law, 53 were withdrawn, and 70 became "dropped orders;" only three were rejected-"The Beer Adulteration Bill," "The Poor Law Removal (Ireland) Bill," and "The University Education (Ireland) Bill;" while one was "discharged." Amongst those passed and deserving of special mention were "The Education Endowment Act," Lord Granville's Act for giving the Trustees of the National Gallery power to lend pictures and other works of art to any provincial or public gallery, a boon which will be highly valued by those who regard art-museums as educational centres.
The Electric Lighting Act, the chief value of which lies in the fact that it lays down a new principle for the guidance of Parliament in granting monopolies, and will greatly affect proposals for buying up those that already exist.
The Felo-de-Se Act, gets rid of the barbarous and disgusting ceremonies
imposed by law for the burial of suicides.
The Married Woman's Property Act, removes all the remaining anomalies of the law of 1870, and extends the principle of that Act. It secures to married women in separate ownership all real and personal proparty to which they may become entitled after the passing of the Act. It further confers upon them the privilege of suing and being sued in their own names apart from their husbands.
The Settled Land Act, defines the settlement of entail, and henceforth every owner of an estate for life will be able to sell the property, provided that he invests the purchase-money in Government securities for the benefit of the reversioner.
The Musical Copyright Act, amends the law of copyright relating to musical compositions, and protects the public from vexatious proceedings for the recovery of penalties for the unauthorised performance
47. An Act to make provision respecting certain Arrears of Rent in of the same. On and after the passing of the Act, the proprietor of the Ireland.
48. An Act to consolidate the Acts relating to the Reserve Forces. 49. An Act for consolidating the Acts relating to the Militia. 50. An Act for consolidating, with amendments, enactments relating to Municipal Corporations in England and Wales. 51. An Act to extend the Acts relating to the purchase of small Government Annuities and to secure payment of money on death. 52. An Act to continue certain Turnpike Acts and to repeal other Turnpike Acts, &c.
53. An Act to amend the law of entail in Scotland.
54. An Act to amend the Artisans' Dwellings Acts.
copyright in any musical composition first published after the passing of the statute, or his assignee, who shall be entitled to be and desirous of retaining in his own hand exclusively the right of public representation or performance of the same, shall print or cause to be printed upon the titlepage of every published copy of such musical composition a notice to the effect that the right of public representation or performance is reserved. By another provision, when the right of performance and when the copy. right are vested in different owners, a penalty of £20 to be recovered from the owner of the copyright for non-compliance with notice from the owner of the right of performance. By a special provision as to costs, where not more than 408. are recovered, the award of the same to vest in the
55. An Act to amend the law with respect to the charges on payments discretion of the Court.
INDIAN REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
The estimated expenditure of the financial year 1882-3 was £68,174,000. The chief items of comparison and difference between the estimate of the previous year, 1881-2, and this arose, in the first place, from a considerable reduction of expenditure, £287,000, and an increase in revenue by £2,000,000; that is, in productive works, miscellaneous credits, savings in stores, and a reduction in the cost of the army, &c. It may not be out of place to notice that the cost of the Afghan War up to the present time has been £21,000,000. Of this large sum India has paid no less than £16,000,000. The Egyptian War also creates a charge upon India, which reduces the surplus. But the estimated decrease in expenditure for the year will amount, on the whole, to £3,475,000, after allowing for an additional
and other minor matters, and thus enabling the Government to reduce the Salt Tax 30 per cent in Bengal and 20 per cent in other provinces.
As to the progress of public works in India, during 1881 there were 726 miles of new railway completed, the total length of line sanctioned being now nearly 12,000 miles. Several of the new lines were promoted by private companies, but most of them had received assistance from the Government in one form or another. It is believed the time has come when companies would undertake to raise the necessary capital without the assistance of Government. Several native princes had undertaken to make the attempt, and had expressed a general desire to bring their estates into communication with India at large. The total capital expended on railways was £134,200,000. The net revenue in 1881 was £6,930,000. The gross receipts were £13,000,000, the working expenses £6,773,000; and, taking all the railways together, they had paid last year £5 3s. per cent on the capital, and without taking into consideration the loss of capital in previous years. In 1860 only 3,500,000 persons travelled by railway in India; in 1881 there were 52,000,000 passengers. The sum received for the conveyance of passengers and goods in 1860 was £586,000; in 1881 the sum was £13,725,000. Comparing the taxation of 1857 with that of 1882, and taking the figures of the principal items, we have
All the principal articles in the import trade exhibit an increase both in the quantities imported and in money value.
Aden produces nothing itself, but it is a convenient dépôt for goods from the neighbouring African and Arabian shores. Imports consist chiefly of gums, ivory, precious stones and pearls, provisions, spices, and wax, and some European goods, such as cotton goods and metals, perhaps unsaleable things originally sent from India and returned. Imports both of ivory and spices are declining, probably because it is more convenient now to send them direct to Europe than to ship them to Bombay. Imports for the last five years :
There is a considerable re-export of foreign merchandise to Aden, consisting to the extent of one half of Manchester goods, the value of these amounting during the year to Rs. 4.08,279 out of a total of Rs. 8,16,906. The other articles which comprise the remaining half are many, but none of any importance separately.
It is hardly possible to say how much of the recorded trade with Egypt is really trade with that country, and how much of it only transit trade via Alexandria and Suez. The following are the figures of the whole trade for the last five years:Exports (Indian Goods).
TRADE OF BRITISH INDIA.
Large as was the trade, however, by comparison with previous years, it is still very small in comparison with the population. This amounted, by the census of 1881, to 254,541,210, and the totals of the trade therefore give a result per capita of the population of less than 5 rupees. Including the totals of the external land trade (that which crossed the frontiers of British India), the proportion per capita of the population is only just about 5 rupees. In comparison with any European country, and indeed even in comparison with Ceylon, this is a singularly small proportion. But no fair comparison can be made with any European country, and when the condition of the mass of the people in this country is considered, their abject poverty, their almost complete ignorance of the wants and requirements of people in other conditions of civilisation, it must be admitted that the volume of trade, small as it is by comparison with other countries, is satisfactorily and even surprisingly large. In the past five years the proportion of free and dutiable merchandise has been as follows-stated in rupees :Drable. Rs. 31,90,22,683 84,91,74,876
The trade with the United Kingdom, constituting as it does 56:47 per cent of the trade of India with the world, is fairly representative of the general condition of Indian trade in the year. From England is received almost all those great articles which constitute the bulk of its imports-coal, cotton goods, liquors, metals, salt, and woollen goods; and to England is sent full cargoes of cotton, wool, jute, indigo, tea, coffee, oilseeds, hides, wheat, and rice, which comprise the bulkiest and some of the most important articles of the export trade of India.
The imports of merchandise from the United Kingdom during the year
There is nothing especially prominent amongst the imports, except raw silk and apparel, and even these are of no particular consequence. There is a small import of salt from Egyptian territory in the Red Sea, but the trade certainly seems to be on the decline.
THE EXPORT TRADE WITH AUSTRALIA. The trade with Australia deserves particular attention, not only because the total value of exports increased from £16,930,935 to £21,377,931, or 26 3 per cent, but also because this is by far the highest total value ever recorded. In four previous years-1874-5-7 and 1878, the value ranged between nineteen and twenty millions sterling; but, on the whole, prices were higher then than during 1881, consequently the increase in the bulk of our shipments to Australia must have been even greater than would appear from a comparison of values only. South Australia is the only colony which has not shared in the general prosperity, and taking the percentage of increase of the others rather than the gross value, the order of precedence would be Queensland, New South Wales, New Zealand, Victoria, Tasmania, and West Australia.
Cottons.-Cotton varn was exported in 1881 to the extent of 254,939,900 lb., valued at £13,165,053, against 215,544,800 lb., valued at £11,901,623 in 1880, 18 3 per cent more in quantity, but only 10'6 per cent more in value. There is a falling off shown in the shipments to Russia and British India, but large increases in those to Germany, Belgium, Italy, Roumania, and Turkey. The shipments during 1881 were, however, far in excess of those of 1880, and although it cannot be said that the value increased in a proportionate ratio, yet it amounted to more than that of any previous year. The total quantity being 4,777,273,300 yards, valued at £59,103,921, against 4,495,645,000 yards, valued at £57,678,084, an increase of 6 2 per cent in quantity, and 2.5 per cent in value.
Miscellaneous cotton manufactures in 1881 largely increased in value, and amounted to £6,820,557, against £5,984,349 in 1880, or 139 per cent. Of this sum £2,880,610 is accounted for by lace and patent net, of which £1,181,443, or nearly 50 per cent, was sent to the United States; and £2,312,314 by thread for sewing, which was principally shipped to Russia, Germany, Holland, United States, the various South American States, British India, and British North America. Including yarn, the total value of cotton manufactures exported amounted to £79,089,531, against £75,564,056 in 1880, an increase of 47 per cent.
Woollens.-Woollen and worsted yarn in 1881 increased in quantity from 26,464,300 lb. to 29,731,400 lb., or 12'3 per cent, but the price declined so much during the year that the value decreased from £3,341,740 to £3,225,696, or 3.6 per cent. Woollen cloths were exported to the extent of 55,679,400 yards, valued at £7,552,654, against 50,000, 200 yards, valued at £6,736,721, the increase in quantity being chiefly to Belgium, Chili, Peru, British North America, and India. Flannels increased from 6,697,800 yards to 9,027,900 yards, and the total value of woollen and worsted goods (exclusive of yarn) amounts to £18,128,756, against £17,265,177, an increase of 5 per cent.
Coals.-Coals, cinders, and patent fuel were exported to the extent of 19,587,063 tons, valued at £8,785.950, against 18,719,971 tons, valued at £8,372,933, an increase of 46 per cent in quantity and 4.9 per cent in value No large increase or decrease is shown in the case of any particular country, and with regard to coals, &c.. taken by steamers for their use on their voyages to foreign countries, the quantity has increased from 4,926,076 tons to 5.227,588 tons, or 6'1 per cent.
Machinery and Mill Work -This important article of export increased in value from £9,263,516 to £9,960,210, in spite of the fact that shipments of steam-engines to Russia fell from £286,623 to £193,824, and of other descriptions of machinery from £1,670,049 to £907,664. Much larger quantities of the former description were sent to Germany, Spain, Egypt, the United States, Brazil, British India, and Australia, and of the latter to Belgium, France, Brazil, British. India, and Australia.
THE MOON is near Venus on the 4th, Mars on the 5th, and Mercury
Last Quarter" She is nearest to the Earth on the morning of the 7th, and furthest from it on the afternoon of the 20th.
6th, in superior conjunction with the Sun on the 16th, in his ascending node on the 20th, and in perihelion on the 24th.
VENUS is a morning star, rising on the 2nd at 4h 25m a.m.; on the 12th at 4h 10m a.m.; on the 22nd at 3h 54m a.m., or 59 minutes before the Sun. She is near the Moon on the 4th.
MARS rises on the 1st at 5h 0m a.m.; on the 11th at 4h 35m a.m.; and on the 21st at 4h 8m a.m., or 47 minutes before the Sun. He is due south on the 15th at 10h 13m a.m. He is near the Moon on the 5th, and in perihelion on the 13th.
JUPITER is an evening star, setting on the 2nd at 1h 12m a.m.; on the 12th at Oh 39m a.m.; on the 22nd at Oh 7m a.m.; on the 24th setting twice in the same day-viz., at Oh 1m a.m. and at 11h 58m p.m.; from this time he sets before midnight. He is due south on the 15th at 4h 11m p.m., and is near the Moon on the 12th.
MERCURY rises on the 5th at 5h 22m a.m., or 7 minutes before the Sun; on the 12th the planet and Sun rise nearly together, and from this day to June 14 this planet rises in daylight. On April 16 the planet and Sun set nearly together; on the 20th he sets at 7h 29m p.m., or 27 minutes after the Sun; on the 25th at 8h 13m p.m., or 1h 2m after sunset: and on the last day 8h 45m p.m. He is due south on the 15th at 1h 59m p.m., and is
SATURN sets on the 1st at 10h 21m p.m., on the 11th at 9h 48m p.m., on the 21st at 9h 16m p.m., and on the last day at
at 8h 55m. or 1h 36m after sunset. He is near the Moon on the near the Moon on the 9th.
As the population given two years ago was 1,455,923,500, it seems at first sight as it during that short time there had been a decrease of upwards of 22 millions. But this is explained by the difference of 55 millions between the population of China now given and that given in the previous issue, and therefore there is an actual increase of 33 millions. Indeed, the latest increase in all those countries that have taken censuses within the last two years actually amounts to 32 millions; and, as most of these censuses are decennial, this increase may be regarded as that of ten years. Even this can scarcely be accepted as strictly correct, since in America and the British Colonies the element of emigration should have been taken into account, and in India the additions made to British territory.
The following are the areas and populations of the various countries of Europe. The dates refer to when the Census was taken :
The results of the Census of 1881 for British India, according to the "Bevölkerung" do not quite accord with those given in Mr. Plowden's Report and Dr. Hunter's Gazetteer.
The total area ruled by the Queen in India, including Tributary States and Further India, is 1,457,244 square miles (3,774,193 square kilomètres), and the population 252.541,210. For the Himalaya States (Nepal, Bhotan, &c.) an area of 234,000 square kilon êtres is given, and a population of 3,300,000; French possessions, 508 square kilomètres; population (1879), 276,649; Portuguese possessions, 3355 square kilomètres; population (1877), 444,987. The area of Ceylon is given as 24.702 square miles (63,976 square kilomètres), and the population (1878), 2,606,930. Coming to Further India, the following figures are given for area and population of the various divisions:-British Burmah, 229,351 square kilomètres, 3,707,646 inhabitants; Manipur, 19,675 and 126,000; people east and south of Assam, 65,500 and 200,000; Burmah, 457,000 and 4,000,000; Siam, 726,850 and 5,750,000; Annam, 440,500 and 21,000,000; French Cochin-China, 59,456 and 1,597.013; Cambodia, 83,861 and 890,000; Independent Malacca, 81,500 and 300,000; Straits Settlements, 3742 and 390,000. In their next issue it is not likely that Messrs. Behm and Wagner will be able to place Annam in the position of an independent State. Under the East India Islands we find the following classification:Andamans, 6497 square kilomètres and 14,500 inhabitants; Nicobars, 1772 square kilomètres and 5500 inhabitants: Sunda Islands and Moluccas, 1 693.757 square kilomètres and 28,867,000 inhabitants; Philippines, 296,182 square kilomètres and 6,300,000 inhabitants. For the Dutch possessions (including New Guinea and the Papuan Islands), 1,462,400 square kilomètres. 27,962,000 inhabitants. For the British territory of North Borneo an area of 57,000 square kilomètres, and a population of 150,000. For Australasia the Census figures of 1881 are, for population:-New South Wales, 751,468; Victoria, 62,346; Queensland, 213,525; South Australia, 279,865; West Australia, 31,000; total-Australia, 2,138,204. or, with 55,000 natives, 2,193,200; Tasmania, 115,705; New Zealand, 489,933. To New Guinea, an area of 785,362 square kilomètres is assigned (or, with the neighbouring islands. 807,956), and a population of 500.000. Under the heading of Oceanic Islands, it is noted that since the last issue the Society Islands (Tahiti, Moorea, &c.), the Tuamotu and Gambier Groups and other Pacific islands have been annexed by France, and that Rotumah has been taken over by Britain. For Fiji, the population of the
end of 1880 is given-121,884. For several other groups, new figures have been obtained, with the following general results:-Melanesia, 145,855 square kilomètres, 617,400 inhabitants; Polynesia, 9791 and 121,500; bandwich Islands, 17,008 and 57,985; Mikronesia, 3530 and 91,600.
Asia presents great difficulties with regard to Turkey, and Cyprus is still nominally a dependency of Turkey, and the Census of May, 1881, taken under the superintendence of Dr. Barry, gave the population as 185,916. About the exact area of the island there seems considerable doubt. The official statement gives 3723 square miles (9642 square kilomètres). The area of the Turkish possessions in Asia is 1,899,069 square kilomètres, and the population 13,375,000. Thus, the total area of Turkey in Europe and Asia is 2,225,445 square kilomètres, and population 24,987,000.
Russia in Asia. The latest area changes were in the boundary between Russia and China in Kuldja and the Black Irtysh, and between Russia and Persia in the Caspian region, &c. The general result for Russia in Asia is as follows:The Trans-Caucasus, 472,666 square kilomètres, 5,546,554 inhabitants; Trans-Caspian territory, 327,068 square kilomètres, 203,000 inhabitants; 3,017,760 square kilomètres, 5,036,000 inhabitants. Asiatic Russia has thus Siberia, 12,495,109 square kilomètres, 3,911,200 inhabitants; Central Asia, an area of 16,312,604 square kilomètres and a population of 14,696,750; adding to this the figures for Russia in Europe, we have the total area of the Russian Empire as 21,789,728 square kilomètres, and the population 98,323,000. In the Caucasus the population figures belong to various dates from 1873 to 1880, and in Siberia and Central Asia they are for 1878-9. mètres, and a population of 450,000; for Khiva, 57,800 square kilomètres. The independent Turkoman regions show an area of 206,500 square kiloShignan, Roshan, Karategin, &c.), 239,000 square kilomètres, and 2,130,000 and 700,000 inhabitants (the estimate of 1873); and Bokhara (including
For Arabia the estimate last given is 3,156,600 square kilomètres (including Sinai and the Syrian Desert), and 5,000,000 inhabitants; of this, an area of 2,507,390, with a population of 3,700,000, is independent of Turkey. The area of Persia is given as 1,647,070 square kilomètres. Afghanistan is still given with an area of 721,664 square kilomètres, and a population of 4,000,000 (including Wakhan, Badakshan, Kundus, Chalum, Balch, Maimeneh, and Herat). Kafiristan has an area 51,687 square kilomètres, with an estimated population of 500,000 inhabitants.
Coming to America, the extension of the area of Manitoba must be taken into account, and the recent division of the North-West Territory, now divided into four new territories-Assiniboia, 95,000 square miles; Saskatchewan, 114,000 square miles; Alberta, 100,000 square miles; Athabasca. 122,000 square miles. The following are the areas and the populations of 1881 of the leading divisions:-Ontario, 107,760 square miles and 1,923,228 inhabitants; Quebec, 193,355 and 1,359,027; New Brunswick, 27,322 and 321,233; Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, 21,731 and 440,572; Manitoba, 150,000 and 65,954; Prince Edward Island, 2173 and 108,891; British Columbia, 355,999 and 49,459; Territories, 2,346,983 and 56,446; total, 3,205,343 square miles and 4,324,810 inhabitants. Newfoundland has an area of 42,734 square miles, and the population given is that of 1874161,374; but in 1881 it was 181,753. The French possessions in North America (St. Pierre, Ile-aux-Chiens and Miguelon) have an area of 235 square kilomètres and a population (1879) of 5224. The statistics obtained at the last Census of the United States show a total area of 3,602,990 square miles and a total population 50,442,066. For the Central America States the figures are as follows:-Guatemala. 121,140 square kilomètres, 1,252,497 inhabitants (1881); Honduras, 120,480 and 350,000; British Honduras, 19,585 and 24,710; Salvador, 18,720 and 554,785 (1878); Nicaragua, 133,800 and 300,000 (1877); Costa Rica, 51,760 and 185,000 (1874); Panama State, 81,823 and 224,600 (1870); total, 547,308 square kilomètres and 2,891,600 inhabitants. The total area of the West Indies is 244.478 square kilomètres, and the population (mostly that of 1879-81) 4,617,450. The British possessions have an area of 34,500 square kilomètres, and a population of 1,206,522. Guiana is divided as follows:-French, 121,413 square kilomètres and 36,000 inhabitants (1879); Dutch, 119,321 and 63,525 (1879); British, 221,243 and 248,110 (1879). For other South American States we find the following figures:- Venezuela, 1,137,615 square kilomètres, 2,675,245 inhabitants (1881); Colombia, 830,670 and 3,000,000; Ecuador, 643,295 and 946,033, besides 200,000 wild Indians; Peru, 1,119,941 and (1876) 3,050,000; Bolivia (without considering probable results of recent war), 1,297,255 and 2,325,000; Chili (including results of recent division of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego between Chili and the Argentine Republic), 537,187 and 2,420,500; Argentine Republic, 2,835,969 and 2,540,000 (1880); Uruguay (1880), 186,920 and 428.245; Paraguay, 238,290 and 293,844; Brazil, 8,337,218 and 11,108,291.
In Africa we find several changes. From more recent data Morocco, it is stated, has 812,332 square kilomètres and 6,140,000 inhabitants. For 1880 the area of the Civil Territory stands at 73,835 square kilomètres, and its population 1,882,124. Tunis is placed under French protection, with an area of 116,348 square kilomètres, and a population of 2,100,000. Tripoli, Fezzan, and Barka have an area of 1,033,349 square kilométres, and a population of 1,010.000. The Sahara, outside the Mediterranean and Soudan States. is credited with an area of 6,180,426 square kilomètres, and a population of only 2 millions. With reference to Egypt, a Census was taken in the May of 1882; but, considering what has since happened, we must adhere to that of 1877, with the results of new estimates as to the area. For Egypt proper we have an area of 935,275 square kilomètres and a population of 5,583,774; adding to this the Libyan Oases and the Egyptian Soudan, the whole of the territory under the Khedive covers an area of 2,986,900 square kilomètres, with a population of 16,400,000. For the States of Central Soudan (Wadai, Bagherini, Bornu, Kanem, Sokoto, &c.) we find the total area 1,714,984 square kilomètres, with a population of 31.800,000. For the French possessions in Senegambia the population is given at 192,924 for 1879; but this does not include the extensive territory in the Upper Niger brought under French "protection" in 1881. For Sierra Leone the population of the Census of 1881 is given-60,546; Lagos (1881), 75,270; Gold Coast (1872),408,070. Liberia is given an area of 37,200 square kilomètres and a population of 1,050,000, of whom, however, only 18,000 can certainly be regarded as civilized. For Abyssinia the old figures of 333,280 square kilomètres and 3,000,000 inhabitants must be adhered to; Galla and Somali Lands have an area of 1,897,000 square kilomètres and a population of 15 millions. All the countries in the region of the Great Lakes lumped together as the Equatorial Regions, those north of the equator showing an area of 2,254,980 square kilomètres and a population of 27.000,000, and those south of the equator 1,717,900 square kilomètres and 20,000,000 inhabitants.