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VENUS is a morning star, rising on the 10th at 3h 31m a.m.; on the 20th at 4h 2m a.m.; and on the 30th at 4h 33m a.m., or 37 minutes before the Sun. She is near the Moon on the 2nd, and in perihelion on the 22nd.
MARS rises on the 5th twice on the same day at Oh 2m a.m., and a second time at midnight; on the 8th he rises at 11h 55m p.m.; on the 18th at 11h 41m p.m; and on the 28th at 11h 28m p.m, and he is visible after these times throughout the night. He is due south on the 15th at 8h 2m a.m., in his ascending node on the 15th, and near the Moon on the 27th.
JUPITER rises on the 9th at 2h 14m a.m., on the 19th at 1h 46m a.m., and on the 29th at 1h 17m a.m. He is due south on the 16th at 9h 59m a.m., and is near the Moon on the 1st and again on the 29th.
MERCURY is an evening star, setting on the 1st at 8h 5m, or 19 minutes after sunset: this interval gradually increases to 40 minutes on the 19th, on which day the planet sets at 7h 53m SATURN rises on the 8th at 11h 26m p.m., on the 18th at 10h 49m p.m., and the interval after sunset slowly decreases to 36 minutes on the 29th, the planet setting at 7h 29m p.m. The planet is not P m., and on the 28th at 10h 12m p.m. He is due south on the 15th well situated for observation throughout the month. He is near at 6h 56m a.m. He is near the bright star Aldebaran on the 13th, the Moon on the 3rd, and in his descending node on the 24th. and near the Moon on the 25th.
CITY OF LONDON PAROCHIAL CHARITIES. The area of the city of London is 702 acres; its population was, in 1851, 131,127; in 1861, 114,039; in 1871, 76,236; in 1881. 50,578, and thus appears to be decreasing steadily and rapidly. Within this area there are 109 civil and 61 ecclesiastical parishes. In every one of these parishes there exist charities more or less closely connected with the parish church, or the parish as a whole. The property of these charities, consisting mainly of houses and land in the city and elsewhere, but to some extent also of Consols and other similar investments, is vested in trustees, sometimes in the incumbent and churchwardens, sometimes in private persons. In many instances the same persons are trustees of a number of different charities in the same parish; in other instances there are several sets of trustees in the same parish for its different charities. The total gross income of these parochial charities was, in 1865, £67,000; in 1875-6, £105,000; and in 1879-80, £117,000 per annum, and therefore appears to be increasing steadily and rapidly, just as the population declines. It is now more than £2 68. for each inhabitant. There can be little doubt that under more energetic management it might soon be raised to £200,000.
A large part, nearly one half, of this income belongs to purposes which may be called ecclesiastical; of the other sf a good deal is expended in doles or pensions; some in the apprenticing of boys; some in education, and a very large sum, estimated at £10,000 a year, in the payment of poor rate, an application which is really not for the benefit of the poor. As the income arises from a great number of small charities, each of which is managed by its own trustees, the expenses of management naturally bear a large proportion to the whole income; probably not far from 10 per cent of the total gross income goes in paying salaries, legal expenses, costs of feasts and refreshments, and other similar charges incidental to the administration of charity property.
The objects to which the charity property was directed by the founders to be applied have, in many cases, failed altogether. In other cases they have become of doubtful utility; in others the funds have so increased as to be out of all proportion to the trifling purposes for which they continue to be employed. In a great many instances they are spent in a way which experience has shown to be positively harmful-the bestowal, usually at the church, of doles of bread, coals, or clothing, a form of distribution which encourages pauperism and mendicancy. The expenditure on the poor rate is, of course, unjustifiable, and has been condemned by the Charity Commissioners.
Some light is thrown on the effect which the charities have had upon the welfare of the poor by the poor law returns, which show that, while in the metropolis generally the proportion of persons receiving outdoor relief to the whole population is 1 in 37, in the City it is 1 in 16; and that, while the average expenditure on outdoor relief is in the metropolis, 18. 24d. per head, in the City it is 4s. 41d.
FINANCE OF THE CITY OF LONDON.
£1,429,687 19,365 1,096,818 1,090,704
In addition to loans above stated, loans for making the various
THE LONDON WATER COMPANIES. The accounts of the London Water Companies are published in an irregular and West Middlesex Companies making up their accounts for the half-years way. The Chelsea, Grand Junction, Lambeth, Southwark and Vauxhall, to Sept. 30 and March 31, the Kent and New River Companies to June 30 and Dec. 31, and the East London Company to June 24 and Dec. 25. pursuance of the Metropolis Water Act, 1871, and in the present aspect of the water question the information given in the Parliamentary Return is of special interest. Lhe following was the amount of the water rates receivable for
The following Table shows the income of the London Charities for the the two half-years by the eight companies:-Chelsea, £101,466; East London, year 1880-1:
6 Charities for Idiots
17 General Hospitals
4 Bible Societies
13 Book and Tract Societies
8 Consumption Hospitals
5 Ophthalmic Hospitals
3 Orthopedic Hospitals
4 Skin Hospitals
18 Hospitals for Women and Children
5 Lying-in Hospitals
22 Miscellaneous Special Hospitals
£217,857; Grand Junction, £148,879; Kent, £94,351; Lambeth, £164,523; New River, £427,367; Southwark and Vauxhall, £188,280; West Middlesex, £172,487. The total revenue receivable by the companies from water rates was thus, £1,515,194; but they also derived revenue from interest and "rents and extra receipts," the latter item varying between £115 in the case of the Lambeth Company and £8738 in that of the New River Company, which possesses a large amount of land and house property. The cash balances of 1,374,844 all the companies, including cash reserves brought forward, were consider29,583 able, being as follows:-Chelsea, £66,748; East London, £66,978; Grand Junction, £40,419; Kent, £55,117; Lambeth, £55,404; New River, £260,077; Southwark and Vauxhall, £46,271; and West Middlesex, £118,878; or a total of £709,895 The principal item of expenditure was, of course, on maintenance of works and for pumping, and under this head the aggregate outlay of the companies was £248,747, divided as follows:-Chelsea, £15,661; East London, £36,018 (including £2952 for the reconstruction of filter beds); Grand Junction, £23,970; Kent, £14,181; Lambeth, £36,324; New River, £55,146; Southwark and Vauxhall, £47,407 (including £8778 balance of an amount due by revenue to capital); and West Middlesex, £20,037. The sum paid for directors' "allowances" is an interesting item, the total amount paid by the eight companies for the year having been no less than £22,794, in the following proportions:-Chelsea, £1230; East London, £2148; Grand Junction, £1640; Kent, £2000; Lambeth, £1845; New River, £9419; Southwark and Vauxhall, £2050; and West Middlesex, £2461. With regard to the amount paid as interest and dividend on capital, the Chelsea Company paid on loan capital, £6828; the East London, £18,156; the Grand Junction, £9552; the Kent, £1735; the Lambeth, £8996; the New River, £43.644; and the Southwark and Vauxhall, £18,860; or a total of £107.775. The West Middlesex Company have no loan capital. Only two of the companies have preference share capital--the Chelsea and the Southwark and Vauxhall-and the amount paid by the former company as dividend on this capital was £18,075, and by the latter company, £24,460. The total amount paid by the companies as dividend on their ordinary share capital was £771,575, divided as follows:Chelsea, £40,014; East London, £108,051; Grand Junction, £76,848; Kent, £57,579; Lambeth, £79,190; New River, £219,692; Southwark and Vauxhall, £65,779; and West Middlesex, £124,419. The total 73,748 capital of the eight companies is £12.536,898, the proportion of share capital 450,379 being £9,087,917 ordinary, and £874,200 preference, while the loan capital is 45.058 represented by £52,500 of bonds, and £2,522,281 of debentures. The total 60,793 capital of the respective companies is as follows:-Chelsea. £1,152,700; East London, £2,020,000; Grand Junction, £1,295,500; Kent, £699,878; Lambeth, 4,121,546 £1,413,805; New River, £3,119,644; Southwark and Vauxhall, £1,790,000; and West Middlesex, £1,045,371. The total expenditure for works was £12,612,589, divided as follows:-Chelsea (to March 31, 1881), £1,149,157; East London (Dec. 31, 1880), £2,064,546; Grand Junction (March 31, 1881), shares issued between 1809-58); Lambeth (March 31, 1881), £1,435,765; £1,312,109; Kent (Dec. 31, 1880), £704,738 (including £75,684 discount on New River (Dec 31, 1880), £3,132,501; Southwark and Vauxhall (March 31, 1881), £1,783,418; and West Middlesex (March 31, 1881), £1,030,353.
NOTABLE OCCURRENCES AND EVENTS, 1881-82.
1. Destructive fire in Cheapside. North Lincolnshire Election; Lowther (C.), 4200; Tomline (L.),
2. North Durham Election: Sir George Elliot (C.), 5564; Mr. Laing (L.), 4896.
4. Return of French elections: 450 Republicans, three Royalists, and five Bonapartists elected.
6. Unopposed return of Mr. Bulwer, Q C. (C.), for Cambridgeshire. 7. Opening of the Ecumenical Methodist Conference in London.
Appointment of Mr. Chitty, Q C., M.P., Judge in the Chancery Division; Master of Rolls appointed a member of the Court of Appeal.
8. The Prince and Princess of Wales opened the New North Docks at Liverpool.
Tyrone Election: Mr. Dickson (L.), 3168; Colonel Knox (C.), 3084. 9. Dismissal of Riaz Pasha, the Egyptian Minister.
13. Mr. Parnell, M.P., arrested in Dublin for inciting to non-payment of rent.
Presentation of an address to Mr. Gladstone by the Corporation of the City of London.
Fighting in Afghanistan; flight of Ayoob Khan into Persia. 14. Severe gale swept over the United Kingdom; loss of life and telegraphic communication practically suspended.
Mr. Sexton, M.P., and Mr. Quin, Secretary to the Land League, arrested.
15. New Comedy Theatre opened. 16. The arrest of Mr. Dillon, M.P.. and other Land Leaguers, followed by rioting in Dublin and Limerick. 17. Prince and Princess of Wales visited Swansea.
18. Irish Land League issue manifesto calling upon the people to pay no rent.
arrests of Land
19. Further Leaguers charged with treason felony. The steam-ship, Great Eastern, 10. Closing of the Polytechnic In-put up to auction, bought in at -titution.
11. Action between French and Arabs in Tunis.
Severe engagement between the French and Arabs at La Schira. 20. The New Land Court for Ireland opened at Dublin.
1. Great meeting at the Mansion House to protest against the barSmithfield Club Cattle Show barities committed upon Jews in opened. 6. Further murders and outrages 2. Meeting held, under the presireported from Ireland; predatory dency of the Duke of Cambridge, to bands visiting farmers' houses in organise a horse ambulance for the Kerry, and demanding money. metropolis.
7. Temporary addition of 1000 men from the first-class Army Reserve, &c., to the Irish Police Force.
Londonderry Election: Porter (L), 2701: Sir S. Wilson (C), 2054. 8. The Ring Theatre at Vienna burned; about 900 lives lost.
The Natal Council passed a resolution in favour of self-government for the colony.
12. Dukes of Edinburgh and Albany visited Manchester.
Mr. Powell, M.P. for Malmeswhich two other occupants were bury, ascending in a balloon from thrown out, lost in the Channel,
together with the balloon. Landslip in Switzerland; about
130 persons killed.
13. Great Yorkshire Handicap won by Petronel.
14. St. Leger won by Iroquois.
Northern Railway, near King's
Proclamation issued declaring the Irish Land League an unlawful association.
Centenary of the surrender of Yorktown celebrated in the United States-the British flag saluted.
21. Foundering in the Irish Channel of the steamer Clan Macduff, with loss of twenty-nine lives; many other wrecks, attended with great
loss of life.
Official intimation received of
13. James Brennan, a farmer, shot dead at Ballyfarnon for paying his rent; also Mr. Boyle.
15. O'Keefe, sub-editor, and Burton, a clerk in the office of the United Ireland newspaper, arrested in Dublin; copies of the paper seized. -New Leadenhall Market opened by the Lord Mayor.
18. Discovery in Dublin of a large quantity of dynamite, arms, and
19. Colliery explosion at Abram lives lost.
Preston Election: Raikes (C.), 6045; Simpson (L.), 1212.
Crisis in Egypt; resignation of Cherif Pasha; threatening attitude of the Nationalists.
3. Arabi Bey called upon to form a new Egyptian Ministry. 7. Parliament opened bv Commission.
In the House of Commons, on
Mr. Bradlaugh presenting himself to take the oath, Sir Stafford Northcote moved that he be not allowed to do 80, and Sir William Harcourt moved the previous question. Discussion followed, and Mr. Bradlaugh was allowed to state his case. Mr. Labouchere suggested a compromise, but, on a division, the previous question was negatived by 286 to 228, a majority of 58 against the Government. Mr. Bradlaugh was subsequently ordered to withdraw.
Mr. Gladstone gave notice of a series of resolutions relating to the procedure of the House, including the cloture.
ment at Berlin taken by Mr. Black- the occupation of Herat on 2nd Colliery, near Wigan; forty-seven Forster by means of a letter contain
of the crew of the Jeannette, Arctic 20. Two boats containing a portion Exploring vessel arrived at Cape Barbay, on the coast of Siberia.
country; several lives lost.
25. Collision off between Cunard steamer Catalonia and barque Helenslee; latter sunk,
nine lives lost.
Panic in the Church of the Holy
ing an explosive substance.
10. Westminster Election: Lord
Algernon Percy returned unopposed, in the place of Sir Charles Russell, resigned.
Arrival at Liverpool of a large number of Jewish refugees from Russia, on their way to America.
14. Announced that the English and French Governments had addressed an identical communication to the Courts of Berlin, Vienna, St. from the position taken up in the Petersburg, and Rome, withdrawing asking the Powers to assist in coming
French Commercial Treaty from pointed Judge, on the promotion of Cross, Warsaw, consequent on an Joint Note" to the Khedive, and Nov. 8 to Feb. 8 officially announced. Sir N, Lindley, Lord Justice of alarm of fire raised by a pickpocket: The Astronomer Royal an- Appeal. nounced the discovery by Mr. Barnard, Nashville, Tenn., of a new comet.
Mr. Sexton, M.P., released from Kilmainham Gaol on the ground of ill-health.
3. Mr. H. Law appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland, vice Lord O'Hagan resigned.
7. The Turkish Debt: Partial arrangement by Mr. Bourke on behalf of the bondholders.
8. Lefroy found guilty of the murder of Mr. Isaac Gold on the Brighton Railway on June 27, and sentenced to death.
Rev. T. J. Rowsell appointed Canon of Westminster. 11. Statue to Thomas Clarkson unveiled at Wisbeach. 14. Tiverton Election: Lord Ebrington (L.), 705; Mr. Loosemore (C.), 453. Discovery of arms and Fenian documents at Manningham, near Bradford.
16. Address to Mr. Bright on his seventieth birthday.
Extensive robbery of diamonds from Hatton-garden Post Office. 21. Result of Election at Stafford : T. Salt (C.), 1482; G. Howell (L.), 1185.
The New Savoy Theatre opened. 11. King Alfonso of Spain invested with the Order of the Garter at 22. Betrothal announced of Prince Madrid. Leopold, Duke of Albany, to PrinThe Cesarewitch won by Fox-cess Hélène of Waldeck. hall. 29. Sentences of imprisonment 12. The Prince of Wales opened a passed on ten persons convicted of new parade at Hythe, and laid the corrupt practices at Sandwich and first stone of a new pier at Folke- Macclesfield during the general
thirty persons killed. Rioting followed, and attacks on Jews; 600 persons arrested.
1. Celebration at Berlin of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the day on which the Emperor William joined the Prussian Army.
to an understanding for the maintenance of the status quo in Egypt.
16. Taunton Election: Mr. S. C. Allsopp (C.), 1444; Lord Kilcoursie (L.), 917.
Explosion at Trimdon Grange Colliery, near Hartlepool, seventy
4. Mr. J. J. Jenkins (L.) returned 17. House of Lords: The Earl of for Carmarthen Boroughs unopposed. Donoughmore moved for a Select 8. Collective Note from the Govern- Committee to inquire into the workments of England and France com- ing of the Irish Land Act; the municated to the Khedive by the motion agreed to by 96 to 53. representatives of the two Governments declaring their decision to maintain his authority under all circumstances.
10. Sir J. Holker, M.P., appointed Lord Justice of Appeal, in succession to Lord Justice Lush, deceased.
16. Expressions of indignation in England with regard to the persecution of the Jews in Russia.
24. The Russian Ambassador in London refused to transmit to St. Petersburg a memorial from the London Committee of Jews on behalf
of their brethren in Russia.
25. North Yorkshire Election: Declaration of the poll-Dawnay (C.), 8315; Rowlandson (L.), 7749.
Waterloo Cup won by Captain Ellis's Snowflight."
20. Mr. Gladstone gave notice of a resolution to the effect
that any Parliamentary inquiry into the working of the Irish Land Act would be injurious to the interests of good government in Ireland.
21. Mr. Labouchere moved for a new writ for Northampton, in the room of Mr. Bradlaugh, who had been prevented from taking the oath opposed by the Attorney-General, as also an amendment by Lord Randolph Churchill declaring Mr. Bradlaugh "disqualified." Motion for a new writ negatived by 307 to 18. Mr. Bradlaugh then advanced from below the gallery to the table, and, producing a book from his pocket, proceeded to take the oath himself; he then took his seat and afterwards Dense fog prevailed in London withdrew; debate on his conduct and many parts of the country; adjourned. many serious accidents occurred. Arrival in England of Princess Collision on the Great Northern Helena of Waldeck, betrothed to the Railway at Hornsey; two people Duke of Albany. killed and several wounded. (Continued on page 36.)
Trial of Guiteau for the murder of President Garfield concluded after lasting seventy-two days. Verdict of wilful murder returned.
THE MOON is near Venus on the 1st, the day of New Moon. She a.m., or 22 minutes before the Sun; on the 19th at 5h 36m a.m.; is near Mercury on the 3rd; she is very near Saturn from the time of rising, 9h 37m p.m., on the 21st, throughout the night; the nearest approach will be at 2h a.m. on the morning of the 22nd. She is very near Mars on the morning of the 25th, and near Jupiter on the morning of the 26th. Her phases or times of change
9h before 1h
New Moon on the 1st at 14 minutes after 2h in the afternoon. First Quarter 9th,, 38 afternoon. Full Moon 16th 41 afternoon. Last Quarter 23rd,, 9 afternoon. She is furthest from the Earth on the morning of the 6th, and nearest to it on the morning of the 18th.
MERCURY is an evening star, setting on the 3rd at 7h 15m p.m., or 33 minutes after sunset; this interval slowly decreases to 27 minutes on the 13th, to 21 minutes on the 18th, to 13 minutes on the 23rd, and on the 29th the planet and Sun set nearly together; and from this time to Dec. 1 Mercury sets before the Sun. He is in aphelion and near the Moon on the 3rd, at his greatest eastern elongation (26 deg. 42 min.) on the 11th, and stationary among the stars on the 24th.
on the 20th at 5h 41m a.m., or 2 minutes before the Sun; and from this day he rises after sunrise, or in daylight. She sets on the 29th at 5h 54m p.m., or 11 minutes after the Sun. She is near the Moon on the 1st, in superior conjunction with the Sun on the 20th, and stationary among the stars on the 22nd.
MARS rises on the 7th at 11h 17m p.m., on the 27th at 10h 56m p.m., and on the last day at 10h 53m p.m., and is visible after these times throughout the night. He is due south on the 15th at 7h 24m a.m. He is near the Moon on the 25th.
JUPITER riscs on the 8th at 0h 48m a.m., on the 18th at 0h 18m a.m., on the 23rd he rises at midnight, and on the last day at 11h 38m p.m. He is due south on the 15th at Sh 25m a.m. He is
near the Moon on the 26th.
SATURN rises on the 7th at 9h 34m p m., on the 17th at 8h 55m p.m., and on the 27th at 8h 16m p.m., being on this day 2h 29m after sunset. He is due south on the 15th at 5h a.m., is in quadrature with the Sun on the 2nd, and near the Moon or the 22nd.