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devoted to the priests, and a contemplative enthusiast.” The edifices which he erected in Egypt are in the best architectural style, but the sculptures on them are of a mystic and religious tendency; and it was by his order that before one of the temples at Thebes was made that splendid avenue

Bunsen's list from the Tablet of Abydos and other Manetho's lists (See Jose-


phus, Con. Ap. I. & 15).

Years. Mos. 1. Amosis (Aahmes, Ra-nab-peh)....

25 1. Tethmosis.....

25 4 2. Amenophis I. (Amenhapt. Ra-ser-ka.... 13 2. Chebron

13 3. Tuthmosis I. (Tetmes. Ra-aa-khe-per-ka), 3. Amenophis...

20 7 cousin and brother-in-law of No. 2..

21 4. Amesses (female)...

21 9 4. Tuthmosis II. (Tetmes. Ra-aa-en-kheper)... 22 5. Mephres.....

12 9 5. Tuthmosis III. (Tetmes. Ra-men-kheper),

6. Meperamuthosis 25 10 brother of No. 4....

26 7. Tethmosis ..

8 6. Amenophis II. (Amenkept. Ra-aa-kheper

8. Amenvphis...

30 10 ru), son of No. 5...

9 9. Orus.....

36 5 7. Tuthmosis IV. (Tetmes. Ra-aa-men-khe- 10. Acenchres (female) 12 1 peru), son of No. 6....

31 11. Rathosis...

9 8. Amenophis III. (Amenkept. Ra-neb-ma-t), 12. Acencheres (1) 12 5 son of No. 7..

37 13. Acencheres (II).. 12 3 9. Horus, (son of No. 8. Har. Ra-usr-kheper-u). 32 14. Armais.......

1 10. Ramesses I. (Ramessu. Ra-men-peh).

15. Ramesses

1 11. Sethos I. (Seti. Ra-men-Ma.t), son of No. 10 12 16. Armesses Miamoun 66 2 12. Ramesses II. (Ramessu. Ra-usr-Ma.t), son 17. Amenophis..... 19 6 of No. 11...

66 13. Menephthah (Mari-en-ptheh. Ba-en Ra).


The Amenophis of Manetho it will be observed is the same Menephthah in the other list. Bunsen supposes that the Exodus occurred in the 6th year of his reign: consequently, going back from that date we perceive that Joseph was made governor of Egypt about the fourth year of Tuthmosis III., and that he died in the 18th year of Amenophis III., or 19 years before the accession of Horus. The birth of Moses would be about the fourth year of Sethos I.: and his flight to Arabia in the thirtyfirst year of Ramesses II. as Pharaoh.

Chronologists differ respecting the time of the Exodus; Hale making it to be 1648 B. C., Usher 1491, Bunsen 1320, Poole 1652. The reader will probably be gratified if, instead of being asked to accept any of these dates simply on the authority of those names, he can have placed within his reach materials for coming to a determination for himself; which may be done from the Bible, with only one other reference, namely to Josephus, who seems to be competent authority in this case. Josephus says (Bel. vi. 10), that from David's getting possession of Jerusalem to the destruction of that city by the Romans, was 1179 years. Jerusalem was destroyed A. D. 70; therefore the former event was 1109 B. C. David died after reigning in the city 33 years (1 Kings ii. 11): and four years after his death Solomon commenced building the temple (Ib. vi. 1)); that is B. C. (1109–37) 1072. The Exodus was 480 years before this (Ib. vi.

of colossal ram-headed sphinxes raised on pedestals of most costly workmanship, of which figures Rossellini counted fifty on each side in a distance of fifty paces. It was doubtless of him that Manetho, writing about a succeeding king, Menephthah, says, “ This king was desirous to become a spectator of the gods, as had Orus, one of his predecessors in that kingdom, desired the same before him." Another peculiar reason for jealousy on the part of Horus respecting the foreign race of the Israelites might well arise from the fact that in his time there was a rival for the throne in the person of an elder brother, whose title on the monuments signifies "a worshipper of the sun's disk," and who introduced the worship of the visible disk of the sun into his new capital in Upper Egypt.

We are prepared to expect of such a monarch, so situated, a record that he knew not Joseph ; and to learn that “he said unto his people, Behold the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we. Come on, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply, and it come to pass that when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them out of the land." The Israelites had already become very numerous.

We have seen that Jacob must have brought down with him not only his own immediate descendants, but also his retainers, who had by the peculiar rite of his people become a part of his tribe; and “the children of Israel," we are informed, “ were fruitful and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with

1), consequently B. C. 1552. To this we add 430 years, the interval back to Abraham's visit to Egypt, making 1982; and then allowing 25 years to the birth of Isaac, and 25 additional for Isaac's age at the opening chapter in this book, and we have 1932 B. C., or 3800 years ago, as is there specified.

1 Josephus, Con. Ap. & 26.

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them.” Under the Pharaoh of Jacob's advent they had been advanced by their monarch's desire to places of trust; and subsequently they had received Joseph's fostering care; and already they were beginning to be a source of fear to the Egyptians. From the causes just mentioned, they had spread widely over the land; while toward the inhabitants they had no affinities in customs or religion, keeping themselves a distinct race, and, it might seem, ready, sooner or later, to enact over again the former Hyksos rule. They had, however, become too useful to be spared. They were already beginning to be reduced to the condition of bondmen ; and a man so magnificent as was Horus in his architectural plans would need such laborers in his constructions; if not for the outward embellishments, at least for the substantial parts of his edifices. The Israelites became bond-men and the bonds were rapidly tightened. They were made to labor; were watched ; task-masters were put over them; their state of bitter slavery under the narrow-minded despot and his jealous people soon became complete. The Egyptians quickly learnt to be masters: the Israelites quickly learnt that in a country where all power was in the despots, they must submit. It was a terrible change from their first state in Goshen ; but they were without organization for resistance, friendless and helpless as regarded all human


Horus, after a reign of thirty-two years, according to Bunsen's computation, was succeeded by Ramesses I., whose occupancy of the throne lasted but nine years; and who, on his death, left the kingdom to his son, Sethos I. If the same chronology be correct, we have in this last monarch a very remarkable personage as respects the Israelites; for although his reign continued only twelve years, not only was he a conqueror of adjacent nations, and the creator of many of the most magnificent palaces and halls to be seen in Egypt, but his were also the most determined and cruel

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SETHOS I. (Seti. Ra-men-Ma. t.) Thought to be the Pharaoh in whose time Moses

was born.
(Copied by careful tracing from Lepsius' book.)

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of all the efforts to check the growth of the Hebrew race. He seems to have been a man of intense energies; and in whatever line they were occupied, to have carried his purposes to extremes, regardless of everything but the accomplishment of his plans.

It was he who issued orders to the Egyptian women, whose employments gave them facilities for such acts, to destroy all the Hebrew male children at their birth. The Israelites had gone on increasing rapidly in number, notwithstanding the hardships which had been accumulating upon them ; for “the more they were afflicted the more they multiplied and grew.” The indigenous population of the country scarcely needed any stimulants to the exercise of oppression over a helpless people, who by forced service were contributing so largely to their advantage, and the

Egyptians," we are told, “made the children of Israel to serve with rigor. And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service wherein they made them serve was with rigor."

The monarch thought that if the Israelitish males could be gradually exterminated, then a new people might be raised up from Egyptian husbands, which would have the desirable characteristics of the stranger race, combined with Egyptian nationality. Therefore orders were given to those Egyptian women whose peculiar occupation afforded opportunities for such barbarity, to destroy every Israelite male child at its birth. But the hearts of these women showed the tenderness belonging to their sex, and the order was not obeyed, a false reason being invented by them for not complying with the royal decree. Then another mandate followed still more cruel ; for, while in the former case the child might have been reported to the mother as never having lived, in the latter, the infant, after having been taken to her arms must, if a male, be snatched thence and

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