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E'LEPHANT (Gr. Elephas), a genus of quadru- which would be too violent a motion for its con peds, of the order Pachydermata (q. v.), and of the formation and huge body, but a sort of shuffle, the section Proboscidea. Elephants are the largest speed of which is increased or diminished without existing land animals. The ordinary height at the other alteration. The E. is incapable of springing shoulder is about eight feet, but sometimes exceeds like the deer, horse, and other animals which have ten feet. The weight of a large E. is about five the bones of their shoulders and hocks set at an tons, the body being very bulky in proportion to angle. its height. To sustain this weight, it is furnished The head in elephants is large; the neck is short with limbs of colossal thickness and strength, which and thick, the long flexible proboscis compensating are also remarkably straight, each bone resting both for the shortness of the neck, and for the inflexivertically on that beneath it. From the appear-bility caused by the largely developed processes ance of inflexibility presented by the limbs, arose of its vertebræ, and enabling the animal readily the notion prevalent among the ancients, and to reach objects on the ground, or to a height of throughout the middle ages, that the limbs are several feet above its head, or on either side. A destitute of joints, and that consequently an E. great extent of bony surface in the head affords cannot lie down to rest like another quadruped, attachment for muscles destined to move and give and if it were to lie down, could not rise again, power to the proboscis or trunk. This extent of but always sleeps standing, or leaning against a bony surface is provided in a remarkable manner, tree. It is indeed true that the E. often sleeps which at the same time makes the head, heavy standing, and when fatigued, falls asleep leaning as it is, lighter in proportion to its bulk than is against a rock or tree, against which it may have usual in quadrupeds; a great space separating the been rubbing itself. The flexibility of the limbs is, internal and external tables of all the bones of the however, sufficient to permit elephants to run with skull, except the occipital bones, so that the space speed nearly equal to that of a horse, to indulge in occupied by the brain is but a small part of the playful gambols, and to ascend and descend steep whole head. The space between the tables of the mountains. Elephants are more sure-footed and bones is occupied by cells, some of which are four or serviceable than either horses or mules, in difficult five inches in length; others are small, irregular, mountain roads. On the very steepest declivities, an and honeycomb-like; "these all communicate with E. works his way down pretty rapidly, even with a each other, and through the frontal sinuses with the howdah and its occupants upon his back, his chest cavity of the nose, and also with the tympanum or and belly on the ground, and each fore-foot employed drum of each ear; consequently, as in some birds, in making a hole for itself, into which the hind foot these cells are filled with air. The huge and afterwards follows it, and to which the weight may extraordinary bones of the skull, besides affording be trusted, that another step may be ventured with attachment for muscles, afford mechanical support safety. In lying down, the E. does not bring his to the tusks. hind-legs under him, like the horse and other quad The nasal bones of the E. are scarcely more than rupeds, but extends them backwards (as man does rudimentary; but the tapering proboscis, to the when he assumes the kneeling position), an arrange- very extremity of which the nostrils are prolonged, ment which, 'by enabling him to draw the hind-feet is nearly eight feet in length. Besides the great gradually under him, assists him to rise almost muscles connected with it at its base, it is composed without a perceptible effort. The E.'s pace, when of a vast multitude of small muscles variously interexceeding a walk, is neither a trot nor a gallop, laced, but chiefly either longitudinal, and divided

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ELEPHANT.

into successive arcs, of which the convexity is out- many ways for their comfort or enjoyment, as in
wards, or transverse, and radiating from the internal throwing dust over their backs, or in fanning them.
to the external membrane. Cuvier states the selves and switching away flies with a leafy branch,
number of muscles having the power of distinct two practices to which they are greatly addicted.
action as not far short of 40,000. The trunk can be Their mutual caresses are also managed by means
coiled around a tree, and employed to tear it from of the trunk, and through it they make a loud
its roots; it is a formidable weapon of offence or shrill sound, indicative of rage, which is described

by Aristotle as resembling the hoarse sound of a
trumpet, and from which this organ received its
French name trompe, corrupted in English into
trunk. With the trunk also, they sometimes, when
angry, beat violently on the ground.

The sense of smell is very acute in the E., as is
also that of hearing. The ears are large and pendu-
lous, the eyes are small.

Elephants have no canine teeth, nor have they any incisors in the lower jaw. The upper jaw is furnished with two incisors, which assume the peculiar character of tusks, and attain an enormous size, a single tusk sometimes weighing 150 or even 300 lbs. The tusks are, however, often imperfectly developed, ten or twelve inches in length, and one or two in diameter. These stunted tusks are often used for such purposes as snapping off small branches and tearing climbing plants from trees. Those elephants which possess great tusks employ

them also for such other uses as looseping the Various positions of the Elephant's Trunk:

roots of trees which they cannot otherwise tear 1, female elephant suckling her young one ; 2, the young one; for such labours as moving great stones, and piling

from the ground; or in a state of domestication, 3, elephant reposing; 4, elephant swimming; 5, young elephant browsing.

or carrying timber. A powerful E. will raise and

carry on his tusks a log of half a ton weight or defence, and is far more employed in this way than more. The tusks of the E. surpass in size all other the tusks, even by those elephants which have tusks teeth of existing animals, and are the largest of all of great size ; its extremity can be wound around a teeth in proportion to the size of the body. They small handful of grass or a slender branch; it is consist chiefly of that variety of dentine called even capable of plucking the smallest leaf, or of Ivory (q. v.), and continue to grow-like the lifting a pin from the ground. To fit it for such incisors of the rodents, to which they are in some actions as those last mentioned, and for many such respects analogous—even when the animal has as might be performed by a hand, it is furnished at the extremity with what may be likened to a

B finger and thumb; on the upper side, an elongated process-strong, soft, and flexible, like the rest of the trunk, and endowed with the most delicate sense of touch-on the under side, a kind of tubercle against which this process may be pressed. All the food of the E. is gathered and conveyed to the mouth by the trunk: by means of the trunk, also, it drinks,

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attained a great age, if not to the very end of its

life. The young E. is at first furnished with 1, elephant drinking ; 2, elephant gathering long herbage ; deciduous incisors, which are shed between the 3, elephant spouting water over its back.

first and second year, and are succeeded by the

permanent tusks. — The molar teeth of the É. are sucking up into it a quantity of water sufficient to developed in succession ; and at least in the Indian fill it, and then discharging the contents into the E., never more than two are to be seen in the same mouth. Valves at the base of the trunk prevent the side of a jaw at one time. The first molars cut the water from going too far up the nostrils. The trunk gum in about two weeks after birth, and are shed is constantly employed by elephants in providing in | about the end of its second year. The sixti molars,

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to appear about the fiftieth year of the E.'s life. species is also found in the molar teeth; those of is found in some of the small rodents. They are their structure, to which the nearest resemblance composed of vertical plates of bony substance, separately enveloped with enamel and cemented together by a third substance, called crusta petrosa, cortical, or cement, more resembling bone than

ELEPHANT.

A marked distinction of the two

which are also believed to the the last, are supposed on the legs. their great size, and for the bextreme complexity of ridges; whilst those of the African species have the

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enamel. Each succeeding tooth is not only more complex, but occupies a greater space in the jaw than its predecessor. Although formed from a single pulp, the molar tooth of an E. resembles an aggregation of teeth ; and in the earlier stages of its growth, when the cement is not yet deposited, it seems as if many separate teeth were soldered together. As the surface of the tooth is worn down by mastication, the harder enamel is exposed in elevated ridges. The whole of a tooth is not in employment at once. From the peculiar manner of its growth, the anterior part begins to be employed, and to be worn away, whilst the latter part is still in process of formation.

The digestive apparatus of the E. is similar to 1, head of African elephant: 2, head of Asiatic elepbant. that of the other pachydermata ; but the stomach, whieh is of a very lengthened and narrow form, divisions of the crown of the tooth fewer, broader, exhibits a peculiarity which assimilates it to that of and lozenge-shaped. the camel; the internal membrane, at the extremity Elephants live in herds, not generally numerous, beyond the cardiac orifice, forming thick wrinkles but several herds often congregate together in the and folds, the broadest of which, and nearest to the same forest or at th same place of drinking. Each gallet, seems to act as a valve, making that end of herd has a leader, generally the largest and inost the stomach a reservoir for water, capable of con- powerful animal. The leader seems to exercise taining about ten gallons ; whilst a peculiar muscle, much control over the movements of the herd, gives connecting the windpipe and gullet, enables the the alarm in case of danger, and seems to examine animal to open this reservoir at pleasure, for the and decide for the whole herd as to the safety of regurgitation of the fluid, which is then sometimes proceeding in any particular direction. On account received into the trunk, and squirted over the body, of his tusks, the leader is very often the animal to free it from the nuisance of flies, or the heat of against which the efforts of the hunter are directed; a tropical sun.

but the rest of the herd do their utmost to protect The female E. has only two teats, situated between him, and when driven to extremity, they place him the fore-legs. The young suck with the mouth, in the centre, and crowd so eagerly to the front of and not with the trunk. They are suckled for about him that some of them must often be shot ere he two years. The period of gestation is also nearly can be reached. A family resemblance is usually two years, and a single young one is produced at a very visible among the elephants of the same herd; birth.

some herds are distinguished by greater stature, and The skin of the E. is very thick, of a dark-brown others by more bulky form and stronger limbs ; colour, and in the existing species, has scarcely any some by particularly large tusks, some by_slight covering of hair. The tail does not reach to the peculiarities of the trunk, &c. In the East Indies, ground, and has a tuft of coarse bristles at the distinctions of this kind have long been carefully end. The feet have in the skeleton five distinct noticed, and particular names are given to elephants toes, but these are so surrounded with a firm according to them, some being considered as highhorny skin, that only the nails are visible exter- caste, and others as low-caste elephants. An E. which nally, as on the margin of a kind of hoof. The by any cause has been separated from its herd, foot of the E. is admirably adapted for steep and seems never to be admitted into another, and these rough ground, the protective skin which covers solitary elephants are particularly troublesome, in the toes allowing them considerable freedom of their depredations exhibiting an audacity which motion.

the herds never exhibit; they are also savage and Only two existing species of E. are certainly much dreaded, whilst from a herd of elephants known, the Indian (E. Indicus) and the African (Ë. danger is scarcely apprehended. The E. is generally Africanus), although differences have recently been one of the most inoffensive of animals, although in a observed in the E. of Sumatra, which may perhaps state of domestication, it shews, as is well known, entitle it to be ranked as a distinct species. Ele- a power both of remembering and resenting an phants are found in all parts of Africa, from the injury. Sahara southwards, where wood and water are The favourite haunts of wild elephants are in sufficiently abundant; also throughout India and the depths of forests-particularly in mountainous the south-eastern parts of Asia, and in some of the regions, where they browse on branches, and from tropical Asiatic islands. They extend northwards which they issue chiefly in the cool of the night to the Himalaya; and Chittagong and Tiperah to pasture in the more open grounds. They are vie with Ceylon in the superior excellence of the ready to plunder rice or other grain-fields, if not elephants which they produce. The Indian E. is deterred by fences, of which, fortunately, they have, distinguished by a comparatively high oblong head, in general, an unaccountable dread, even although with a concave forehead; whilst the African has rather imaginary than real. A fence of mere reeds a round head and convex forehead. The ears of will keep them out of fields, where, as soon as the the African E. are much larger than those of the grain is removed, they enter by the gaps of the Indian, covering the whole shoulder, and descending | fence, and may be seen gleaning among the stubble.

ELEPHANT.

When the E. eats grass, nothing can be more hunger, that the next steps are taken towards graceful than the ease with which, before convey-, taming him and making him a willing servant of ing it to his mouth, he beats the earth from its man. roots by striking it on his fore-leg.' A cocoa-nut is Still more wonderful is the capture of a wild E., first rolled under foot, to detach the outer bark, sometimes by not more than two hunters, who for then stripped of the fibrous husk, and finally this purpose will go into the woods, without aid or crushed between the grinders, when the fresh milk attendants, their only weapon a flexible rope of is swallowed with evident relish. The fruit of the hide. With this they secure one of the E.'s hind. palmyra palm is another favourite food of elephants, legs, following his footsteps when in motion, or and they seem to have an instinctive knowledge of stealing close up to him when at rest, or sometimes the time of its ripening. Sugar-canes are also a spreading the noose on the ground, partially confavourite food ; indeed, elephants are very fond of cealed by roots and leaves, beneath a tree on which sweet things. Those which are brought to Britain one of the party is stationed, whose business it is to are generally fed on hay and carrots. The amount lift it suddenly by means of a cord. When arrested of daily food necessary for the E. in a state of by the rope being coiled around a tree, the E. domestication may be stated, on an average, at about naturally turns upon the man who is engaged in two hundred pounds in weight.

making it fast, but his companion interferes on his Elephants delight in abundance of water, and behalf, by provoking the animal; and thus not enter it very freely, often remaining in it for a only is the first rope made fast, but noose after considerable time and with great evident enjoyment. noose is passed over the legs, until all are at last They sometimes swim with not only the body but tied to trees, and the capture is complete; upon the head under water, the only part elevated above which the hunters build a booth for themselves in it being the extremity of the trunk.

front of their prisoner, kindle their fires for cooking, The habits of the African E. appear in no import and remain day and night till the E. is sufficiently ant respect to differ from those of the Indian tamed to be led away. elephant. It is the latter only that is at the But these huge animals are not always captured present day domesticated; but it is certain that singly; whole herds are often taken at once. This the African species was anciently domesticated, and is accomplished by means of an enclosure, towards the figures on many Roman medals attest it. which the elephants are driven by great numbers

Elephants rarely breed in a state of domestication, of men encircling a considerable space, and conalthough, a few years ago, the birth of an elephant tracting the circle by slow degrees. Weeks, or took place in the Zoological Gardens of London, an even months, are spent in this operation, and at occasion of much interest not only to the scientifio last the elephants, hemmed in on every side except but to the general public. They are generally tạmed the mouth of the enclosure, enter it, and the gate within a few months after they are captured; some is immediately closed. The modes of constructing degree of severity being employed at first, which, the enclosure are different in different parts of the however, as soon as the animal has begun to respect East. Tame elephants are sometimes sent into it, the power of man, is exchanged for kindness and and the captives are in succession made fast to trees gentleness of treatment. Elephants intended for there, in a way somewhat similar to that practised domestication are captured in various ways. It in capturing single elephants. was formerly common to take them in pitfalls, but The E. first became known in Europe from its in this way they were often much injured. Another employment in the wars of the East: 'in India, from method frequently practised is by the aid of tame the remotest antiquity, it formed one of the most elephants. Male elephants chiefly are captured in picturesque, if not of the most effective, features in this way, the decoy elephants employed being females, the armies of the native princes.' Elephants have trained for the purpose. With these the hunters been taught to cut, and thrust with a kind of very cautiously approach the animal they mean to scimitar carried in the trunk, and it was formerly capture, and he generally permits them to come up usual for them to be sent into battle, covered with to him, and is so pleased to make the acquaintance of armour, and bearing towers on their backs, which the females, that he takes no notice of their riders contained warriors. But the principal use of the E. and other human attendants. Two of the females in war is for carrying baggage, and for dragging take their places, one on each side of him, and guns. An E. will apply his forehead to a cannon, whilst he is occupied with them, men, the profession and urge it through a bog, through which it would of whose lives it is, and who display a wonderful be almost impossible for men and cattle to drag it; expertness in the work, contrive to get beneath or he will wind his trunk round it, and lift it up, their bodies, and to pass ropes round the legs of the whilst horses or cattle drag it forwards. Elephants intended captive. His two hind-legs are fastened, are used in the East for carrying persons on their together by six or eight ropes in the form of the backs, a number being seated together in a howdah, figure 8, another rope keeping them tight at the whilst the driver (mahout) sits on the E.'s neck, intersections, and a strong cable with a running- directing it by his voice and by a small goad. noose is attached to each hind-ley. About twenty Elephants have always a conspicuous place in the minutes are usually spent in fixing the necessary great processions and state displays of eastern ropes, profound silence being maintained if the princes, and white elephants-albinos--are peculiarly process goes on unobserved, or some of the other valued. Elephants are also employed in many kinds hunters distracting the attention of the E. from of labour, and display great sagacity in comprehendthose who are engaged in this work; and when ing the nature of their task and adapting themat last, becoming sensible of his danger, he tries selves to it. In piling timber, the E.manifests to retreat, an opportunity is soon found of tying an intelligence and dexterity which is surprising him, by means of the long cables which trail to a stranger, because the sameness of the operation behind him, to some tree strong enough for the enables the animal to go on for hours disposing of purpose. His fury then becomes ungovernable, and log after log, almost without a hint or direction he makes violent and prodigious efforts to get free, from his attendant. throwing himself on the ground, and twisting him. Of the sagacity of the E., many interesting self into the most extraordinary positions. It is not anecdotes are on record, as every reader of books until he has thoroughly exhausted himself, and of travels and of natural history knows. But Cuvier begins to suffer severely from fatigue, thirst, and I refuses, and apparently with justice, to ascribe ELEPHANT.

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to it a degree of sagacity higher than that of skin. The head was covered with dry skin; one of the dog. In a state of domestication, the E. is a the ears was well preserved; it was furnished with a delicate animal, requiring much watchfulness and tuft of hairs. Three-fourths of the whole skin were care, although naturally it has a very long life, procured, which was so heavy that ten persons and instances are on record of extreme longevity found great difficulty in transporting it to the in domestication, extending not only to more than one hundred, but almost to two hundred years.

The numbers of wild elephants in some parts both of the East Indies and of Africa, are being gradually reduced as cultivation extends, and many are shot for no other reason than a desire to reduce their numbers, and put an end to their ravages on cultivated grounds. A reward of a few shillings per head was claimed for 3500 destroyed in part of the northern province alone of Ceylon, in less than three years prior to 1848. It is for the sake of ivory that the greatest slaughter of elephants takes place. A ball of hard metal, skilfully planted in the eye, base of the trunk, or behind the ear, generally ends an E.'s life in an instant; and expert sportsmen have been known to kill right and left one with each barrel. Fossil Elephants.—The E. makes its appearance in

Skeleton of Mammoth. the Pleistocene strata. Its near ally, the mastodon, whose remains are found associated with it, becan shore, a distance of 150 feet; it was of a dark-gray life earlier : it has left its traces in Miocene deposits. colour, and was covered with a reddish wool, and Ten species of fossil elephants have been described. / long black hairs or bristles. The wool was short, the remains of three of which are found in Europe and curled in locks; the bristles were of different The best known of these is the Elephas primigenius,

lengths, varying from 1 to 18 inches. Some of this or Mammoth, the tusks of which are so little altered

covering still remained attached to the skin, but the as to supply an ivory which, though inferior to great mass was entirely separated from it. Mr that of the living species, is still used in the

Adams collected 36 pounds, although much of it arts, especially in Russia. Its tusks are, on this had been destroyed from the dampness of the place account, regularly searched for by ivory hunters' in where it had lain so long. The animal was a male, Siberia, where, in the superficial deposits of sand, | and had a long mane on the neck. The entire gravel, and loam, the remains occur in enormous

carcass was removed to St Petersburg, where it is abundance. They are also found in similar strata now preserved. The tusks were repurchased, and all over Europe. In Britain, the localities that have added to the animal. It measures from the foresupplied these remains are very numerous. They part of the skull to the end of the mutilated tail 16 are especially abundant in the Pleistocene deposits of feet 4 inches ; the height to the top of the dorsal the east and south-east of England. Woodward, in spines is 9 feet 4 inches; the length of the tusks his Geology of Norfolk, calculates that upwards of along the curve is 9 feet 6 inches. Portions of the 2000 grinders of this animal have been dredged up

hairy covering have been brought to this country, by the fishermen off Happisburgh in thirteen years. and may be seen in the British Museum. The bone-caves also yield remains of this gigantic

Taking the teeth as exhibiting clearly a marked animal.

difference in the recent species, the mammoth is The mammoth truly belongs to the geological easily separated from both by its broader grinders, history of the world : it died out at the close of the which have narrower, and more numerous, and period represented by the Pleistocene beds. It is the close-set plates and ridges. The existence of the E. only fossil animal that has been preserved in a and other genera, whose representatives are now perfect condition for the examination of man. In all found only in the warmer regions of the earth, in other remains we have to deal with the hard portions the north of Europe and Asia, led to the belief, that only-the bones, teeth, scales, &c., and frequently at the recent period in the world's bistory when only with fragmentary portions, requiring the skill they were its living inhabitants, a tropical temperaof a Cuvier or an Owen to make from them an ture existed in the temperate zone, and stretched approximation to the perfect animal. But the mam- further north towards the pole ; but the discovery moth has been preserved so that its flesh has been of this perfect animal shewed that these huge eaten by dogs, bears, and wolves. In 1799, a Tungu- elephants were adapted by their clothing to endure sian, named Schumachoff, while searching along the a cold climate, and by the structure of their teeth shores of Lake Oncoul for mammoth tusks, observed were able to employ as food the branches and foliage among the blocks of ice a shapeless mass, but did of the northern pines, birches, willows, &c. There not at the time discover what it was. The heat of are few generalisations more plausible at first sight succeeding summers gradually melted the ice around than to predicate of an unknown species of a genus it, and, in 1803, the mammoth fell on a bank of sand. what is ascertained regarding the known members In March of the following year, the hunter visited of the same genus. It required a striking case, such it, cut off, and carried away the tusks, which he as that supplied by the discovery of the mammoth, sold for fifty rubles. In 1806, Mr Adams visited to shew clearly the fallacy of deductions which were the locality, and examined the animal, which still almost universally received by scientific men not remained on the sand-bank where it' had fallen, many years ago, which still occasionally mislead, but in a greatly mutilated condition. The Jakutski and which may even now be met with in some of the neighbourhood had cut off the flesh to feed popular hand-books of science. their dogs, and the wild beasts had almost entirely ELEPHANT. An order of the elephant was cleared the bones. The skeleton was, however, instituted in Denmark, by King Frederick II. The antire, excepting one of the fore-legs, and some of badge was a collar of elephants towered, supporting the bones of the tail. Many of the bones were still the king's arms, and having at the end the picture of held together by the ligaments and by parts of the the Virgin Mary.

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