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Joel 3. 16: The LORD shall roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem.' Compare the opening words of the prophecy of Amos, which are identical. They are possibly referred to by Jeremiah (25. 30.

Joel 2. 13: 'He is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repenteth him of the evil.' Compare Jonah 4. 2 : 'I knew that thou a God gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repentest thee of the evil.'

Zech. 9. 10 : ‘His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth.' Compare Ps. 72. 8 which is identical.

Gen. 27. 29 : 'Cursed is every one that curseth thee, and blessed is he that blesseth thee.' Compare Num. 24. 9: Blessed is he that blesseth thee, and cursed is he that curseth thee.' In spite of the change of order in Numbers, and the variation of the words for cursing,' the relationship between the utterances is too strong to be denied.

Gen. 49.9: 'He stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion ; who shall rouse him up?' Compare Num. 24. 9 which is identical and immediately precedes the words given above.

Gen. 49. 26: They shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brethren.' Compare Deut. 33. 16 which is almost identical. The relationship and the contrasts, which are detected on a critical comparison of the blessings on the tribes by Jacob and Moses, are equally noteworthy.

Exod. 14. 13 : 'Stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord.' Compare 2 Chron. 20. 17 which is identical. The crisis on the second occasion recalled the words used in Israel's great emergency.

Exod. 15. 2: The LORD is my strength and my song, and he is become my salvation.' Compare Ps. 118. 14 and Isa. 12. 2 which are identical. Compare also Exod. 15. II with Ps. 86. 8, 10.

Num. 10. 35: "Rise up, LORD, and let thine enemies be scattered ; and let them that hate thee flee before thee.' Compare Ps. 68. I which is practically identical. The relationship of this Psalm with the song of Deborah and Barak, composed after Sisera's downfall (see vv. 6, 7, 12, 13, 18, 27', adds interest to the quotation of this ancient formula.

Joshua 21. 45 : “There failed not ought of any good thing which the . LORD had spoken unto the house of Israel ; all came to pass.' See also chap. 23. 14. Compare i Kings 8. 56 which is substantially the same. Joshua 1. 8: This book of the law

thou shalt meditate therein day and night. Compare Ps. 1. 2: ‘In his law doth he meditate day and night. For other exhortations and promises concerning the law compare Joshua 1. 7, 9 and 1 Chron. 22. 12, 13; 28. 20 : 2 Chron. 32. 7.

2 Chron. 16. 9: “The eyes of the LORD run to and fro throughout the whole earth.' Compare Zech. 4. 1o and Prov. 15. 3.

Deut. 32. 7: “Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations.'

Ps. 77.5: I have considered the days of old and the years of ancient times.'

Deut. 32. 36: The LORD will judge his people, and repent himself for his servants. Compare Ps. 135. 14 which is the same.

Ps. 79. 10 : “Wherefore should the heathen say, Where is their God?' Compare Joel 2. 17: “Wherefore should they say among the people, Where is their God.'

The prayers in the Old Testament are particularly full of borrowed thoughts and expressions relating to the divine attributes and dealings in past times. See especially Solomon's prayer at the dedication of the Temple, Jonah's psalm, Ezra's prayer (chap. 9), Daniel's (chap. 9), and Nehemiah's private pétition (chap. 1) and public prayer (chap. 9). Nehem. 1 and Dan. 9 have special points of relationship.

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II.

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.

The points to be noticed here are (i) the insertions in Deuteronomy in the 4th, 5th, and noth commandments, which fit in with the idea that they form part of a practical address; (ii) the omission of the reason given in Exodus for the observance of the Sabbath ; (iii) the slight variations

Remember' and 'Observe (7937 and 7100), two words for 'false' (apoi and X10), and the variation of the words covet' and desire' (tonn and &); (iv) the tendency in Deuteronomy to prefix 'and' (1) to short exhortations.

Exod. 20.

Deut. 5.

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2 I am the LORD thy God, which 6 I am the LORD thy God, which

brought thee out of the land of brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bond Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

age. 3 Thou shalt have none other gods 7 Thou shalt have none other gods before me.

before me. 4 Thou shalt not make unto thee 8 Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, (nor) the likeness

a graven image, the likeness of any form that is in heaven of any form that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth above, or that is in the earth

beneath, or that is in the water beneath, or that is in the water 5 under the earth : thou shalt not 9 under the earth: thou shalt not

bow down thyself unto them, nor bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them : for I the LORD thy serve them : for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third

the children, [and]upon the third and upon the fourth generation of and upon the fourth generation of 6 them that hate me; and shewing 10 them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands, of them mercy unto thousands, of them that love me and keep my com that love me and keep my commandments.

mandments. 7 Thou shalt not take the name 11 Thou shalt not take the name

of the LORD thy God in vain ; for of the LORD thy God in vain: for the LORD will not hold him guilt the LORD will not hold him guilt

less that taketh his name in vain. less that taketh his name in vain. 8 Remember the sabbath day, to 12 Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy..

keep it holy, [as the LORD thy God 9.

Six days shalt 13 commanded thee.] Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: thou labour, and do all thy work: 10 but the seventh day is a sabbath 14 but the seventh day is a sabbath

unto the LORD thy God : in it unto the LORD thy God : in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy son, nor thy daughter,

thy manservant, nor thy (nor] thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor .

maidservant, nor [thine ox, nor

thy cattle, thine ass, nor any of] thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within nor thy stranger that is within

.

Exod. 20.

Deut. 5.

12

(Continued.)

(Continued.) 11 thy gates : [for in six days the thy gates;

LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.]

[that thy man. servant and thy maidservant may 15 rest as well as thou. And thou

shalt remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by a stretched out arm : therefore the LORD thy God commanded

thee to keep the sabbath day.) Honour thy father and thy 16 Honour thy father and thy mother:

mother, (as the LORD thy God

that thy days commanded thee:] that thy days may be long

may be long, (and that it may go upon the land

well with thee,] upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth which the LORD thy God giveth thee.

thee. 13 Thou shalt do no murder. 17 Thou shalt do no murder. 14

Thou shalt not commit 18 [And] thou shalt not commit adultery.

adultery. 15

Thou shalt not steal. 19 [And] thou shalt not steal. 16

Thou shalt not bear false 20 (And] thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. witness against thy neighbour. 17

Thou shalt not covet thy 21 [And] thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt neighbour's wife;[and] thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, not desire thy neighbour's house,

. nor his manservant, [his field,] nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, (nor] his ox, nor his maidservant, nor his ass, nor any thing that is nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

thy neighbour's.

.

his ox,

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III.

THE CLOSE OF JOSHUA AND THE BEGINNING OF JUDGES. The early chapters of Judges contain some interesting extracts from Joshua, together with references to Deuteronomy. The most notable variations in these extracts are (i) that whilst in the Book of Joshua the authority for giving Hebron to Caleb is the Lord's commandment to Joshua, in the Judges the order is ascribed to Moses. See Num. 14. 24: Deut. 1. 36; (ii) the slight variation of spelling in the words ‘upper' and 'lower'; (iii) the change of Judah for Benjamin ; (iv) the different arrangement of the sentences.

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Joshua 15.

Judges 1. 13 And unto Caleb the son of 10 And Judah went against the

Jephunneh he gave a portion Canaanites that dwelt in Hebron: among the children of Judah, ac now the name of Hebron beforecording to the commandment of time was Kiriath-arba. the LORD to Joshua, even Kiriath- 20.

And arba, which Arba was the father they gave Hebron unto Caleb, as of Anak (the same is Hebron).

Moses had spoken : 14 And Caleb drove out thence the and he drove out thence the three sons of Anak,

three sons of Anak. [And they Sheshai, and Ahiman, and smote] Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai, [the children of Anak.] Talmai. 15 And he went up thence against 11 And from thence he went against

the inhabitants of Debir: now the inhabitants of Debir. Now the name of Debir beforetime was the name of Debir beforetime was Kiriath-sepher.

Kiriath-sepher. 16 And Caleb said, He that smiteth 12 And Caleb said, He that smiteth

Kiriath-sepher, and taketh it, to Kiriath-sepher, and taketh it, to

him will I give Achsah my daugh him will I give Achsah my daugh17 ter to wife. And Othniel the 13 ter to wife. And Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's

son of Kenaz, Caleb's (younger] brother, took' it: and he gave him brother, took it: and he gave him

Achsah his daughter to wife. Achsah his daughter to wife. 18 And it came to pass, when she 14 And it came to pass, when she

came unto him, that she moved came unto him, that she moved him to ask of her father a field : him to ask of her father a field : and she lighted down from off and she lighted down from off

her ass; and Caleb said unto her, her ass; and Caleb said unto her, 19 What wouldest thou? And she 15 What wouldest thou ? And she said,

Give me a bless said [unto him, ] Give me a blessing; for that thou hast set me in ing; for that thou hast set me in the land of the South, give me

the land of the South, give me also springs of water. And he also springs of water. And Caleb gave her the upper springs and gave her the upper springs and the nether springs.

the nether springs.

63 And as for Jebusites, the 21 And the children of Ben

inhabitants of Jerusalem, the jamin did not drive out the children of Judah could not drive Jebusites that inhabited Jerusathem out: but the Jebusites dwelt lem: but the Jebusites dwelt

Joshua 15, 17, 16, 24.

(Continued.) with the children of Judah at Jerusalem, unto this day.

Judges 1, 2

(Continued.) with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem, unto this day.

17 11 And Manasseh had in Issachar 27 And Manasseh did not drive

and in Asher Beth-shean and her out the inhabitants of Beth-shean towns, and Ibleam and her towns, and her towns, nor of Taanach and the inhabitants of Dor and and her towns, nor the inhabither towns, [and theinhabitants of ants of Dor and her towns, En-dor and her towns,] and the

nor inhabitants of Taanach and her the inhabitants of Ibleam and towns, and the inhabitants of her towns, nor the inhabitants of

Megiddo and her towns, [even the Megiddo and her towns : 12 three heights. Yet the children

of Manasseh could not drive out the inhabitants of those cities ;]

but the Canaanites would dwell but the Canaanites would dwell 13 in that land. And it came to 28 in that land. And it came to pass, when the children of] Israel

Israel were waxen strong, that they put was waxen strong, that they put the Canaanites to taskwork, and the Canaanites to taskwork, and did not utterly drive them out. did not utterly drive them out.

pass, when

.

16 10 And they drave not out the 29 And Ephraim drave not out the

Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer: Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer ; but the Canaanites dwelt in the but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer midst of Ephraim, [unto this day,

among them. and became servants to do taskwork.]

.

.

24 28 So Joshua

sent the 2 6 Now when Joshua [had] sent the people away,

people away, [the children of Isevery man unto his

rael went] every man unto his [own] inheritance.

inheritance [to possess the 31.

And Israel served 7 land). And the people served the LORD all the days of Joshua, the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, and had known all outlived Joshua, who had seen all the work of the LORD, that the [great] work of the LORD, that he had wrought for Israel.

he had wrought for Israel. 29 And [it came to pass after these 8 And. things that] Joshua the son of

Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the LORD, Nun, the servant of the LORD,

died, being an hundred and ten died, being an hundred and ten 30 years old. And they buried him 9 years old. And they buried him

in the border of his inheritance in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah, (which is] in in Timnath-heres,

in the hill country of Ephraim, on the hill country of Ephraim, on the north of the mountain of the north of the mountain of Gaash.

Gaash.

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