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IX.

DUPLICATE SECTIONS IN JEREMIAH.

THERE is no prophetic book in which the writer repeats himself so freely as the Book of Jeremiah. Only the most striking instances are given below. Compare also chap. 6. 13-15 with 8. 10-12; chap. 11. 20 with 20. 12; chap. 30. 10, 11 with 46. 27, 28; chap. 24. 8-10 with 29. 17-19; chap. 23. 19, 20 with 30. 23, 24. In all these passages the slips, oversights, or textual corruptions, are of the most minute description-a fact which gives some encouragement after the numerous instances to the contrary which we have met with in other books. Attention need be called only to two points in the extracts below : (i) there is the remarkable variation in gender between 'He shall be called' and 'She (i.e. Jerusalem) shall be called' (23. 6 and 33. 16). May it not possibly

a ()? as it stands is capable of a satisfactory interpretation, for the city may naturally be named after her Deliverer ; but the other alternative is possible also. (ii) The prophecy which is aimed at Edom in chap. 49 is directed against Babylon in chap. 50. Such adaptation is frequent elsewhere on a small scale. See e. g. Amos 1 and 2.

of course the text ? (וזה־שמו אשר יקראו for וזה אשר יקרא־לה) be a slip

Jer. 10. 12-16.

Jer. 51. 15-19. 12 He hath made the earth by his 15 He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the

power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and by his world by his wisdom, and by his

understanding hath he stretched understanding hath he stretched 13 out the heavens: when he uttereth 16 out the heavens: when he uttereth

his voice, there is a tumult of his voice, there is a tumult of waters in the heavens, and he waters in the heavens, and he causeth the vapours to ascend causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; he from the ends of the earth; he maketh lightnings for the rain, maketh lightnings for the rain,

and bringeth forth the wind out and bringeth forth the wind out 14 of his treasuries. Every man is 17 of his treasuries. Every man is Jer. 23. 5-8.

become brutish and is without become brutish and is without knowledge ; every goldsmith is knowledge ; every goldsmith is put to shame by his graven image: put to shame by his graven image: for his inolten image is falsehood, for his molten image is falsehood,

and there is no breath in them. and there is no breath in them. 15 They are vanity, a work of 18 They are vanity, a work of

delusion: in the time of their delusion : in the time of their 16 visitation they shall perish. The 19 visitation they shall perish. The

portion of Jacob is not like these; portion of Jacob is not like these; for he is the former of all things ; for he is the former of all things ; and [Israel] is the tribe of his and

is the tribe of his inheritance: the LORD of hosts inheritance: the LORD of hosts is his name.

is his name.

Jer. 33. 14-16. 5 Behold, the days come, saith 14 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will upraise the LORD, that I will upraise

[that good word which I have spoken concerning the house of

Israel and concerning the house 15 of Judah. In those days, and at

that time, will I cause to grow unto David a righteous up) unto David a Branch of Branch, [and he shall reign righteousness; as king and deal wisely,) and .

and [he] shall execute judgement and shall execute judgement and 6 righteousness in the land. In his 16 righteousness in the land. In those

days Judah shall be saved, and days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and Jerusalem shall dwell safely: and this is [his name] whereby he this is

whereby she shall be called, The LORD is our shall be called, The LORD is our righteousness.

righteousness.

Jer. 16. 14, 15. 7 Therefore, behold, the days 14 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that they come, saith the LORD, that it shall say, As the

shall no

more be said, As the LORD liveth, which brought up LORD liveth, which brought up

the children of Israel out of the the children of Israel out of the 8 land of Egypt; but, As the LORD 15 land of Egypt; but, As the LORD

liveth, which brought up [and liveth, which brought up which led the seed of] the house

the children of Israel out of the north country, of Israel out of the north country, and from all the countries whither and from all the countries whither I had driven them; and they he had driven them : and I will shall dwell in their own land.

bring them again into their land that I gave unto their fathers.

no

more

Jer. 49. 19-21.

Jer. 50. 44-46. 19 Behold, he shall come up like 44 Behold, he shall come up like X.

a lion from the pride of Jordan a lion from the pride of Jordan against the strong habitation : against the strong habitation : but I will suddenly make him but I will suddenly make them run away from her; and whoso run away from her; and whoso is chosen, him will I appoint is chosen, him will I appoint over her: for who is like me ? over her: for who is like me ? and who will appoint me a time? and who will appoint me a time ?

and who is the shepherd that and who is the shepherd that 20 will stand before me? Therefore 45 will stand before me? Therefore

hear ye the counsel of the LORD, hear ye the counsel of the LORD, that he hath taken against that he hath taken against Edom ; and his purposes, that Babylon ; and his purposes, that he hath purposed against the in- he hath purposed against the habitants of Teman : Surely they land of the Chaldeans : Surely they shall drag them away, even the shall drag them away, even the little ones of the flock ; surely little ones of the flock ; surely

he shall make their habitation he shall make their habitation 21 desolate with them. At the 46 desolate with them. At the noise of

their

fall the noise of the taking of Babylon the earth trembleth; there is a cry, earth trembleth, and the cry [the noise whereof] is heard in

is heard among the Red Sea.

the nations.

JEREMIAH AND THE OTHER SCRIPTURES.

IN 1837 a monograph on this subject was published by Augustus Küper, entitled Jeremias librorum sacrorum interpres atque vindex ; and the subject certainly deserves a special treatise. To give anything like a notice of the minute relationship between Jeremiah and the Pentateuch (notably Deut.), Psalms and Prophets, would extend this section far beyond its proper limits. All that can be done here is to call attention to the most notable points of relationship between this writer and the other books. The question of original authorship is not discussed. Jer. 48. 45, 46.

Num. 21. 27-29. 27 [Wherefore they that speak in

proverbs say, Come ye to Heshbon, Let the city of Sihon be built

and established :] 45 For a fire is gone (forth] out of 28 For a fire is gone

out of Heshbon,

Heshbon, [And] a flame from the midst of

A flame from the city of Sihon,

Sihon: And hath devoured the corner of It hath devoured Ar of Moab,

Moab, And the crown of the head of the The lords of the high places of tumultuous ones.

Arnon. 46 Woe unto thee, O Moab !

29 Woe unto thee, O Moab ! The people of Chemosh is un. Thou art undone, 0 people of done :

Chemosh : For thy sons are taken away He hath given his captive,

fugitives, And thy daughters into captivity. And his daughters into captivity.

sons

as

Isa. 16. 6-11.

We have heard of the pride of Moab, that he is very proud ; even of his arrogancy, and his pride, and his wrath ;

Jer. 48. 29-36. 29 We have heard of the pride of

Moab, that he is very proud ; his loftiness, and his pride, and

his arrogancy, and the haughti. 30 ness of his heart. [I know his

wrath, saith the LORD, that it

is nought;] his boastings have 31 wrought nothing. Therefore

will I howl for Moab; yea, I will cry out for all Moab : for the men

of Kir-heres shall they mourn. 32 With more than the weeping of

Jazer will I weep for thee, O vine of Sibmah : thy branches passed over the sea, they reached even to the sea of Jazer: upon thy summer fruits and upon thy vintage the spoiler is fallen.

his boast7 ings are nought. Therefore shall Moab howl for Moab, every one shall howl: for the rasin

cakes of Kir-hareseth shall ye 8 mourn, utterly stricken.

For the fields of Heshbon languish, and the vine of Sibmah ; the lords of the nations have broken down the choice plants thereof; they reached even unto Jazer, they wandered into the wilder

cease

none

Jer. 48. 29-37

Isa. 16. 6-11. (Continued.)

(Continued.) 33 And gladness and joy is taken ness ; her branches were spread away, from the fruitful field and

abroad, they passed over the sea. from the land of Moab; and 9 Therefore I will weep with the I have caused wine to

weeping of Jazer for the vine of from the winepresses :

Sibmah : I will water thee with shall tread with shouting; the my tears, O Heshbon, and Elealeh : shouting shall be no shouting. for upon thy summer fruits and

upon thy harvest the battle shout 10 is fallen. And gladness is taken

away, and joy out of the fruitful field ; and in the vineyards there shall be no singing, neither joy. ful noise : no treader shall tread out wine in the presses : I have

made the vintage shout to cease. 34 [From the cry of Heshbon even

unto Elealeh, even unto Jahaz have they uttered their voice, from Zoar even unto Horonaim, to Eglath-shelishiyah: for the

waters of Nimrim also shall be35 come desolate. Moreover I will

cause to cease in Moab, saith the LORD, him that offereth in the

high place, and him that burneth 36 incense to his gods.] Therefore 11. .

Wherefore mine heart soundeth for Moab my bowels sound like an harp like pipes, and min heart sound. Moab, and mine inward parts eth like pipes for the men of for Kir-heres. Kir-heres.

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44.

Jer. 48. 43, 44.

Isa. 24. 17, 18. 43 Fear, and the pit, and the snare, 17 Fear, and the pit, and the snare, are upon thee, O inhabitant of

are upon thee, 0 inhabitants of Moab, (saith the LORD.]

18 the earth.

[And He it shall come to pass, that] he that fleeth from

the who fleeth from the noise of] the fear shall fall into the pit ; and fear shall fall into the pit; and he that getteth up out of the he that cometh up out of the

pit shall be taken [midst of the] pit shall be taken in the snare : for I will bring upon in the snare: for the windows on her, even upon Moab, the year of their high are opened, and the foundations visitation, saith the LORD.

of the earth do shake.

Jer. 50. 39, 40.

Isa. 13. 19-22.

39 Therefore the wild beasts of the 19 And Babylon, the glory of king.

desert with the wolves shall dwell doms, the beauty of the Chaldeans' there, and the ostriches shall pride, shall be as when God overdwell therein : and it shall be no 20 threw Sodom and Gomorrah. It more inhabited for ever ; neither shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from genera

shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation.

tion to generation : [neither shall Jer. 50. 39, 40.

Isa. 13. 19-22. (Continued.)

(Continued.) the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall shepherds make

their flocks to lie down there.] 40 As when God overthrew Sodom 21 But wild beasts of the desert

and Gomorrah and the neighbour shall lie there ; and their houses cities thereof, saith the LORD ; so shall be full of doleful creatures ; shall no man dwell there, neither and ostriches shall dwell there, shall any son of man sojourn and satyrs shall dance there. therein.

22 And wolves shall cry in their

castles, and jackals in the pleasant palaces.

Seeing that Jeremiah exhibits such a familiar acquaintance with the First Division of the Book of Isaiah, the question rises whether we can trace any relationship betwe his writings and the Second Division. For this purpose Jer. 10. 3-5 may be compared with Isa. 40. 18, &c., and 44. 11, &c., also compare Jer. 11. 19 with Isa. 53. 7 ; Jer. 32. 40 with Isa. 55. 3; Jer. 31. 2 with Isa. 63. 14; Jer. 33. 3 with Isa. 48. 6.

Jeremiah is either himself a Psalmist or else a free quoter from the Psalms. Thus we have :

Ps. 135. 7.

Jer. 10. 13. 13 [When he uttereth his voice,

there is a tumult of waters in

the heavens,] [And] he causeth the vapours to

ascend from the ends of the

earth ; Hemaketh lightnings for the rain, And bringeth forth the wind out

of his treasuries.

7.

He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the

earth; Hemaketh lightnings for the rain; He bringeth forth the wind out

of his treasuries.

Jer. 10. 25.

Ps. 79. 6, 7. 25 Pour out thy fury upon

the 6 Pour out thy wrath upon the heathen that know thee not,

heathen that know thee not, And upon the families that call And upon the kingdoms that call not on thy name:

not upon thy name. For they have devoured Jacob, 7 For they have devoured Jacob, [Yea, they have devoured him

and consumed him,] And laid waste his habitation. And laid waste his habitation. So also Jer. 15. 15: · For thy sake I have suffered reproach'; compare Ps. 35. 7. Jer. 18. 20: "They have digged a pit for my soul'; compare Ps. 35. 7.

Jer. 51. 58: “The people shall labour in vain, and the folk in the fire; and they shall be weary’; compare Hab. 2. 13.

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