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risons. It consists of a sort of hautboy, shorter, but shriller than our's; trumpets, cymbals, large drums, the upper head of which is beat upon with a heavy drum-stick, the lower with a small switch. A vizier-bashaw has nine of these large drums, while a bashaw of two tails has but eight, the distinction by which the music of one may be known from that of the other. Besides these, they have small drums, beat after the manner of our kettledrums. This music at a distance has a tolerable good effect.o
• Mr. Drummond gives a similar account. The Eastern names which he gives us, speaking of the music of a Bashaw making his public entry into Smyrna, differ; but he men. tions five different kinds, and apparently means the same instruments. " Nothing more hideous, can be conceived than the horrid sound of their instruments, especially as they were compounded. These consisted of a zurnau, or pipe, about 18 inches in length, swelled towards the extre. mity; nagara, or little kettle-drums, no larger than a common pewter plate ; brass plates, which they call zel, or cymbals, which a fellow gingled together; a burie, being an ugly imitation of a trumpet; and downie, or large drums, of which the performers beat the heads with a little short club, having a great round knob at the end, at the same time they tickled the bottom with a long small stick."— Travels, p. 119.
The two first of these, I imagine, but in an inverted order, may answer the two first terms youp karna, and xprown mashrokeeta, mentioned Dan. jii. 5, and translated cornet and flute.Whether there is any correspondence between the rest of the music of the modern bashaws, and of king Nebuchadnezzar, I cannot say.
Concerning their Manner of Travelling.
Eastern Travellers carry their Prorisions with them.
M HE Eastern people are well known to carry
I with them in their journies several accommodations, and provisions in particular of varie ous kinds ; for they have. no inns, properly speaking. They did so anciently. But those that travel on foot with expedition, content themselves with a very slight viaticum.'n.
The writer of the history of the piratical states of Barbary, speaking of the great expedition of the natives of the country about Ccuta in carrying messages, some of them running one hundred and fifty miles in less then twenty-four hours,' says, their temperance is not less admirable : for some meal, a few figs
a Sec Shaw's Preface, p. 14, note. * Judges xix. 18-20.
e Dr. Russell asserts, he never heard of any thing like this, and is confident the account must be exaggerated : I am also of the game opinion. Edit. .
and raisins, which they carry in a goat's skin, serve them a seven or eight days' journey, and their richest liquor is only honey and water."
Not very different from this is the account the sacred writer gives, of the provisions carried by David and his men, when they went up with the Phitlistines to war against Saul, and which they had for their support in their hurrying pursuit after the Amalekites, as appears by what they gave the poor famished Egyptian, bread, (water) figs, and raisins, 1 Sam. xxx. 11, 12. The bread of the Israelites answers the meal of the people of Barbary; the figs and the raisins were the very things the Moors carry now with them.
d Commentators seem to be at a great loss how to cx. plain the basket aud the store, mentioned Deut, xxviii 5 17. Why Moses, who in the other verses mentions things in general, should in this case be so minute as to mention baskets, scems strange; and they that interpret either the first or the second of these words of the repositories of their corn, &c. forget that their barns, or store-houses, are spoken of presently after this, in versc 8. Might I be permitted to give my opinion here, I should say, that the basket, kjo tana, in this place, means their travelling baskets; and the other word, 78wn mashuret, (their store) signifies their leather bags ; in both which they were wont to carry things in travelling. The first of these words occurs no where else in the Scriptures, but in the account that is given us of the convenience in which they were to carry their first-fruits to Jerusalem. The other no where ; but in the description of the harrying journey of Israel out of Egypt; where it means the utensil in which they carried their dough then, which I have shown elsewhere in these papers means a piece of leather drawn together by rings, and forming a kind of bag.
Agreeably to this, Hasselquist informs us, that the Eastern people use baskets in travelling : for, speaking of that species of the palm-tree which produces dates, and its great usefulness to the people of those countries, he tells us, that of the leaves of this tree they make bas.
We do not find any mention of honey in this account of that expedition of David; but it is represented in other passages of Scripture as something very refreshing to them that were almost spent with fatigue, 1 Sam. xiv. 27, 29: which is enough to make us think they sometimes carried it with them in their journies, or military expeditions.
Carry also Skins filled with IVater, for their Re
freshment on their Journies.
In those dry countries they find themselves obliged to carry with them great leatherkets, or rather a kind of short bags, which are used in Turkey on journies, and in their houses, p. 261, 262. Hampers and panniers are English terms, denoting travel. ling baskets, as tena seems to be an Hebrew word of the same general import, though their forms might very much differ, as it is certain, that of the travelling baskets men. tioned by Hasselquist now does.
In like manner, as they now carry meal, figs, and raisins, in a goats-skin, in Barbary, for a viaticum, they might do the same anciently; and consequently might car. ry merchandize after the same manner, particularly their honcy, oil, and balm, mentioned Ezek. xvii. 17. They were the proper vessels for such things. So Sir J. Chardin, who was so long in the East, and observed their customs with so much care, supposed, in a manuscript note on Gen. xliii. 11, that the balm and the honey sent by Jacob into Egypt for a present, were carried in a goat, or kid. skins, in which all sorts of things, dry and liquid both, are wont to be carried in the East.
Understood after this manner, the passage promises Israel success in their commerce, as the next verse (the 6th) promises them personal safety in their going out and in their return. In this view the passage appears with due distinctness, and a noble extent.
bottles of water, which they refill from time to time, as they have opportunity ; but what is very extraordinary, in order to be able to do this, they, in many places, are obliged to carry lines and buckets with them."
So Thevenot, in giving an account of what he provided for his journey from Egypt to Jerusalem, tells us, he did not forget - leather buckets to draw water with.' Rauwolff goes farther, for he gives us to understand, that the wells of inhabited countries there, as well as in deserts, have oftentimes no implements for drawing of water, but what those bring with them that come thither : for, speaking of the well or cistern at Bethlehem, he says,s it is a good rich cistern, deep and wide; for which reason, “ the people that go to dip water, are provided with small leathern buckets and a line, as is usual in these countries; and so the merchants that go in caravans through great deserts into far countries, provide themselves also with these, because in these countries you find more cisterns or wells, than springs that lie high.”
In how easy a light does this place the Samaritan woman's talking of the depth of Jacob's well, and her remarking that she did not observe that our Lord had any thing to draw with, though he spoke of presenting her with water, John iv. 11.
Wells and cisterns differ from each other, in that the first are supplied with water by springs,
· They are always, (says Dr. Russell) provided by tra. vellers who cross the desert. Epit. ? Part 1, p. 178.