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numbers ; one perhaps oval-way, like a gate, another triangular, or like N, or M, &c. so that every one knows by them his respective cottor. They are carried in the front, and set up in the place where the caravan is to pitch, before that comes up, at some distance from one another. They are also carried by day, not lighted ; but yet, by the figure and number of them, the bagges (pilgrims) are directed to what cottor they belong, as soldiers are by their colours, where to rendezvous; and without such directions it would be impossible to avoid confusion in such a vast number of people.
“ Every day, viz. in the morning, they pitch their tents, and rest several hours. When the camels are unloaded, the owners drive them to water, and give them their provender, &c. so that we had nothing to do with them, besides helping to load them. “ As soon as our tents were pitched, my business was to make a little fire, and get a pot of coffee. When we had eat some small matter, and drank the coffee, we lay down to sleep. Between eleven and twelve we boiled something for dinner, and having dined, lay down again till about four in the afternoon, when the trumpet was sounded, which gave notice to every one to take down their tents, pack up their things, and load their camels, in order to proceed in their journcy. It takes up about two hours' time ere they are all in their places again.”
More than three thousand years have made
no alteration in the signal used to give notice for decamping. The Mecca caravan now moves upon blowing a trumpet; Moses made use of the same signal, Numb. x.
Those Moses made use of were of silver, but it seems some instruments of this kind were made of horns, Josh. ti. 8. It is commonly supposed rams-horns were made use of, which Chardin in his MS. tells us are strangely long in the East, and that such are used by the dervishes. Masius how. ever doubts whether the horns of these animals were used by Joshua at Jericho, because those horns are solid. Sir John therefore proposed to see if Masius was not mistaken, and whether the horns used by the dervishes were those of buffalos or rams, which last he beliered them to be. He does not, however, give us any account in his notes of the result of that enquiry, which is a little unhappy. But I am assured the horns of English sheep are hol. low, or rather, having what they call a slug, are easily made so. *
But whatever horns the dervishes carry with them, one use they put them to ought to be remarked, and that is, their blowing their horns not unfrequently when any thing is given them, in honour of the donor. This is mentioned in the MS. note on Matt. vi. 3. Another sense is indeed put on the words, and is mentioned in that note; but it is not impossible, that some of the poor Jews that begged alms might lie furnished like the Persian dervishes, who are a sort of religious beggars, and that these hypocrites might be disposed to confine their alms-giving very much to such as they knew would pay them this honour. Thus much is certain, that if the modern Persian mode was in use in the time of our Lord, these Pharisees would have been very cold in giving alms to those that neglected it.
Bells also are used to give warning to caravans to prepare for marching ; hence that beautiful couplet in Italia, applied to the nccessity of relinquishing sensual gratifi. cations, and preparing for death : .
مرا در منزل جانان چه جاي عيش چون هدم جرس فریاد میدارد که بربندید مکلما
“For me, what room is there for pleasure in the bowers of beauty,
When every moment the bell makes proclamation, thus, Bind on your burdens !!!
But what I would chiefly observe in this narration, is the account he gives of the things that were made use of, in these pilgrimages, for the like purposes that flags are used in our armies. They are little iron machines, in which fires may be made, in order to guide them in their night marches ; and they are so contrived, as sufficiently to distinguish their respective cottors or tribes.
Things of this sort, I find, are used in other cases too: for Dr. Pococke tells us, that the caravan with which he visited the river Jordan, set out from thence in the evening, soon after it was dark, for Jerusalem ; being lighted by chips of deal full of turpentine, burning in a round iron frame, fixed to the end of a pole, and arrived at Jerusalem a little before daybreak. But he tells us also, that a little before this the pilgrims were called before the governor of this caravan, by means of a white standard, that was displayed on an eminence near the camp, in order to enable him to ascertain his fees.
In the Mecca caravans they use nothing by day, but the same moveable beacons, in which they burn those fires which distinguish each cottor in the night, for Pitts says nothing of flags, or any thing of that sort.
As travelling then in the night must be, generally speaking, most desirable to a great
"Vol. . p. 33.— These are the Mashals mentioned in a preceding note. Edit.
multitude in that desert, we may believe a compassionate God, for the most part, directed Israel to move in the night, and in consequence, must we not rather suppose the standards of the twelve tribes were moveable beacons, like those of the Mecca pilgrims, than flags, or or any thing of that kind ? Were not such sort of ensigns necessary for their nightmarches ? And since they who travel SO much at their ease, and carry every convenience with them, think the same poles are sufficient for their purpose by day, without any flags, have we not reason to suppose Israel was not incumbered with flags in their march, but that their night-ensigns did for them too when they travelled in the day-time, which, we may believe, was more rarely?
The surprising likeness between the managements of the Mecca caravans, and that of Israel in the wilderness, in other points, strongly induces the belief of this.
Yet they have not been children only that have amused themselves with supposing, that a flag, on which was delineated the figure of a child, was the standard of Reuben; and that others, that had the representations of a lion and an ox, were those of Judah and Ephraim, &c. Jewish rabbies of the West have proposed these conceits, and Christian doctors have been pleased with them, so they have been used sometimes, by way of decoration in the frontispieces of our Bibles. Others
have not admitted that images were used for this purpose, they have formed other suppositions ; but I do not know of any that have explained the standards of Israel after this manner, and supposed that they were differentlyfigured portable beacons.
This account may, at the same time, throw some light on two or three passages of the Canticles; which on the other hand, may serve to establish this explanation.
My beloved is white and ruddy, the chiefest among ten thousand, says the spouse. Cant. v. 10; or, a standard-bearer among ten thousand, (n3370 5200 dagul merebabah,) according to the margin. All the ground of making these words synonymous is, I presume, the supposing a standard-bearer the chiefest of the company, which by no means appears to be true: it is not so among the modern people of the East, any more than among us. I will not, however, press this, since it seems to be merely a slip of the translators, and that what is meant, is, one before whom a standard is borne; which is a mark of dignity in the East, as well as in the West, and which the word must signify, if any thing of this sort (dignity) be meant, since it is a passive, not an active participle in the Hebrew : that is, the word does not signify one that lifts up the ban
m Bishop Patrick, on Num. ii. 2, supposes the name of Judah, of Reuben, and of each of the other Patriarchs, might be embroidered in their ensigns; or that they might be distinguished by their colours only.