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· Anuath, which is also named Borceos. This is the northern boundary of Judea. The southern parts of Judea, if they be measured lengthways, are bounded by a village adjoining to the confines of Arabia; the Jews that dwell there call it Jardan. However, its breadth is extended from the river Jordan to Joppa. The city of Jerusalem is situated in the * very middle; on which account some have, with sagacity enough, called that city the navel of the country. Nor, indeed, is Judea destitute of such delights as come from the sea, since its maritime places extend as far as Ptolemais; it was parted in eleven portions, of which the royal city Jerusalem was the supreme, and presided over all the neighbouring country, as the head does over the body. As to the other cities that were inferior to it, they presided over their several toparchies; Gophna was the second of those cities, and next to that Acrabatta; after them Thampa, and Lydda, and Emmaus, and Pella, and Idumea, and Engaddi, and Herodium, and Jericho; and after them came Jamnia and Joppa, as presiding over the neighbouring people; and besides these, there was the region of Gamala, and Gaulanitis, and Batanea, and Trachonitis, which are also parts of the kingdom of Agrippa. This (last] country begins at a Mount Libanus and the fountains of Jordan, and reaches breadthways to the lake of Tiberias; and in length is extended from a village called Arpha, as far as Julias. Its inhabitants are a mixture of Jews and Syrians. And thus have I, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, and those that lie round about it.
CHAP. IV. Josephus makes an Altempt upon Sepphoris, but is repelled. tai Titus comes with a great Army to Ptolemais. § 1. Now the auxiliaries which were sent to assist the people of Sepphoris, being a thousand horsemen, and six thousand footmen, under Placidus the tribune, pitched their camp in two bodies in the great plain. The foot were put into the city to be a guard to it, but the horse lodged abroad in the camp. These last, by marching continually one way or other, "and overrunning the parts of the adjoining country, were
very troublesome to Josephus and his men; they also plundered all the places that were out of the city's liberty, and intercepted such as durst go abroad. On this account it was * that Josephus marched against the city, as hoping to take what he had lately encompassed with so strong a wall, before diey revolted from the rest of the Galileans, that the Romans would have had much ado to take it: by which means he proved too weak, and failed of his hopes, both as to the forcing the place, and as to his prevailing with the people of Sepphoris to deliver it up to him. By this means he provoked the Romans to treat the country according to the law of war; nor did the Romans, out of the anger they bore at this attempt, leave off, either by night or by day, burning the places in the plain, and stealing away the cattle that were in the country, and killing whatsoever appeared capable of fighting perpetually, and leading the weaker people as slaves into captivity; so that Galilee was all over filled with fire and blood: nor was it exempted from any kind of misery or calamity; for the only refuge they had was this, that when they were pursued, they could retire to the cities which had walls built them by Josephus.
2. But as to Titus, he sailed over from Achaia to Alexandria, and that sooner than the winter season did usually permit; so he took with him those forces he was sent for, and marching with great expedition, he came suddenly to Ptolemais, and there finding his father, together with the two legions, the fifth and the tenth, which were the most eminent legions of all, he joined them to that fifteenth legion which was with his father; eighteen cohorts followed these legions; there came also five cohorts from Cæsarea, with one troop of horsemen, and five other troops of horsemen from Syria. Now these ten cohorts had severally a thousand footmen, but the other thirteen cohorts had no more than six hundred footmen apiece, with an hundred and twenty horsemen. There were also a considerable number of auxiliaries got together, that came from the kings Antiochus, and Agrippa, and Sohemus, each of them contributing one thousand footmen that were archers, and a thousand horsemen. Malchus also, the king of Arabia, sent a thousand horsemen, besides five thousand footmen, the greatest part of which were archers; so that the whole army, including the auxiliaries sent by the kings, as well horsemen as footmen, when all were united together, amounted to sixty thousand, besides the servants, who, as they followed in vast numbers, so because they had been trained up in war with the rest, ought not to be distinguished from the fighting men; for as they were in their masters' service in times of peace, so did they undergo the like dan yers with them in times of war; insomuch that they were interior to none either in skill or in strength, only they were subject to their masters.
A Description of the Roman Armies, and Roman Camps;
and of other Particulars for which the Romans are commended. . . . . .
! $1. Now here one cannot but admire at the precaution of the Románs, in providing themselves of such household servants as might not only serve at other times for the common offices of life, but might also be of advantage to them in their wars. And indeed, if any one does but attend to the other parts of their military discipline, he will be forced to confess, that their obtaining so large a dominion hath been the acquisition of their valour, and not the bare gift of fortune; for they do not begin to use their weapons tirst in time of war, nor do they then put their hands first into motion, while they avoided so'to do in times of peace; but, as if their weapons did always cling to them, they have never any truce from warlike exercises; nor do they stay till times of war admonish them to use them; for their military exercises differ not at all from the real use of their arms, but every soldier is every day exercised, and that with great diligence, as if it were in time of war, which is the reason why they bear the fatigue of battles so easily; for neither can any disorder remove them from their usual regularity, nor can fear affright them out of it, nor can labour tire them; which firmness of conduct makes them always to overcome those that have not the same firmDess; nor would he be mistaken that should call those their exercises unbloody battles, and their battles bloody exercises. Nor can their enemies easily surprise them with the suddenness of their incursions; for as soon as they have marched into an enemy's land, they do not begin to fight, till they have walled their camp about; nor is the fence they raise rashly made or uneven; nor do they all abide in it; nor do those that are in it take their places at random; but if it happens that the ground is uneven, it is first leveled; their camp is also four-square by measure, and carpenters are ready in great numbers with their tools, to erect their buildings for them*.
* This description of the exact symmetry and regularity of the Roman ; army, and of the Roman encampments, with the sounding their trumpets, &c. and order of war, described in this and the next chapter, is so very like to the symmetry and regularity of the people of Israel in the wilderness (see description of the temples, chap. ix.) that one cannot well avoid the sup- , posal, that the one was the ultimate pattern of the other, and that the tactics of the ancients were taken from the rules given by God to Moses. And it is thought by some skilful in these matters, that these accounts of Josephus, as to the Roman camp and armour, and conduct in war, are preferable to those in the Roman authors themselves.
2. As for what is within the camp, it is set apart for tents, but the outward circumference hath the resemblance to a 'wall, and is adorned with towers at equal distances, where between the towers stand the engines for throwing arrows and darts, and for slinging stones, and where they lay all other engines that can anpoy the enemy, all ready for their several operations. They also erect four gates, one at every side of the circumference, and those large enough for the entrance of the beasts, and wide enough for making excursions, if occasion should require. They divide the camp within into streets very conveniently, and place the tents of the commanders in the middle; but in the very midst of all, is the general's own tent, in the nature of a temple, insomuch that it appears to be a city built on the sudden, with its marketplace, and place for handicraft trades, and with seats for the officers superior and inferior, where, if any differences arise, their causes are heard and determined. The camp, and all that is in it, is encompassed with a wall round about, and that sooner than one would imagine ; and this by the multitude, and the skill of the labourers; and if occasion require,
and its breadth equal.
3. When they have thus secured themselves, they live together by companies, with quietness and decency, as are all their other affairs managed with good order and security. Each company hath also their wood, and their corn, and their water brought them when they stand in need of them; for they neither sup nor dine as they please themselves singly, but altogether. Their times also for sleeping and watching, and rising, are notified beforehand by the sound of trumpets; nor is any thing done without such a signal; and in the morning the soldiery go every one to their centurions, and these centurions to their tribunes, to salute them; with whom all the superior officers go to the general of the whole army, who then gives them, of course, the watchword, and other orders, to be by them carried to all that are under their command; which is also observed when they go to fight, and thereby they turn theniselves about on the sudden, when there is occasion for making sallies, as they come back when they are recalled, in crowds also.
4. Now when they are to go out of their camp, the trumpet gives a sound, at which time nobody lies still; but at the first intimation they take down their tents, and all is made ready for their going out; then do the trumpets sound again, to order them to get ready for the march; then do they lay their baggage suddenly upon their mules, and other beasts of burden, and stand at the place of starting, ready to march;
when also they set fire to their camp.; and this they do, because it will be easy for them to erect another camp, and that it may not ever be of use to their enemies. Then do the trumpets give a sound the third time, that they are to go out, in order to excite those that are on any account a little tardy, that so no one may be out of his rank when the army marches. Then does the crier stand at the general's right hand, and asks them thrice in their own tongue, whether they be now ready to go out to war or not? To which they reply as often, with a loud and cheerful voice, saying, We are ready. And this they do almost before the question is asked them; they do this as filled with a kind of martial fury; and at the same time that they so cry out, they lift up their right hands also. ; 5. When after this they are gone out of their camp, they all march without noise, and in a decent manner; and every one keeps his own rank, as if they were going to war. . The footmen are armed with breastplates and headpieces, and have swords on each side; but the sword wbich is upon their left side, is much longer than the other; for that on the right side is not longer than a span. Those footmen also that are chosen out from the rest, to be about the general himself, have a lance, and a buckler; but the rest of the foot soldiers have a spear and a long buckler, besides a saw and a basket, a pickaxe and an axe, a thong of leather, and a hook, with provision for three days; so that a footman bath no great need of a pule to carry his burdens. The horsemen have a long sword on their right sides, and a long pole in their hand; a shield also lies by them obliquely on one side of their horses, with three or more darts that are borne in their quiver, having broad points, and not smaller than spears. They have also headpieces and breastplates, in like manner as have all the footmen. And for those that are chosen to be about the geperal, their armour no way differs from that of the horsemen belonging to other troops; and he always leads the legions forth to whom the lot assigns that employment.
6. This is the manner of the marching and resting of the Romans, as also these are the several sorts of weapons they use. But when they are to fight, they leave nothing without forecast, nor to be done off hand, but counsel is ever first taken before any work is begun; and what hath been there resolved upon, is put in execution presently; for which reason they seldom commit any errors; and if they have been mistaken at any time, they easily correct those mistakes. · They also esteem any errors they commit, upon taking counsel beforehand, to be better than such rash success as is owing to fortune only; because such a fortuitous advantage tempts