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that had revolted with Sabinus; and thirsting, out of his own natural barbarity, after noble blood, he sent out that part of the army which came along with him, to fight against the capitol, and many bold actions were done on this side, and on the side of those that held the temple. But at last the soldiers that came from Germany, being too numerous for the others, got the hill into their possession, where Domitian, with many other of the principal Romans, providentially escaped; while the rest of the multitude were entirely cut to pieces, and Sabinus himself was brought to Vitellius and then slain; the soldiers also plundered the temple of its orna, ments, and set it on fire. But now, within a day's time, came Antonius, with his army, and were met by Vitellius and bis army; and having had a battle in three several places, the last were all destroyed. Then did Vitellius come out of the palace, in bis cups, and satiated with an extravagant and luxurious meal, as in the last extremity, and being drawn along through the multitude, and abused with all sorts of torments, had his head cut off in the midst of Rome, having retained the government eight months and five days*; and had he lived much longer, I cannot but think the empire would not have been sufficient for his lust. Of the other that were slain were numbered above fifty thousand. This battle was fought on the third day of the month Apelleus [Caslea]; on the next day Mucianus came into the city with his army, and ordered Antonius and his men to leave off killing; for they were still searching the houses, and killed many of Vitellius's soldiers, and many of the populace, as supposing them to be of his party; preventing by their rage any accurate distinction between them and others. He then produced Domitian, and recommended him to the multitude, until his father should come himself: so the people being now freed from their fears, made acclamations of joy for Vespasian, as for their emperor, and kept festival days for his confirmation, and for the destruction of Vitellius.
5. And now, as Vespasian was come to Alexandria, this good news came from Rome, and at the same time came
* The numbers in Josephus, ch. ix. sect. 2, 9, for Galba 7 months 7 days, for Otho 3 months 2 days, and here for Vitellius 8 months 5 days, do not agree with any Roman historians; who also disagree among themselves. And indeed Scaliger justly complains, as Dr. Hudson observes on ch. ix. sect. 2, that this period is very confused and uncertain in the ancient authors. They were probably some of them contemporary together for some time. One of the best evidences we have, I mean Ptolemy's Canon, omits them all, as if they did not altogether reign one whole year, nor had a single Thoth or New Year's day (which then fell upon Aug. 6.) in their entire reigns. Dio also, wbo says, that Vitellius reigned a year within ten days, does yet estimate all their reigns together at no more than one year, one month, and two days.
embassies from all his own habitable earth, to congratulate him upon his advancement; and though this Alexandria was the greatest of all cities next to Rome, it proved too narrow to contain the multitude that then came to it. So upon this confirmation of Vespasian's entire government, which was now settled, and upon the unexpected deliverance of the public affairs of the Romans from ruin, Vespasian turned his thoughts to what remained unsubdued in Judea. However, he himself made haste to go to Rome, as the winter was now almost over, and soon set the affairs of Alexandria in order, but sent his son Titus, with a select part of his army, to destroy Jerusalem. So Titus marched on foot as far as Nicopolis, which is distant twenty furlongs from Alexandria; there he put his army on board some long ships, and sailed upon the river along the Mendesian Nomus, as far as the city Thmuis; there he got out of the ships, and walked on foot, and lodged all night at a small city called Tanis. His second station was Heracleopolis, and his third Pelusium; he then refreshed his army at that place for two days, and on the third passed over the mouths of the Nile at Pelusium; he then proceeded one station over the desert, and pitched his camp at the temple of the Casian Jupiter*, and on the next day at Ostracine. This station had no water, but the people of the country make use of water brought from other places. After this he rested at Rhinocolura, and from thence he went to Raphia, which was his fourth station. This city is the beginning of Syria. For his fifth station he pitched his camp at Gaza; after which he came to Ascalon, and thence to Jamnia, and after that to Joppa, and from Joppa to Cæsarea, having taken a resolution to gather all his other forces together at that place,
* There are coins of this Casian Jupiter still extant, as Spanheim bere informs us.
CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF NEAR SIX MONTHS.
From the Coming of Titus to bestege Jerusalem, to the great
Extremity to which the Jews were reduced.
CHAP. I. Concerning the Seditions at Jerusalem, and that terrible
Miseries afflicted the City by their Means. $1. When, therefore, Titus bad marched over that desert which lies between Egypt and Syria, in the manner forementioned, he came to Cæsarea, having resolved to set his forces in order at that place, before he began the war. Nay, indeed, while he was assisting his father at Alexandria, in settling that government which had been newly conferred upon them by God, it so happened, that the sedition at Jerusalem was revived, and parted into three factions, and that one faction fought against the other; which partition in such evil cases may be said to be a good thing, and the effect of divine justice. Now, as to the attack the zealots made upon the people, and which I esteem the beginning of the city's destruction, it hath been already explained after an accurate manner; as also whence it arose, and to how great a mischief it was increased. But for the present sedition, one should not mistake if he called it a sedition begotten by another sedition, and to be like a wild beast grown mad, which, for want of food from abroad, fell now upon eating its own flesh.
2. For Eleazar, the son of Simon, who made the first separation of the zealots from the people, and made them retire into the temple, appeared very angry at John's insolent attempts, which he made every day upon the people; for this man never left off murdering: but the truth was, that he could not bear to submit to a tyrant who set up after him. So he being desirous of gaining the entire power and dominion to himself, revolted from John, and took to his assistance Judas, the son of Chelcias, and Simon the son of Ezron, who were among the men of greatest power. There was also with him Hezekiah, the son of Chobar, a person of eminence: each of these were followed by a great many of the zealots. These seized upon the inner court * of the temple, and laid their arms upon the holy gates, and over the holy fronts of that court; and, because they had plenty of provisions, they were of good courage; for there was great abundance of what was consecrated to sacred uses, and they scrupled not the making use of them: yet were they afraid on account of their small number; and when they had laid up their arms there, they did not stir from the place they were in. Now as to John, what advantage he had above Eleazar in the multitude of his followers, the like disadvantage he had in the situation he was in, since he had his enemies over his head; and as he could not make any assault upon them without some terror, so was his anger too great to let him be at rest; nay, although he suffered more mischief from Eleazar and his party than he would inflict upon them, yet would not he leave off assaulting them, insomuch that there were continual sallies made one against another, as well as darts thrown at one another, and the temple was defiled every where with murders.
3. But now the tyrant Simon, the son of Gioras, whom the people had invited in, out of the hopes they had of his assistance in the great distresses they were in, having in his power the upper city and a great part of the lower, did now make more vehement assaults upon John and his party, because they were fought against from above also; yet was he beneath their situation, when he attacked them, as were they beneath the attacks of the others above them. Whereby it came to pass, that John did both receive and inflict great damage, and that easily, as he was fought against on both sides; and the same advantage that Eleazar and his party bad over bim since he was beneath them, the same advantage had he, by his higher situation, over Simon. On which account he easily repelled the attacks that were made from beneath, by the weapons thrown from their hands only; but was obliged to repel those that threw their darts from the temple above him, by his engines of war: for he had such engines as threw darts, and javelins, and stones, and that in no small number, by which he did not only defend himself from such as fought against him, but slew moreover many of the priests, as they were about their sacred ministrations. For notwithstanding these men were mad with all sorts of impiety, yet did they
# This appears to be the first time that the zealots ventured to pollute this most sacred court of the temple, which was the court of the priests, wherein the temple itself and the altar stood. So that the conjecture of those tbat would interpret that Zacharias, who was slain“ between the temple and the altar” several months before, B. iv. ch. v. sect. 4, vol. iv. as if he were slain there by these zealots, is groundless, as I have noted on that place already.
still adm it those that desired to offer their sacrifices, although they, took care to search the people of their own country beforehand, and both suspected and watched them; while they were not so much afraid of strangers, who, although they had gotten leave of them, how cruel soever they were, to come into that court, were yet often destroyed by this sedition; for those darts that were thrown by the engines, came with that force that they went over all the buildings, and reached as far as the altar, and the temple itself, and fell upon the priests, and those* that were about the sacred offices; insomuch that many persons who came thither with great zeal from the ends of the earth, to offer sacrifices at this celebrated place, which was esteemed holy by all mankind, fell down efore their own sacrifices themselves, and sprinkled that ar which was venerable among all men, both Greeks and rbarians, with their own blood; till the dead bodies of trangers were mingled together with those of their own country, and those of profane persons with those of the priests, and the blood of all sorts of dead carcasses stood in lakes in the holy courts themselves. And now, “ O most wretched city, what misery so great as this didst thou suffer rom the Romans, when they came to purify thee from thy mtestie hatred ? for thou couldst be no longer a place fit for God, nor couldst thou longer continue in being, after thou hadst been a sepulchre for the bodies of thine own people, and hadst made the holy house itself a burying place in this civil War of thine. Yet mayst thou again grow better, if perchance thou wilt hereafter appease the anger of that God who is the author of thy destructiont.” But I must restrain myself from these passions by the rules of history, since this
8 not a proper time for domestical lamentations, but for historical narrations; I therefore return to the operations that follow in this sedition. . 4. And now there were three treacherous factions in the City, the one parted from the other. Eleazar and his party that kept the sacred first fruits, came against John in their cups. Those that were with John plundered the populace, and went out with zeal against Simon. This Simon had his supply of provisions from the city, in opposition to the sedi. Vous. When, therefore, John was assaulted on both sides,
* The Levites.
* This is an excellent reflection of Josephus, including his hopes of the
oration of the Jews upon their repentance.' See Antiq. B. iv. ch. viii. ct. 46, vol. i. wbich is the grand Hope of Israel, as Manasseh-ben-Israel, the
e famous Jewish Rabbi, styles it, in his small but remarkable treatise on al subject, of which the Jewish prophets are every where full. See the principal
cipal of those prophecies collected together, at the end of the Essay on