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we to esteem his alike hard words of the Christians to be blots upon his own character, and not upon theirs.

VII. Since therefore Tacitus, soon after the publication of Josephus's Antiquities, and in contradiction to them, was de. termined to produce such idle stories about the Jews, and since one of those idle stories is much the same with that published in Josephus against Apion, from Manetho and Lysimachus, and no where else met with so fully in all antiquity, it is most probable that those Antiquities of Josephus

were the very occasion of Tacitus giving us these stories, as • we know from Josephus himself, contr. A pion, B. i. sect. 1,

that the same Antiquities were the very occasion of Apion's publication of his equally scandalous stories about them, and which Josephus so thoroughly confuted in his two books written against them. And if Tacitus, as I suppose, had also read these two books, his procedure in publishing such stories after he had seen so thorough a confutation of them, was still more highly criminal. Nor will Tacitus's fault be much less, though we suppose he neither saw the Antiquities, nor the books against Apion, because it was not so very easy for bim, then at Rome, to have had more authentic accounts of the origin of the Jewish nation, and of the nature of the Jewish and Christian religion, from the Jews and Christians themselves, which he owns were very numerous there in his days; so that his publication of such idle stories is still utterly inexcusable.

VIII. It is therefore very plain, after all, that notwithstanding these encomiums of several of our learned critics upon Tacitus, and hard suspicions upon Josephus, that all the involuntary) mistakes of Josephus, in all his large works put together, their quality as well as quantity, considered, do not amount to near so great a sum, as do these gross errors and misrepresentations of Tacitus's about the Jews amount to in a few pages, so little reason have some of our later and lesser critics to prefer the Greek and Roman profane historians and writers to the Jewish, and particularly to Josephus. Such later and lesser critics should have learned more judgment and modesty from their great father Joseph Scaliger, when, as we have seen, after all his deeper inquiries, he solemnly pronounces, De Emend. Temp. Prolegom. p. 17. That “Josephus was the most diligent and the greatest lover of truth of all writers:" and is not afraid to affirm, that “it is more safe to believe him, not only as to the affairs of the Jews, but also as to those that are foreign to them, than all the Greek and Latin writers, and this because his fidelity and compass of learning are every where conspicuous.”

TABLE of the Jewish Weights and MEASURES, particu

larly of those mentioned in Josephus's WORKS. ..

Of the Jewish Measures of LENGTH.

Inches. Feet. Inches. Cubit, the standard ..

21 , . 1 9 Zereth or large span ..


104 Small span . . : : . .


0 7 Palm or hand's breadth .. 3 . , 0 31 Inch or thumb's breadth . . 1,16 .

1,16 Digit or finger's breadth

' ,875 . 0 ,875 Orgyia or fathom . .

84 . . 7 0 Ezekiel's Canneb or reed

126 . . 10 6 Arabian Cannah or pole

168 . . Schænus's line, or chain . 1680, 140 0 Sabbath day's journey ..

42000 $500 Jewish mile . . . . . 84000 . 7000 0 Stadium or furlong . . .

8400 . 700 Parasang ....252000 · 21000 0

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Of the Jewish Measures of CAPACITY.

Cub. Inch. Pints or Pounds. Bath or Epha . ..... 807,274 . . 27,83 Chorus or Chomer . . . . 8072,74 . . 278,3 Seah or Saton . . . . .

269,091 .. 9,266 Ditto according to Josephus . 828,28 . . 28,3 Hin . . . . . . . . 134,54 .. 4,4633 Ditto according to Josephus, 414,12 .. 14,3 Omer or Assaron .... 80,722 ..; 2,78 Cab ........ 44,859 .. 1,544

.. 11,21. . . ,39 Metretes or Syrian firkin .. 207 .. 7,125


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Of the Jewish Weights and Coins.

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Stater, Siclus, or shekel of the sanctuary,

standard . . . . . . . . . . .
Tyrian coin equal to the shekel . . . .
Bekah, half the shekel . .
Drachma Attica, one-fourth.
Drachma or Alexandrina, or Darchmon, or

Adarchmon, one-half . . . . . . .

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Gerah, or Obolus, one-twentieth ..... 0 0
Maneh, or Mna — 100 shekels in weight-

21900 grains Troy
Maneh, Mna, or Mina, as a coin—60 shekels 7 10
Talent of silver--3000 shekels ... 375 0
Drachma of gold not more than . . . . . 0 1
Shekel of gold not more than . . . . . . 0 4
Daric of gold . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0
Talent of gold not more than . . . ... 648 0

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Table of the Jewish Months in Josephus and others, with the · names of the Syromacedonian names Josephus gives them,

and of the Julian or Roman months corresponding to them. Hebrew Names. Syromacdeonian Names. Roman Names. (1.) Nisan Xanthicus March and April (2.) Jyar Artemisius April and May (3.) Sivan Dæsius May and June (4.) Tamuz Panemus June and July (5.) Ab Lous

July and August (6.) Elul Gorpiæus August and September (7.) Tisri

Hyperberetæus September and October (8.) Marhesvan Dius

October and November (9.) Casleu Apellæus November and December (10.) Tebeth Audinæus December and January (11.) Shebat Peritius January and February (12.) Adar Dystrus . February and March ( ) Ve Adar, or ihe second Adar, intercalated.


The first number is that of the respective Volume, the second refers to the


AARON, i. 97. Is made high- Abishai, i. 313.

priest, iii. 184. His sons, i. 138. Abner, son of Ner, i. 325. Saul's
His death, i. 171.

kinsman, 272. General of his
Abassar, or Sanabassar, ii. 102. army, 325. Reconciles the Is-
Abbarus, judge of the Tyrians, iv. . raelites to David, 328. Is killed,

Abdastartus, king of the Tyrians, Abram, or Abraham, the son of Te-
iv. 295.

rah, i. 25. Leaves Chaldea and
Abdemon, a Tyrian, i. 411. iv. 295. goes to Canaan, 26. Lives at
Abdenago, or Abednego, ii. 73. Damascus, 27. Advises his sons
Abdon succeeds Elon as judge, i. to plant colonies, 40. Instructs

the Egyptians in the mathema-
Abel, i. 11. His sacrifice, ib.

tical sciences, 28. Divides the
Abenerig, king of Charax Spasini, country between himself'aud Lot,
iji, 158.

ib. God promises him a son, 30.
Abia, or Abijah, the son of Reho He beats the Assyrians, 29. Dies,

boam, i. 428. Succeeds his fa- 43.
ther, 430. Conquers the ten Absalom, i. 335. Flies to Geshur,
tribes, 434.

353. Is recalled by a stratagem
-, king of the Arabians, iïi. 164. of Joab's, 354. Rebels against
Abiather, the son of Abimelech, i. David, 355. Pursues after him,

305. Saves his life, and flies to 356. His army is put to flight,
David, 306. Is high-priest, 320, 362. Hangs on a tree by his
342, 356, 370, 380. Is deprived hair, ib. Is stabbed by Joab, and

of the high-priesthood, 388. dies, ib.
Abibalus, king of the Tyrians, iv. Acencheres, king of Egypt, iv. 292,

Acenchres, queen of Egypt, ib.
Abigail, i. 311. Married to David, Achar, or Achan, is guilty of theft,

i. 215. Is punished, 216.
- Amasa's mother, i. 361. Achitophel, or Ahitophel, Abso.
Abihu, the son of Aaron, i. 138. lom's favourite, i. 356. Gives
Abilamaradochus, or Evil-Mero evil counsel, 358. Hangs him-
dach, ii. 79.

self, 360.
Abimael, i. 25.

Acme, iii. 20. Her letters to An-
Abimelech tyrannizes over the Shc tipater and Herod. ib. Her

chemites, i. 244. Is expelled, death, 27.
245. He destroys them all, 246. Acmon, son of Araph, or Ishbi, the
Is killed by a piece of a mill son of Ob, of the race of the
stone, ib.

giants, attacks David, i. 371. Is
Abinadab, i. 265, 392, and ii. 99. killed by Abishai, ib.
Abiram, i. 162

Acratheus, or Hatach, ii. 118.
Abishag, a virgin, David's nurse, i. Actium, battle at, in the seventh

ycar of Herod's reign, ii. 336, 3 15.
Ada, the wife of Lamech, i. 12. rod, 380. Makes equal returns
Adad, a king of Damascus, i. 340, to bim at Synope, 381. His ex-
et seq.

pedition to the Bosphorus, ib.
Adam created, i. 8. His fall, 10. His speech to the Jews at Jeru-
Ader, or Hadad, an Idumean, i. salem, iii. 407, et seq. He con-

firms their privileges, ji. 386. His
Adonias, or Adonijah, pretends to letter to the Ephesians in favour

the crown, i. 379. Takes sanc of the Jews, 400. And to those
tuary at the altar, 381. Demands of Cyrene, ib.
Abishag to wife, 387. Is refused, Agrippa the Great, or Elder, He-

rod's grandson, iii. 5. 72. His
Adoniabezek, king of Jerusalem, i. various adventures, 72, et seq. Is

228. Is made prisoner, and has manacled and imprisoned, 80, et
his hands and feet cut off, and seg. His future liberty and hap-
dies at Jerusalem, ib.

piness foretold, 81. Is released,
Adoram, i. 396.

and made lord of two tetrarcbies,
Addrammelech, ii. 48.

with the title of king, 86. Gives
Adrazar, or Hedadezer, king of So Caiusa sumptuousentertainment
phene, or Zoba, i. 340, 4:20.

at Rome, 94. Is sent by the se-
butius, a decurion, iji. 206.

nate to Claudius, 138. His advice
Ægypt, named from a king, iv. 293. to Claudius, ib. Is sent back to
Ægyptian kings called Pharaohs his kingdom, 144. Claudius be-

for 1300 years, till the reign of stows on him almost all the do-
Solomon, i. 413.

minions of his grandfather, 142.
Ægyptians famous before all other His eulogium, 149. His bounty
pations for wisdom, 393. Learn towards those of Berytus, ib. He
ed mathematics of Abraham, 28. treats several kings splendidly,
Their sacred scribes or priests, 150. Entertains Cæsarea with
86. They held it unlawful to shows, and appears himself upon
feed cattle, 83.

the stage in a magnificent dress,
Ægyptian false prophet put to flight and is applauded as a god, 151.
by Felix, iii. 177, 395.

Dies an unnatural death soon
Ælius Gallus, ji. 365.

after, 152. His death and chil-
Æmilius Regulus, iii. 109.

dren, 389.
Æneas, surnamed Aretas, succeeds

bis son by Cypros, iji.389.
Obodas in Arabia, ii. 416.

Did not immediately succeed in
Æsopus, a servant, ii. 326.

his father's kingdom, 154. Clau-
Æthiopian commodities were slaves dius gave him that of his uncle
and monkeys, i. 417.

Herod [of Chalcis), 168, 390.
Ethiopians bordering on the Ara To which he added the tetrar-
bians, ii. 17.

chies of Philip and Lysanias, 172.
Agag, king of the Amalekites, i. He is hurt by a sling stone at the
285. Is killed, 288.

siege of Gamala, iv. 55. His let-
Agar, or Hagar, and Ishmael are ters to Josephus, iii. 235. His

sent away by Abraham, i. 36. famous speech to the Jews, to
Ayyaçuerdas, or forcible pressure dissuade them from a war with

taken off the Jews by Demetrius, the Romans, 407, et seq.
ji. 197, et seq.

son of Felix and Drusilla,
Ageus, or Haggai, the prophet, ii. iii. 173.
101. He prophesies at the re-

Fonteius slaju, iv. 244.
building of the temple, 102. Abab, king of Israel, i. 439. Is re-
Agones, or games every fifth year, proved by Elijah, 445. Fights

in honour of Cæsar, instituted by with Benhadad, and beats bim,
Herod, ii. 356. iii. 315. At the 446, et seq. Pardons bim, 449.
finishing Cæsarea, ii. 396.

Is afterwards killed himself by
Agrippa, (Marens the Roman's) the Syrians, 454. His sons, ii. 21.

bounty towards the Jews, ii. 151. Ahaz, king of Judah, ii. 39.
Is splendidly entertained by He- Ahaziah, son of Abab, i. 455..5,20.

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