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we to esteem his alike hard words of the Christians to be blots upon his own character, and not upon theirs.
VII. Since therefore Tacitus, soon after the publication of Josephus's Antiquities, and in contradiction to them, was de. termined to produce such idle stories about the Jews, and since one of those idle stories is much the same with that published in Josephus against Apion, from Manetho and Lysimachus, and no where else met with so fully in all antiquity, it is most probable that those Antiquities of Josephus
were the very occasion of Tacitus giving us these stories, as • we know from Josephus himself, contr. A pion, B. i. sect. 1,
that the same Antiquities were the very occasion of Apion's publication of his equally scandalous stories about them, and which Josephus so thoroughly confuted in his two books written against them. And if Tacitus, as I suppose, had also read these two books, his procedure in publishing such stories after he had seen so thorough a confutation of them, was still more highly criminal. Nor will Tacitus's fault be much less, though we suppose he neither saw the Antiquities, nor the books against Apion, because it was not so very easy for bim, then at Rome, to have had more authentic accounts of the origin of the Jewish nation, and of the nature of the Jewish and Christian religion, from the Jews and Christians themselves, which he owns were very numerous there in his days; so that his publication of such idle stories is still utterly inexcusable.
VIII. It is therefore very plain, after all, that notwithstanding these encomiums of several of our learned critics upon Tacitus, and hard suspicions upon Josephus, that all the involuntary) mistakes of Josephus, in all his large works put together, their quality as well as quantity, considered, do not amount to near so great a sum, as do these gross errors and misrepresentations of Tacitus's about the Jews amount to in a few pages, so little reason have some of our later and lesser critics to prefer the Greek and Roman profane historians and writers to the Jewish, and particularly to Josephus. Such later and lesser critics should have learned more judgment and modesty from their great father Joseph Scaliger, when, as we have seen, after all his deeper inquiries, he solemnly pronounces, De Emend. Temp. Prolegom. p. 17. That “Josephus was the most diligent and the greatest lover of truth of all writers:" and is not afraid to affirm, that “it is more safe to believe him, not only as to the affairs of the Jews, but also as to those that are foreign to them, than all the Greek and Latin writers, and this because his fidelity and compass of learning are every where conspicuous.”
TABLE of the Jewish Weights and MEASURES, particu
larly of those mentioned in Josephus's WORKS. ..
Of the Jewish Measures of LENGTH.
Inches. Feet. Inches. Cubit, the standard ..
21 , . 1 9 Zereth or large span ..
104 Small span . . : : . .
0 7 Palm or hand's breadth .. 3 . , 0 31 Inch or thumb's breadth . . 1,16 .
1,16 Digit or finger's breadth
' ,875 . 0 ,875 Orgyia or fathom . .
84 . . 7 0 Ezekiel's Canneb or reed
126 . . 10 6 Arabian Cannah or pole
168 . . Schænus's line, or chain . 1680, 140 0 Sabbath day's journey ..
42000 $500 Jewish mile . . . . . 84000 . 7000 0 Stadium or furlong . . .
8400 . 700 Parasang ....252000 · 21000 0
Of the Jewish Measures of CAPACITY.
Cub. Inch. Pints or Pounds. Bath or Epha . ..... 807,274 . . 27,83 Chorus or Chomer . . . . 8072,74 . . 278,3 Seah or Saton . . . . .
269,091 .. 9,266 Ditto according to Josephus . 828,28 . . 28,3 Hin . . . . . . . . 134,54 .. 4,4633 Ditto according to Josephus, 414,12 .. 14,3 Omer or Assaron .... 80,722 ..; 2,78 Cab ........ 44,859 .. 1,544
.. 11,21. . . ,39 Metretes or Syrian firkin .. 207 .. 7,125
Of the Jewish Weights and Coins.
Stater, Siclus, or shekel of the sanctuary,
standard . . . . . . . . . . .
Adarchmon, one-half . . . . . . .
Gerah, or Obolus, one-twentieth ..... 0 0
21900 grains Troy
Table of the Jewish Months in Josephus and others, with the · names of the Syromacedonian names Josephus gives them,
and of the Julian or Roman months corresponding to them. Hebrew Names. Syromacdeonian Names. Roman Names. (1.) Nisan Xanthicus March and April (2.) Jyar Artemisius April and May (3.) Sivan Dæsius May and June (4.) Tamuz Panemus June and July (5.) Ab Lous
July and August (6.) Elul Gorpiæus August and September (7.) Tisri
Hyperberetæus September and October (8.) Marhesvan Dius
October and November (9.) Casleu Apellæus November and December (10.) Tebeth Audinæus December and January (11.) Shebat Peritius January and February (12.) Adar Dystrus . February and March ( ) Ve Adar, or ihe second Adar, intercalated.
The first number is that of the respective Volume, the second refers to the
AARON, i. 97. Is made high- Abishai, i. 313.
priest, iii. 184. His sons, i. 138. Abner, son of Ner, i. 325. Saul's
kinsman, 272. General of his
rah, i. 25. Leaves Chaldea and
the Egyptians in the mathema-
tical sciences, 28. Divides the
ib. God promises him a son, 30.
boam, i. 428. Succeeds his fa- 43.
353. Is recalled by a stratagem
305. Saves his life, and flies to 356. His army is put to flight,
of the high-priesthood, 388. dies, ib.
Acenchres, queen of Egypt, ib.
i. 215. Is punished, 216.
Acme, iii. 20. Her letters to An-
chemites, i. 244. Is expelled, death, 27.
giants, attacks David, i. 371. Is
Acratheus, or Hatach, ii. 118.
ycar of Herod's reign, ii. 336, 3 15.
pedition to the Bosphorus, ib.
firms their privileges, ji. 386. His
the crown, i. 379. Takes sanc of the Jews, 400. And to those
rod's grandson, iii. 5. 72. His
228. Is made prisoner, and has manacled and imprisoned, 80, et
piness foretold, 81. Is released,
and made lord of two tetrarcbies,
with the title of king, 86. Gives
at Rome, 94. Is sent by the se-
nate to Claudius, 138. His advice
for 1300 years, till the reign of stows on him almost all the do-
minions of his grandfather, 142.
the stage in a magnificent dress,
Dies an unnatural death soon
after, 152. His death and chil-
bis son by Cypros, iji.389.
Did not immediately succeed in
his father's kingdom, 154. Clau-
Herod [of Chalcis), 168, 390.
chies of Philip and Lysanias, 172.
siege of Gamala, iv. 55. His let-
sent away by Abraham, i. 36. famous speech to the Jews, to
taken off the Jews by Demetrius, the Romans, 407, et seq.
son of Felix and Drusilla,
Fonteius slaju, iv. 244.
in honour of Cæsar, instituted by with Benhadad, and beats bim,
Is afterwards killed himself by
bounty towards the Jews, ii. 151. Ahaz, king of Judah, ii. 39.