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.וס or דמים here seems to be added exegetically of נפשות so that
this sense the
passage will be found to correspond with what is said ver, 20. “Thou hast broken thy yoke, and burst thy bands, and hast said, I will not be in subjection."
33.---have I taught calamities thy ways.] The Masoretes for 1993 adopt nin), which is countenanced by the LXX. Syr. Chald. Vulg. and by fifteen MSS. and four Editions. Nevertheless I prefer the received reading of the text, which implies, that God had directed calamities where to find them, in return for their having addressed themselves to idolatrous pursuits.
34. Also in thy skirts is found blood] The LXX. and Syr. seem to have read yoga" in thy hands" instead of 70932. But all the col. lated MSS. concur in the latter ; and 'n may signify both the skirts of a garment, and the outskirts or borders of a city or country, both which senses are here intended, the former being the metaphorical, the latter the literal sense. For 57 the LXX read on, and in one MS. there is an erasure of two letters after on. The plural verb ixyn, and the plural affix in Onxxn require 87. In the law the blood is said to be the life of an animal ; Gen. ix. 4. Lev. xvii. 14. Deut. xii.
. And in like manner it is obvious that, Gen. ix. 5. 1998 Sunway Dn700x should not be rendered, “the blood of your lives ;" but ** your blood, even your lives, will I require."
Ibid.- in a digged hole) Thus the LXX. and indeed all the ancient Versions represent the sense of nonna, except that the LXX. rather read ninna in the plural number, sy drogurypariv. So likewise our ancient English Version, “ I have not found it in holes.” The meaning of which is this; In the law it is commanded, Lev. xvii. 13. that the blood of animals killed in hunting should be covered with dust ; in order, no doubt, to create an horror at the sight of blood. In allusion to this command, it is urged against Jerusalem, Ezek. xxiv. 7. that she had not only shed blood in the midst of her, but that “ she had set it upon the top of a rock, and poured it not upon the ground to cover it with dust ;'> that is, she had seemed to glory in the crime, by doing it in the most open and audacious manner, so as to challenge God's vengeance.
In like manner it is said here, that God had not discovered the blood that was shed in holes under ground, but that it was sprinkled upon every oak, before which their inhuman sacrifices had been performed.
Ibid.--upon every oak] So the LXX. and Syr. rightly render obx, according to its proper sense in this place. See the note preceding.
36.-thy ways] The LXX. Syr. and Vulg. read 74377, and so do three MSS. two of them ancient.
Ibid. By means of Egypt also- ] The people of Judah seem to have courted the assistance of foreign nations by a sinful compliance with their idolatrous customs. But this measure, it is observed, had already failed them, and they had been disappointed in their expectations from Assyria in the time of king Ahaz, who, as we read, 2 Chron. xxviii. 16 21. called upon the king of Assyria to help him in his need ; but he distressed him only, instead of helping him. In the same manner also, it is here prophesied, they would be served by the Egyptians; whose alliance would only disappoint them, and make them ashamed of having trusted to so ineffectual a support; and it turned out accordingly. See Ch. xxxvii. 7, 8,
37. With thy hands upon thy head) To cover the head was a mark of great affliction. See Ch. xiv. 3. 2 Sam. xiii, 19. xv. 30.
1. Whilst thou sayest) In the copies of the LXX. now extant, there is no word in the Greek that answers to 788). But that this was not always the case, may be learnt from Jerome, who here expresses himself thus, " Vulgo dicitur (pro quo LXX tantum dicitur traustulerunt) Si &c."- But: 20x5 is a gerund, Dicendo, and requires to be constructed with the words that follow, mangyn mu nxi, thus ; " In saying" or, " Whilst thou sayest, or acknowledgest that the law of God, Deut. xxiv. 14. forbids a man to take to his wife again, whom he had divorced, and who had gone from him, and engaged herself to another ; EVEN THOU hast
from me, and hast had an unlawful commerce with many lovers ; and of course hast placed thyself in such a predicament, as to have no reason to expect that I should take to thee again upon any consideration. Yet after all this I give thee liberty to return, to me, saith JEHOVAH." The Vulgate subjoins, el ego suscipiam le, "and I will take thee again.” Which words, though not to be found in any copy of the Hebrew text, nor in any other of the ancient versions, are clearly implied. It is observable, that not only the letter of the law is here set forth in the prohibition, “He shall not return unto her," or take her again ; but the reason of it is specified, Blest the land be defiled," or caused to sin, by the encouragement which such facility in the husband might afford to vice and licentiousness. But in the present instance God assumes the authority of a supreme Lawgiver, that of dispensing with his own laws, whenever the good intention of them can be better answered by a different mode of proceeding. We
likewise remark, how well this mercitul declaration tallies with what was before declared at the very beginning of this prophecy, Ch. ii. 2. that God was inclined to remember in favour of his people that tenderness and affection, which he bore them in former days, when he at first espoused them, or took them into covenant with him.
2.-in the highways] So 09397-59 signifies, Ch. vi. 16. And these words I connect with those that go before, as they bespeak the flagrancy of the crime, committed not in a private retired corner, which would
argue some regard to decency at least , but with the most consummate impudence " in the public ways,” in the face of the whole world, setting all authority, divine and human, at defiance, and corrupting others by the vile example. See Ezek. xvi. 24, 25. 31.
of April ;
Ibid. - like an Arabian in the desert] Mr Harmer has cited from a. MS. of Sir John Chardin the following lively description of the attention and eagerness of the Arabs in watching for passengers, whom they! may spoil. , “ Thus the Arabs wait for caravans with the most violent. " avidity, looking about them on all sides, raising themselves up on “ their horses, running here and there to see if they cannot perceive:
any smoke, or dust, or tracks on the ground, or any other marks, “ of people passing along.” Harmer's Observations, Vol. I, Ch. ii. Obs. 7.
3. And although the showers have been withholden] The general import of the passage is, That though God had begun in some degree to chastise his people (as he threatened, Lev. xxvi. 19. Deut. xxviii, 23.) with a view to their reformation, his chastisement had not pro. duced the desired effect, for they continued as abandoned as before, without shewing the least sign of shame or remorse. By the showers we are to understand what is otherwise called the former or first rain, being the first that falls in autumn after a long summer's drought, which is usually terminated in Judea and the neighbouring countries by heavy showers that last for some days. In Judea, according to Dr. Shaw, who, as Mr Harmer well observes, must have learnt it by inquiries from the inhabitants of the country, the beginning of November is the time of the first descent of rain; though in other parts of Syria it happens
The latter rain is that which generally comes about the middle after which it seldom or never rains during
the whole summer. And therefore when at the prayer of Samuel the Lord sent thunder and rain in the time of wheat harvest, as we read 1 Sam. xii, 17, 18., such an unusual phænomenon, happening immediately according to the prophet's prediction, was justly considered as an authentic sign of his having spoken by the divine authority. But we are not to conclude, as some have done, that between the former and latter rains there was no more rain during the whole winter. The fact is otherwise ; for besides what are sometimes called the second rains, which commonly succeed the firsi after an interval of fine weather for a number of days, the winter months are more or less indiscriminately wet, as may be collected from sundry passages in Scripture, as well as from the accounts of travellers who have been in those parts. However the former and lat. ter, or as we may call them, the autumnal and vernal, rains are particularly distinguished, because that on the regular returns of these the plentiful haryests essentially depend; the former being absolutely requisite for seed time; and the latter for filling the ears of corn before the harvest comes on." I say, the former for seed time; for Mr Harmer very justly reproves those, who suppose the former rain not to come till after sowing, to make the seed take root; for the Arabs of Barbary, be says,
their grounds after the first rains in order to sow wheat; and the sowing of barley, &c. is still later; and at Aleppo too the ploughing does not commence" till after the rainy season is come. And we may fairly presume the câse tò be the same in Judea, since after the long dry weather the parched ground would naturally require some previous moistening, before it could be put in fit order for receiving the seed. But not only the crops of grain must suffer by the suspension or failure of either the
,תקראי rather think that by a transposition of letters we should read
את קראת One MS . reads .קרא and another that reads ,קראי reads
first, or latter rains, or of both; but by the uncommon lengthening of the summer drought, the pasturage would fail for the cattle, and the fountains and reservoirs, or cisterns of waters, from whence the people of that country had their chief or only supply, would be exhausted and dried up; so that there would be at least as much danger of perishing by thirst as by famine.-See Harmer's Observations, Vol. I, Ch. i. Concerning the Weather in the holy land.
4. Wilt thou not from henceforward call upon me] '087 must needs be
wrong. Twenty one MSS. and three Editions read according to the marginal correction in Van der Hooght's Edition nxmp. But I
, which is favoured by the Chald, and Syr. versions, by one MS. which
. . which would amount to the same sense, n877 being the feminine participle present.
5. Shall displeasure be held in view for ever?] Both 7703077 and 7 vi are passive verbs in the 3d pers. sing. of the future, taken impersonally. 702 signifies to keep the eye fixed on an object, as upon a mark of displeasure with a settled design of avenging. See ver. 12. And now, to note or mark faults, with a like view to punishment. See Taylor's Hebrew Concordance on both these words.
Ibid. Behold thou hast spoken and done] All the ancient versions appear to have read 6727 instead of 1727, and so do twenty eight MSS. (two of them ancient) and five Editions either in the text or margin. God had by his prophets endeavoured to dissuade his people from going on with their evil courses, but his arguments had no weight with them; they continued to do as they had said or resolved; they carried their wicked thoughts into execution, in spite of all that was urged to the contrary. Ibid.-and hast prevailed) For any it is obvious we should read
, . It properly signifies, “thou hast carried thy point in the contest.” See ch, xx7
6. Here begins an entire new Section or distinct Prophecy, which is continued to the end of the 6th Chapter. The charge of hypocrisy upon Judah at the 10th verse of this Chapter points out the date of this prophecy to have been in the reign of Josiah, and some time after his eighteenth year, when the people under the influence of their good king were professedly engaged in measures of reformation ; which however are here declared to have been insincere.
This prophecy consists of two distinct parts. The first part contains a complaint against Judah for having exceeded the guilt of her sister Israel, whom God had already cast off for her idolatrous apostasy. (v. 6–12.) The prophet is hereupon sent to announce to Israel the promise of pardon upon her repentance, and the hopes of a glorious resto ration in after times, which are plainly marked out to be the times of the gospel, when the Gentiles themselves were to become a part of the Church. (v. 12,-21.) The children of Israel confessing and be
.ותעשי as well as ,ותוכלי
wailing their sins, have the same comfortable assurances as before re-, peated to them, v. 22.---Ch. iv. 2.
In the second part, which begins Ch.iv. 3. and is prefaced with an address to the people of Judah and Jerusalem, exhorting them to prevent the divine judgments by a timely repentance, the Babylonian invasion is clearly and fully foretold, with all the miseries which it would be attended with ; and the universal and incorrigible depravity of the people is represented at large, and pointed out as the justly provoking cause of the national ruin.
7.---saw it] M8771. Nineteen MSS. and three Editions read with the Masoretes N701, omitting the 17, which however may be the pronoun affix, it. 9. And it came to pass] Four MSS. (two of them ancient) and one
.---I , nice in the choice of the objects, but was ready to prostitute herself to all that came in her way; that is, she eagerly fell in with all kinds of idolatrous worship indiscriminately, descending so low as to images of wood and stone.
11.-.-hath justified herself] 779 77898; hath appeared righteous in comparison with Judah. A phrase of the like sort occurs, Luke xviii. 14. where the humble penitent publican is said to have gone down to his house justified rather than the proud presumptuous Pharisee.
12.---towards the north---] Assyria and Media, where the ten tribes of Israel were disposed of by their conqueror, who carried them into captivity, lay to the north of Judea.
Ibid. I will not look down upon you with a lowering brow] 4Dx Ni ga 19-Literally, “ I will not let my countenance fall upon you.” So when Cain was wroth, it is said, that “ his countenance fell," 1038 13819, Gen. iv. 5. On the contrary, the lifting up of the countenance upon any person denotes favour and good will towards him. Sec Numb. vi. 26.
Ibid.— I will not keep displeasure in view for ever.] 13 70 NS See ver. 5.
14. For I have been a husband among you] The covenant between God and his people is often represented as a marriage contract; see Note on Ch. ii. 2. When therefore God says here, that he had been, or had acted the part of, a husband among them, he means to remind them, that he had fulfilled the covenant on his part, by protecting and blessing them as he had promised, when he engaged to be their God. And therefore as they had never any reason to complain of him, he urges them to return to their duty, and promises in that case to be still kinder to them than before.
, ', Ch. xxxi. 32. and the Note there.
Ibid. And I will take you one out of a city, &c.] This undoubtedly relates to their call into the Christian Church, into which they were brought, not all at a time, nor in a national capacity, but severally as
,ואנכי בעלתי בס ,See the words