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There shall the screech owl cause to return,
And shall find unto herself, a place of rest.

For here" shall cause to return and shall find" forms a kind of Hen. diadys, and imports," shall recover," or "shall find again” what had been once quitted or lost; an idiom very similar to that by which "to return and to do" means to do a thing over again. Almost the same

תרגיע ולא יהיה מנוח לכף רגלך .65 .phrase occurs Deut. xxviii

, literally," thou shalt not cause to return, nor shall there be, a resting place unto the sole of thy foot," that is, thou shalt never regain such a resting place.-Again, Isa. li. 4. after saying,

For a law from me shall proceed,

how fitly does it follow in the next hemistich,

And my judgment will I restore ('78) for a light unto the

By "my judgment" is clearly meant that rule of moral conduct, which God originally impressed upon the hearts and consciences of all men; but which having been darkened and almost obliterated by human depravity, God was pleased to "restore" to them again by a new promulgation in the Gospel. And I wish it may be considered whether the following translation of Prov, xii, 19. does not recommend itself.

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The lip of truth shall be established for a witness,
But a lying tongue is a witness which I shall reject.

TRAIN TI—“ I shall cause him to return," whenever he offers himself as a witness. As it is undoubtedly the part of a wise and upright judge to turn back, and not to admit the evidence of one, who is notorious for falsehood.-Other instances occur in this book, all serving to confirm the same general idea, as will be hereafter remarked in the Notes on Ch. xxxi. 2. xlvii. 6. xlix. 19. 1. 34. 44.

17. And I will set over you watchmen] Our Translators have supplied the word " saying" after "watchmen ;" but it is not wanting. God declares his intention of sending watchmen to give timely warning to his people; and at the same time exhorts them to pay due attention to the warning so given them by sound of trumpet, as the manner of watchmen was in making public proclamation of the enemy's approach. By "watchmen" are meant God's prophets; See Ezęk. iii. 17. xxxiii. 2–9. Isa. lviii. 1. These were accordingly sent, and did give warning; but the people were as good as their word; they did not hearken. See Ch. xxv. 3---7.

18. Wherefore hear, O nations, &c.] The connecting of row with the words preceding is recommended by the parallelism thereby established. For by "the congregation" is meant the congregation of Israel, God's people; and these joined with the heathen nations are just equivalent to "the earth.”

19.---their own imaginations] For nawn, which is in the singular number, thirty one MSS. four Editions, and the margin of Van der Hooght's bible, read nawn in the plural; and this is agree

able to the Syr. Chald. and Vulgate. The LXX. seem to have read analwn, πoggopus autwy.

20.---the rich aromatic reed---] The Calamus aromaticus is a reed of a very fragrant smell, which when cut down, dried, and powdered, becomes an ingredient in the richest perfumes. It is spoken of Isa. xliii. 24. as being costly, and applied to sacred uses. Theophrastus, Hist. plant. lib. ix. c. 7. and Pliny after him, Hist. Nat. lib. xii. sect. 48. say, that this reed, and that of the very best sort too, grew in Syria near mount Libanus. But had this been the case, I hardly suppose the Jews would have taken the trouble of fetching it from " a far country," when they could have procured it in their own neighbourhood. It is most probable, that this reed, as well as the frankincense, came to them from Saba where it grew, as we are informed by Strabo. lib. xvi, p. 778. and by Diod. Sic. Hb. iii. p. 125. Edit. Rhodomanni. Pliny also in the place above cited speaks of it as a native of Arabia ; and Dionysius in his Пginys enumerates it among the fragrant productions of that country.

Άλλο δε τοι και θαυμα μεγ' εξοχον ελλαχ' εκείνης

Αει κηωεσσα θυοις υπο λαρον οδωδεν,

Η θυς, η σμύρνης, η ΕΥΟΔΜΟΥ ΚΑΛΑΜΟΙΟ,
Η και θεσπεσίοιο πεπαινόμενες λίβανοιο,

Η κασίης

ver. 935, &c.

Saba, we know, was situate towards the southern extremity of the peninsula of Arabia; so that it was indeed with respect to Judea " a far country," as it is also said to be, Joel iii. 8. And our Saviour speaking of its queen, whom he calls "the queen of the south," says that she came εκ των περάτων της γης, "from the extreme parts of the earth." • Matt. xii. 42.

21. Together shall the inhabitant and his companion perish] "The hemistichs seem to require that should be thus connected." Dr DURELL. -Twenty MSS. and four Editions read with the Masora, 17281; but the ancient versions agree with the present reading, which seems preferable.

from the extremities of the earth] See Ch. 1.

23. In orderly array---] ---This seems to be the participle Pahul used adverbially, as in Latin ordinate from ordinatus. Or at least it must, I think, be considered so, Ch. 1. 42. although here it may be the participle in agreement with a in the preceding verse, as well as 18, which are also in the singular number, whilst the intermediate verbs are all plural in regard to the plural sense of the subject.

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22.---a great nation 41, 42. Isa. v. 26---30.

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25. Go ye not forth---] The Masoretes here read n and in, and all the ancient versions concur in the same. Thirteen MSS. and two Editions countenance in, and seventeen MSS, and two Edi

.תלכו tions read

26.---gird on sackcloth---] As the wearing of sackcloth girt round

the body next the flesh (see 2 Kings vi. 30.) is often mentioned in Scripture as usual in times of mourning and lamentation, and appears, according to our notions, a very harsh kind of discipline; it may not be amiss to take notice once for all what kind of sackcloth is meant. Mr Harmer cites Sir John Chardin's MS. to shew, that the sacks used by travellers in the east for carrying their necessaries with them were made of coarse wool, guarded with leather; and then proceeds to infer with great probability, that "if the sacks were woollen, the sackcloth, with which the Eastern people were wont to clothe themselves at particular times, means coarse woollen cloth, such as they made sacks of, and neither haircloth, nor rough harsh cloth of hemp, as we may have been ready to imagine; for it is the same Hebrew word which signifies sacks that is translated sackcloth. And as the people of very remote antiquity commonly wore no linen, there was not that affectation in what they put on in times of humiliation, as we in the west may perhaps have apprehended. They only put on very coarse mean woollen garments, instead of those that were finer, but of the same general nature." Harmer's Observ. Ch. V. Obs. iv.---Sitting or lying down in ashes was another custom observed on the like occasions. See Esth. iv. 3. Job ii. 8. xlii. 6. Isa. lviii. 5. Jonah iii. 6. &c. &c.


27. I have appointed thee to make an assay, &c.] The images of a tower" and "a fortress," which our translators have here introduced, seem very foreign to this place. The LXX. and Vulgate have rendered 12, doxasny, probatorem, which signifies an Assayer or Trier, from 12, to try; but as the word is 12, and not 12, perhaps it may rather mean " the office" or "business of assaying," being either the infinitive of the verb, which implies the action itself, and not the agent; or a noun immediately formed from thence. As for 27, Dr DURELL has suggested, that it is a compound of the preposition, and 132, gold; and proposes to render, "I have appointed thee to try my people beyond (or more than) gold." But n has sometimes the force of DE, concerning, or, in regard to; and the which now precedes

n, where it is not at all necessary, but rather unsuitable, as it would act with a conversive force, I think may be joined to 2n, reading 12, and rendering thus, "I have appointed thee the office of an assaymaster among my people as to the gold thereof;" that is, to try what is in them of genuine worth and excellence, which like pure gold will stand the utmost test. How well this agrees with the following context, is obvious enough.

28.---the dross of revolters---] For 70, which can afford no good sense, twenty one MSS. and one Edition read w, and the Syr. Chald. and Vulg. accordingly interpret, "princes," or, "chief of revolters." But I think from considering the context, and comparing a passage nearly parallel to this, Ezek. xxii. 18, 19, 20. it is almost certain that we should read 'D, "the dross," 66 or alloy," that is found in the fine metals. The wicked are frequently designed by this comparison; Ps. cxix. 119. Prov. xxv. 4. Isa. i. 22, 25.

Ibid.---Passing with a fraudulent currency] ---The verb

signifies to go about buying and selling to advantage; but, which I take to be an adverb, joined with is constantly used in a bad sense. Our Translators have rendered these words, "talebearers," or persons "walking with slanders.” But I can see no reason, in any of the passages where they occur, to consider them as signifying any thing else than what we understand by the word, sharpers, persons that go about practising imposition wherever they can make advantage of it. So that having in view the metaphor of "dross," or impure alloy, I think we may fairly render in this place, as expres

sed in the version.

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Ibid. Instruments of adulteration] Forty five MSS. (of which seven, are ancient) and six Editions read 'nnun, "adulterating" which seems right; for brass and iron are the baser metals, used to adulterate the pure silver. The LXX. Syr. and Vulg. seem however to have read nnwn, the passive participle in Hophal, "corrupted" or terated ;" and so do three MSS.


29.--by the fire] For pnwxn the Masoretes with twenty one MSS. three old Editions, and the LXX, and Vulgate versions, divide and

.מאש תם,read

Ibid. The lead is entirely spent] Before the use of quicksilver, was known, the refiners used lead to separate the silver from the other substances mixed with it. So we learn from Pliny, Nat. Hist. Lib. xxxiii, sect. 31. "Excoqui (argentum) non potest, nisi cum plumbo nigro, aut cum vena plumbi."

Ibid. The refiner hath melted---] For position. So the ancient versions all , where the Cholem is sunk, and one large.

y we should read by transagree; and nine MSS. read , where it is expressed at


Ibid.---the bad are not separated.] By , "the bad," are meant according to the metaphor the base ingredients; that is, the bad principles and habits, which prevail so much, and adhere so closely, that all the endeavours and pains used by the refiner to purge them away, and get clear of them, are frustrated and prove ineffectual; so that, as it follows in the next verse, nothing remains but to throw them aside as a metal disallowed and cried down by authority, counterfeiting silver, but not capable of being brought to the sterling standard.


A new prophecy begins with this Chapter, and is continued on to the end of Chap. x. The date is not precisely marked, but the probability is, that it was delivered not long after the preceding one, and, as it should seem, on the following occasion. Besides the prophets who were commissioned to announce the approaching calamities of Judah and Jerusalem, there were others who took upon themselves to flatter the people with opposite predictions. They taught them to look upon such threats as groundless, since God, they said, would have too much


regard for his own honour, to suffer his temple to be profaned, and the seat of his holiness to be given up into the hand of strangers. Jeremiah is therefore commanded openly to reprove the falsehood of these assertions, and to shew by an example in point, that the sanctity of the place would afford no security to the guilty; but that God would assuredly do by his house at Jerusalem what he had done unto Shiloh and cast the people of Judah out of his sight, as he had already cast off the people of Israel, for their wickedness, v. 1---19. God justifies the severity of his proceedings by a representation of his people's impiety, v. 17--20. The prophet declares their sacrifices to be of no acceptance, whilst they continued deaf to the calls of God's messengers, v. 21--28. He specifies the gross idolatries with which they wese defiled; and pronounces a heavy sentence of divine vengeance both on the dead and on the living; v. 29---Ch. viii. 3.

1, 2. The word which came, &c.] These two verses are omitted in the LXX. except the words, "Hear ye the word of JEHOVAH, all Judah." But the whole is acknowledged by the other versions, and by all the collated MSS, with a few slight variations.

3. And I will dwell among you] So the Vulgate renders

, and rightly, as I think, especially as the temple was in view, the place of God's residence. See Exod. xxv. 8. xxix. 45. 1 Kings vi. 13. Ezek. xliii. 7, 9. Zech. ii. 10, 11.

4.-in those that speak falsehood] 27 I conceive to be the participle in this place; of which similar instances occur, Ps. v. 6. xxviii. 3. Ixiii. 11. &c.---The Targum intimates, that the reason of the repetition of the words, "The temple of JEHOVAH," three times, was because every Jew was obliged to visit the temple thrice a year. Perhaps we may rather represent to ourselves the speakers as standing before the temple, and pointing to the different parts of the building in front, and on each wing, and saying severally of them, What you see here is the temple of JEHOVAH. Just as our Saviour's disciples, immediately after their Lord had been foretelling the destruction of Jerusalem, came to him, and with similar notions in their heads (as from our Saviour's reply may be collected) pointed out to him the magnificent buildings of the temple. Matt. xxiv. 1, 2.

10. Deliver us---` -] So I think it best to render by as the imperative singular in Pihel, with the affix of the first person plural. God reproves the impiety of those, who were for making him an accomplice in their wicked deeds by desiring his patronage and protection for the authors of them; and who were for considering his house as an asylum and refuge for the worst of criminals.

11. Even I, behold, I have seen, saith JEHOVAH] In these words God declares that the wicked actions of men do not pass unnoticed by him; but that he sees them with the eye of a vigilant and just Governor, who will not permit such misconduct to pass off with impunity, whatever miscreants may think of him. Ps. xciv. 7---9.

12. But go nowy to my place which was in Shiloh] Shiloh was the

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