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21.---into the court of the prison] This was not belonging to the house of Jonathan the scribe, where the dungeon was; but the court of the prison in the king's house, mentioned Ch. xxxii. 2.

Ibid.---and allowed him] Literally, "allowing him also ;" for 103 is the infinitive used for a Gerund.

CHAP. XXXII.

THE date of the following transaction and prophecy is ascertained at the beginning of this Chapter to have been in the tenth year of Zedekiah's reign, whilst the Chaldeans invested the city, and Jeremiah was confined in the court of the prison. These circumstances shew, that it must have been after that the Egyptians had retreated back to their own land, and the Chaldeans had renewed the siege a second time. Different however is the opinion of Usher, Prideaux, and other learned men, who suppose a prior imprisonment of Jeremiah, immediately after he had spoken to Zedekiah, as is represented Ch. xxxiv. 1--- 7. And the ground of this supposition seems to be, his being here in this chapter said to have been confined by Zedekiah for having spoken those words. But it does not follow from hence, that he was immediately put under confinement for the offence so given. No such thing is related Ch. xxxiv. nor expressly asserted elsewhere. On the contrary, it is expressly denied, Ch. xxxvii. 4. where it is said, that at the time the message came from Zedekiah during the temporary absence of the Chaldeans, Jeremiah was at full liberty, “ for they had not cast him into prison.” Words which could not have been properly used, had he been released from prison but a very little while before. The truth, I am persuaded, is, that Jeremiah was confined by order of Zedekiah but once, and then in consequence of the disagreeable truths spoken by him, as is here reported. For it is evident, that the king, when he sent for him, Ch. xxxvii. 17. had nothing to lay to his charge, nor does he offer to disprove the prophet's asseverations of his innocence. But he was probably mortified to perceive, that the prophet's sufferings had not made him more pliable, as he hoped to have found him, but that he still persisted in his former denunciations of evil; and therefore, though he condescended to mitigate, he would not absolutely release him from his confinement, but committed him to the court of the prison; which accordingly became the scene of the following transaction. I trust there. fore that this Chapter and that which follows next will appear to be inserted in their proper place.

The circumstances of time and place being specified as above in the five first verses, Jeremiah relates the order he received from God to buy the field of Hanameel ; which he does in due form, and delivers the writings to Baruch to keep safely, in token of God's promise to restore the rights of possession in the land, v. 6..-15. Jeremiah in a prayer to God acknowledges his infinite greatness and power, and the wonders of his goodness to Israel, with the ungrateful and contumacious behaviour of that people, which had derived the present evil upon them ; and concludes with an humble representation of the desperate circum

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.ועינן and not ,ועיניך where we read

stances of his country, notwithstanding which he had been commanded to make the foregoing purchase, v. 16-25. In reply God asserts his own allsufficiency; and then goes on to avow his determined resolution to give up the city to be taken and burned by the Chaldeans, because of the many and great provocations that had been given him, v. 26--35. He promises however in time to reassemble his people, and bring them back to their own land, to enter into covenant with them anew, and to promote their welfare ; so that the land, though given up to desolation at present, should flourish again, and possessions be once more bought and sold, as in former time, v. 36---to the end.

1.---the tenth year---] Bogowy nav)---The Masora here proposes to read yang awa, with the concurrence of sixteen MSS. and three Editions. But nowa is equally justifiable by usage. See Ch. xlvi. 2. li. 59. &c. &c.

4.---and his eyes---] The Masora here reads 1949. This is clearly right, and is confirmed by fifty four MSS, and seven Editions, together with all the ancient versions, and the parallel passage, Ch. xxxiv. 3.

, . 5.---When ye shall fight against the Chaldeans, ye shall not prosper.] Three MSS. ancient ones, read 1879 yn rb, according to which the Syriac renders, “ for ye shall fight against the Chaldeans, but shall not prosper.” A turn very suitable to the context.

7.---thine is by law the redemption for to purchase] See Lev. xxv. 25. odwn is the law or ordinance there established, and is governed by the preposition %, sunk by Ellipsis at the beginning; answering to jure or de jure, in Latin.

8.---thine is by law the inheritance---) See Numb. xxvii. 11.

9.---and I paid him the money, seventeen shekels of silver] As money was anciently paid by weight and not by tale, the verb bpw is often used simply for to pay, and the act of weighing in the balance, or scales, being specified particularly in the next verse, I have rendered raspunt here simply, " And I paid”...See Isa. lv. 2. where spun is applied, not only to silver, which might be weighed, but to labour also, where it can only signify the paying or bartering of it in exchange according to its supposed worth. As to the price that was paid, doubts have arisen concerning the amount of it. Seventeen shekels of silver make but about forty shillings sterling; and this has been thought too inconsiderable a price for the purchase of a piece of ground. But it should be considered in the first place, that the quantity of land is uncertain; and next, that the circumstances of the times must have greatly tended to lessen the value of landed 'estates. The field in question was at the time of the purchase in the enemy's possession; and the purchaser well knew, that he or his heirs had no chance of entering upon it till after the expiration of the seventy years captivity; so that the purchase money was not in itself so inadequate, as at first sight might be imagined. Besides the Seller, it is likely, was in immediate want of money, and could get no one else to purchase in the precarious situation things were in. He might therefore be glad to take what the prophet,

who doubtless was not rich, was able to give, and who would not have thought of making the purchase at any rate, had he not acted under the divine direction for a special purpose.

From the construction of

-some have been led to sup שבעה שקלים ועשיה הכסף the words

. ,אעד as well as ,אחתס and אכתב to witness

]
I see no reason why

pose, that

on 1770v meant " ten pieces of silver” of a different value from shekels. But the numerals in Hebrew are so variously disposed in different places, as to afford no certain rule of arguing from thence. Upon the whole I should think, that “ seventeen shekels of silver” are most likely to be the sum here intended ; only perhaps there may be a redundancy of the rin 90077, repeated by mistake from the end of įhe preceding word ; and in one MS. it is omitted. 10. And I had a deed drawn up and sealed, and I caused witnesses

] I , , . may not be tonsidered as in Hiphil. The formalities of a Hebrew bargain of sale are here worth noticing.

11.---that which was sealed [containing] the assignment and the limitations, and that which was open] The deed or instrument of purchase, from what is here said, seems to have been written upon a single roll, but to have consisted of two parts ; the upper part containing 1778917, which I conceive to be the formula, directing the assignment, or making over the property; and p0777," the limitations,” or description of the premises. This part was rolled up, and sealed with the seals of the parties, or perhaps of the public officer who attended; by which the falsification of the contents was prevented. At the bottom, which was left open, perhaps an abstract of the deed was written, and the names of the witnesses ; this being for public notoriety, as the close part was reserved for evidence in case of judicial controversy.

12. And I delivered the purchase deed to Baruch] Baruch was a scribe by profession, and it may be concluded, that the attendance of such a one, skilled in the forms of law, was necessary on those occasions, both to draw up the writings, and to officiate in the capacity of a Notary public with us. And to his custody, as being a public officer, the custody of the Title-deeds was intrusted,

Ibid.---my uncle's son] In the original text we read only 197,“ my uncle ;" but the LXX, Syr. Vulg. and Arab. render,“ my uncle's son,"? as in the preceding verses; and seven, perhaps nine, MSS. read 1977

, .

Ibid.---the witnesses who were written in the purchase deed] Dan977 may be taken either actively, or passively, for those who wrote, or those who were written; and fourteen, perhaps sixteen, MSS. and four an

. The Syr. Chald, and Vulg. also render in the passive. I prefer this too, as the subscription of witnesses to deeds in their own handwriting appears to be a modern practice only. The ancient mode with us, was this; when the instrument was drawn

up, it was read in the hearing of the witnesses (which seems to be what the prophet meant by 01141, “and I caused witnesses to witness') and then the clerk, or scribe, added their names in a sort of memorandum. See Blackstone's Commentaries, Book. ii. Ch. 20.

.הכתוביס cient Editions read

SO

The same I suppose to have been the proceeding here ; nor do I recol. lect in any part of the sacred writings the most distant allusion to a man's signing his own name by way of evidence ; unless it may

be inferred from our English translation of Isai. xliv. 5. where we read, “ And another shall subscribe with his hand unto the Lord;" instead of which the LXX, Aquila, and Symmachus, agree in rendering, “ And another shall write upon his hand, I belong to God;" which Bishop Lowth in his Note upon the place has shewn to be " an allusion s to the marks which were made by punctures rendered indelible by “ fire, or by staining, upon the hand or some other part of the body,

signifying the state or character of the person, and to whom he be

longed; the slave was marked with the name of his master; the sol“ dier, of his commander ; the idolater, with the name or ensign of his

god.” But though there is no allusion in the scriptures to the evidence of subscription, there frequently is to sealing, as a mode of authentication,

Ibid.---and in the presence of all the Jews] Nine, perhaps ten MSS. read here with the conjunction; and so the LXX, Syr. and Vulgatt.

14.-Take these writings] I do not think that this contradicts what is said in the Note on ver. 11. For Oon may be understood of the two parts of the same roll, of which one was sealed, and the other part left

open. 18.-whose name is JEHOVAH of hosts-] One MS. reads you instead of w, and the Vulgate renders, nomen tibi. But the text, I think, needs no alteration; for the rt is emphatic before the three words, Ayy7277 47807773977, and we might render thus, “ the God, the greatest,

the mightiest, he whose name is JEHOVAH of hosts," 20.--and wonders in the land of Egypt, even unto this day] Twenty seven MSS. and twelve Editions read Dindini, as expressed at large in the next verse, where we read Dinainai- It is not meant, that God had continued on working miracles in Egypt from the time of Moses, but that the miracles which he then wrought in Egypt continued still to bear witness to his omnipotency both there and in Israel, and

among all mankind. 21.- and with a stretched out arm] 7171821-Nine MSS. omit the

The word 19778 however occurs for y777 once besides in the Hebrew. Job xxxi. 22. 23.---according to thy law---] Twenty five, perhaps twenty šix MSS.

, , . Some of these MSS. are of the most ancient. One MS. reads 777024. The LXX. and Arab. render in the plural number, but the Syr. Chald. and Vulgate in the singular. In MS. Pachom. the rendering is, sv tal noua

instead of sy TOIS #goscery felolobo 30.---surely the children of Israel have been but provoking me --] Four MSS. and one Edition here add 1977 after y, as before at the be. ginning of the verse,

X.

,ובתוותךinstead of,ובתורתך,and seven Editions

,
read with the Masora

1

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and the ancient versions ,ואני למד אתס we should read ,ולמד אתם

.ואני

* 31. For a yoke of mine anger, and a yoke of mine indignation, hath this city been to me) As I cannot construe by here as a preposition, Iam led to suppose it to be the noun 1793, a yoke, written by abbrevia. tion, Sy. The metaphor, it must be confessed, is strong and singular, but the meaning is obvious enough, and suitable to the context. For as a yoke upon the neck compels the bearer to carry about the burden suspended from it: so, God says, the city of Jerusalem, because of the notorious wickedness of the people, had been as it were a yoke about his neck, having his anger and his indignation so closely connected with it, that he could not dismiss them, till they had caused an entire removal of the offensive object from before him.

33.--and when I taught them] phy, here in the first instance, if the text be right, must be the participle present, agreeing with 4 x ; "they have turned the back, and not the face, unto me, even teaching them.” But this construction seems not very familiar to the Hebrew language. I therefore am inclined to suspect a fault in the text, and that instead of

, of the LXX. Syr. and Vulg. favour this conjecture. One MS. read at first 73- instead of 7230; and the may have been the remains of

. 34, 35.] See Ch. vii. 30, 31. and the Notes there.

35.--to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through unto Mo. lech] Our English version runs, “ to pass through the fire;" but though wra is added in the text, Deut. xviii. 10. 2 Kings xvi. 3. and in several other parallel places, it is not found so here, (except in two MSS.) nor Lev. xviii. 21. It is however, no doubt, to be understood. But how much is implied in thus causing the children to pass through the fire, is a point that learned men are not quite agreed in. Some suppose that the children were only dedicated to the idol deity by a ceremony, in which fire was used without hurting them : and it is certain that 729.7 im. plies no more than a bare dedicating or consecrating, Exod. xiii. 12. On the other hand, by comparing other passages, and particularly the parallel ones, Ch. vii. 31. xix. 4. we shall there see reason to conclude, that the children were actually burned to death in the fire, and consumed like other burnt offerings. See Bishop Patrick's Comment. on Lev. xviii. 21. and Mr Lowth's on Ch. vii. 31. The fact in all probability was, that the more tenderhearted parents were content simply to dedicate their children, waving them perhaps over the fire that was burning before the idol, without doing them any corporal hurt : whilst the gloomy superstition of others prompted them to go greater lengths, and to perpetrate the most in human barbarities under the notion of religious worship. Both however were guilty of actions highly offensive to God, and provoking his resentment.

Ibid.- for to bring guilt upon Judah] Twenty, perhaps twenty one MSS. and two Editions, read with the Masora N21707 instead of 27777. The final x is lost in the of the word that follows.

36.-after this-]127 - See note on Ch. xvi. 14. 40. which I will not withựraw from their posterity] For 3?wn the

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