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der the power which the Philistines once possessed, and the armies they brought into the field ; although their country was scarce forty English miles in length, and much longer than it was broad.
6. Ho! sword of JEHOVAH !] The Babylonish monarch seems to be here addressed by this title, as the Assyrian was by that of “ the rod of God's anger,” Isai. x. 5. such conquerors being the appointed executioners of the divine judgments. Compare Ezek. xiv. 17. xxi. 3, &c.
Ibid. Return-] 12777-See Note on Ch. vi. 16.
7. How can it be at rest] It is obvious from the context that spun is here improperly repeated in the second person, and that we ought to read upwn in the third person ; as all the ancient versions have done.
1. CONCERNING MOAB] The following prophecies concerning the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, and other neighbouring nations, are supposed to have been fulfilled about the same time with that concerning the Philistines in the preceding Chapter, namely, during the siege of Tyre. See Usher's Annals, An. Mundi 3419. Joseph. Ant. Lib. X. Cap. ix. Edit. Huds. With respect to the time of the delivery of these prophecies, see the prefatory Note on Ch. xlvii.
Many passages and expressions will be found in this Chapter, which Jeremiah hath borrowed from a prophecy of Isaiah, Ch. xv. and xvi. concerning a like calamity which befel Moab, in all probability when Shal. maneser king of Assyria seized upon their cities and fortresses, and ravaged their country, on his march through it to invade the kingdom of Israel. By comparing the parallel places much light may be mutually thrown upon them, and, as Bp. Lowth thinks, several mistakes in the present Text of both Prophets may be rectified.
Ibid.- the high fortress-] 27w1917---Our Translators have here ren. dered, “ Misgab,” as the proper name of a city. But we find no mention
any where else of a city of Moab of that name. From the article prefixed I am induced to think that wawno is an appellative, and applied to Kirjathaim, (if the text stand as at present) which by a repetition is said to be confounded, “ high fortress though it were," and broken down, notwithstanding the strength of its situation. In the
, , σχυνθη αμα9 και αγαθ. . What
apa y sat agree can mean, I know not. But in the Alexand, Edition we find instead of these words, aurt to κραταιωμου, και ηττηθη. In MS Pachom. το οχυρωμα Μωαβ, και ηττηθη. And perhaps we may not unreasonably suspect a double error to have crept into the text, and that for 7w127 we ought to read w217 where the it has been added by mistake arising from the next word beginning with 77; and that for inn) we should read man', as the i conversive seems to require. Thus corrected, the text might be rendered in a di rect manner,
The high fortress is confoanded and broken down
,is rendered המשגב וחתה הבישח ,Roman Edition of the LXX
. “ The high fortress” might mean either Kirjathaim beforementioned, or any other high fortress of Moab, as MS. Pachom. suggests.
2.-in Heshbon ; They have devised ] There is a Paranomasia in these words, 1a wm ya wnia ; a figure in which the Hebrew writers seem much to delight. Another occurs presently after in this verse, '377 17. non signifies, “thou shalt be made speechless" with grief and astonishment; See Note on Ch. xlvii. 5.
3. A cry is heard from Horonaim) Literally · The voice of a cry," which is an Hebraism, and means what is expressed in the version. See note on Ch. x. 22.
4.-Her diminished ones-] For 7797783 the Masoretes have substituted 17974yx, and are countenanced by nineteen MSS. and three Editions. The LXX render, uis Zoroça, which leads one to think that they had found, or supposed, the reading to be 777913, answering to 1994, Isai. xv. 5. But I see no reason to suspect an error in the re
, “ diminished ;" being the participle Pahul from 3, and signifying persons reduced or made little, either in number, or in circumstances; as was the case of the Moabites, who are represented as having suffered in both from the hostilities that had been exercised against them.
5.---at the ascent of Luhith-] For ninyo sixteen MSS. and one Edition read with the Masora ninyo, as Isai. xv. 5. and eighteen MSS. and three Editions, n'on. At Luhith the hill country of Moab appears to have begun, and here the people are represented as mounting the hill successively in their flight before the enemy, weeping as they follow one after another. So that froin hence the text in Isaiah may more probably be corrected by reading s2 for 13, Weeping shall go up after weeping.” At Horonaim they again descended into the plain ; where, it is said, “mine enemies” (God is the speaker) “ have heard a cry of destruction.” God calls the Moabites “ his enemies," as bearing them a grudge for the malevolence expressed by them towards his people, the Jews, and for their insolence towards himself; see ver. 26. 42. Ezek. xxv. 8. 9. Zeph. ii. 8. 9, 10,- In Isaiah 193 is not found, and 1999* (perhaps a mistake for 17791”) stands
But these variations may have been by design. 6.And be like a blasted tree-]. That is, a tree stripped of .its foJiage. A proper emblem of one robbed of all his fortune, and just able to escape with life by fleeing into the desart.
7.And Chemosh-] For wapa the Masora reads wing as at ver. 13. and twenty seven MSS. and five Editions, with all the ancient versions, confirm the emendation. Also for 777' the Masora reads 1977); which is likewise confirmed by twenty MSS. and three Editions, besides five MSS. which have a letter erased at the end of 707.
11.- he hath settled upon his lees] All wines, it is said, ought to be kept for some time upon their lees, in order to preserve their strength and flavour ; on which account the lees are expressed by a word that
.שמעו in the place of
,צעים וצעחו cd
signifies the preservers. Wine is apt to be damaged by being drawn off too soon into other vessels. By this allegory therefore Moab is represented as having enjoyed singular advantages from having constantly remained in his own country, ever since he became a people. See Bishop Lowth's excellent Note on Isa. xxv. 6.
12. Nevertheless -] 123 here may signify Nevertheless, or it may be rendered, After this. See Note on Ch. xvi. 14. Ibid.- tilters, that shall tilt him down] Our translators have render
, “ wanderers that shall cause him to wander;" and the same idea of wandering or travelling is elsewhere supposed to belong to 1734; but, I think, without any good grounds. The true signification of this verb may rather be derived from the Arabic, Luo, inclinavit
como destruxit, humiliavit, solo æquavit. The former of these Kro is peculiarly used to signify the tilling or lowering, of a cask, or jar, in order to draw out the contents. Accordingly the LXX. here render, κλινοντας, και κλινουσιν αυτον. The Vulgate, stratores laguncularum, et sternent eum. See Note on Ch. ii. 20. The allegory therefore begun in the preceding verse is here continued, and by O'PY tilters, the Chaldeans are designed, who should lower the vessels of Moab, namely, the cities, and empty them, and also break to pieces their bottles or pitchers, that is destroy the lesser towns and villages, dependant on the cities: to which the bottles or pitchers answer, being filled with the redundancy of the larger vessels.- In confirmation of the above etymology we may observe, how much better a sense is supplied from thence, than that which our translators have given in two places of Isaiah, where the word 7793 occurs. In Isai. li. 14. 7793 is rendered “the captive exile; but it seems raiher to be the participle Pahul which should be written at large 1187; and signifies prostratus. “ the wretch depressed” by misfortunes, or by violent oppression ; and thus
“ the oppressor," of whom it was asked in the preceding verse,
What is become of the fury of the oppressor In reply to which question it follows very aptly, that the cause being removed, the effect would cease ; poor
afflicted sufferer" should soon be released, now that the oppressor was no more.--- Again, Isaiah Ixiii. 1. 1072 272 0793 is rendered in our Bible, “ travelling in the greatness of his strength.” Would it not be much more suitable to the context, “ subduing," or " hambling" his enemies “ by his mighty power ?”
13.---Bethel---] That is, the calf set up there for an object of divine worship, to which the Israelites trusted for protection. 1 Kings xii. 28. 29. Hos, x. 6.
A spoiler of Moab, &c.] The conqueror of Moab is here represented as having gained an eminence above her, and from thence sending down the choice of his troops to massacre those below.---If the distinction of gender in the affix pronouns be attended to, this explanation of the words will be found necessary, and will clear up every difficulty in the construction. Six MSS. read 7710, as at ver 18.
המציק stands opposed to
and ; הללין Seven iMISS
. and one Edition read .וזעקו and חלילו
.וזעקו four Editions read
,הגידי as if they had read ,הגידו der both these verbs singular
18. Come down from splendour, and sit in thirst-] Tliirst is here put in a general sense for a want of the necessaries of life. Some have supposed that Nay may signify the same as 7789%, a dry, parched, thirsty, land. If so, as her former situation might be figured by sitting on a splendid throne, so her present misery by sitting on the ground. See Isai. iii. 26. But the other interpretation seems most natural.--For aw', the Masora, and twenty, perhaps twenty too, MSS. and three Editions read awr; which reading is confirmed by all the ancient versions.
20.--- he is broken down] As Moab is here masculine, being the subject of wan, and is the subject of 701 too, I am inclined to think that for nnn we should read 7777, and that the 7 was added at the end by mistake owing to the next word oon beginning with that letter. See the same again, ver. 39. Ibid.-- Howl
and cry;] For ongos and pin the Masora reads
. ; eight, perhaps ten, MSS. and three Editions, 751777. Twelve MSS. and
. All the ancient versions, except the LXX. express these verbs in the plural number. But the LXX. not only ren
, , . 21.--.Mephaath] For nysin the Masora reads 07153, and so do sixteen, perhaps seventeen, MSS. and three Editions. The Chaldee also expresses the name here, as both, the Hebrew and Chaldee text, Josh, xxi. 37. The Chaldee is also uniform, Josh. xiii. 18. But in the Hebrew Text there we find neon without the "; but twenty two MSS. and three Editions there also read nyop.
26. Make him drunken--] 1070077.--This is certainly the singular number, although the LXX. Syr. and Vulg. with our English translators, have rendered in the plural, as if they had read, 1777750r, which is indeed the reading of seven MSS. and one Edition. But the Chaldee has retained the singular number, and, I think, rightly, the address being made to any one indefinitely; and poor is also the second person singular in the imperative likewise ; the same person being commanded to clap hands at Moab, as pointing him out to scorn and ridi. cule in his despicable condition. This is the proper sense of poo, which indeed is generally followed by a noun expressing the hands; but not always; see Job xxxiv. 37.
27.---Was he found---] For 778393 nine MSS. and three Editions, with the Masora, read Nen).
Ibid.---That thou shouldst insult him with all the power of thy words] Our Translators have rendered 179900, " thou skippedst for joy;" but this seems quite foreign to the purpose ; and besides, the verb is in the future. 1999 199 signifies properly, according to the power, or sufficiency, of thy words, and 7712nn, thou shalt, or shouldest, move, or bestir thyself
. And the sense of all taken together is very apt and suitable. Didst thou find Israel among thieves, coming to rob thee of thy property, that thou shouldst think thyself entitled to break out inta all manner of revilings against him?" Compare Ezek. xxv. 8. Zeph. ii.
8, 10. The LXX. and Syr. render 97 070-12 ', " that thou shouldest make war upon him ;" but they have omitted 70927-472; otherwise the sense would not differ essentially from what I have proposed. Me Lowth has suggested another, though, I think, a less probable translation ; " For the words thou hast spoken against him thou shalt be carried captive.” This agrees with the Chaldee Paraphrase.
28.-by the sides of the pit's mouth] That is, on the edge of the precipice. The mouth of the pit is the same as the brink of destruction; the pit or grave yawning wide, as it were, ready to swallow one up. And the image is peculiarly striking, when a person from the side of a steep rock looks down into a deep gulph below. The Moabites are exhorted to retire for safety to such places, where the apprehensions of danger would secure them from the enemy's pursuit. That doves build in the clefts or natural hollows of a rock, see Cant. ii. 14. Dr Shaw in his Travels p. 162. fol. mentions a city on the African coast, called Hamam-et, from the number of wild pigeons (Hamam) that are bred in the cliffs of the adjacent mountains.
29, 30.] There are several words in these two verses, which are not to be found in the parallel passage, Isa. xvi. 6. But in the main they agree ; and while they describe the overweening pride and insolence of Moab, and the intemperance of his rage, they intimate the small pretensions he had for such high assuming, either in respect of the extent of his power, or of his actual performance.
30.- he is not alike in the extent of his ability] y refers to 1989 in the preceding verse;" he is not so," that is, alike supereminent--- 772 signifies according to the measure, or extent of his power ; see Note on Ch. xxxvi. 18. The LXX. according to MS. Pachom. render it,
" he is not so," alike supereminent, “in performing.” quy is the infinitive mood uscd gerundively, faciendo, or, quoad faciendum.
31.--Shall Jaazer make moan inarticulately through weeping] I have not the least doubt that the subject of 77977is to be found in 788«, which has been improperly separated from it, and, together with the preceding word 'sar, assigned to the beginning of the following
Nor is it difficult to perceive that the mistake has arisen from exacting a greater conformity between this passage and its parallel one, Isa. xvi. than was ever intended. For though Jeremiah has condescended to borrow not only the sentiments, but also the words of his predecessor, he has not tied himself down to observe the same order in their construction, as will abundantly appear from examining the two passages together. 19877 properly signifies to utter a confused imperfect sound, as those do whose voice is broken with grief and weeping : osan," from,” or “ because of weeping,” is therefore added to it emphatically. And Jaazer, one of the cities of Moab, Num. xxxii. 3. is by a beautiful fiction of poetry represented as 'condoling in such a piteous moan with the citizens of Kir-heres on the misfortunes of their country. Kir-heres or Kir-haraseth, appears to have been once the capital, or at least the strongest of the cities of Moab, 2 Kings iii. 25.