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Joshua, Ch. viii. which lay on the west side of Jordan; for all the country of Ammon lay on the east. Grotius mentions another city called Fara by Ptolemy; which being near Heshbon, the destruction of it was matter of concern to the neighbouring city. Jam proximus ardet Ucalegon.


Ibid.within the fences] By

72 are meant those fences or inclosures round the lesser towns, which served to secure them against thieves and robbers, but were not dignified with the name of walls, capable of resisting the attack of a regular enemy. The Psalmist distinguishes these from the fortifications of cities; Ps. lxxxix. 41. "Thou hast broken down all his fences (72;) thou hast brought his strong holds (ap, his walled fortresses) to ruin."--The inhabitants therefore of the lesser towns, the daughters of Rabbah, were destined to run to and fro like persons distracted with fear "within their inclosures," not daring to step beyond them, lest they should fall in with the enemy, whose approach they dreaded,

Ibid.---For Milcom shall go into captivity] Here the same is said of Milcom, as was of Chemosh, Ch. xlviii. 7. which shews that Milcom is properly used as the name of the Ammonitish idol.---For 1777 at the end of this verse twenty MSS. and two Editions read 1777.

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4.---Though thy valley be fruitful--] The text runs, "Fruitful thy valley"--but the same mode of expression is used Num. xxiv. 21. gawin, which our translators render, "Strong is thy dwelling place;" but it certainly should be, "Let thy dwelling place be strong;" for, which follows next is a verb in the imperative mood, "And put thou thy nest in a rock." The whole is spoken by way of concession, "Be it so; let thy dwelling place be strong, and put thy nest in a rock, if thou wilt, nevertheless the Kenite shall be wasted, &c." So here," Let thy valley be fruitful," or, though it be so, yet glory not therein; for notwithstanding its fertility, it shall be no security to thee against the terror that I shall bring upon thee.

Ibid. That saith in her heart] These words are not in the text at present, but are found in one MS. of good note, in three of the oldest Editions. which read aaa ; and in one MS. which reads All the ancient versions express at least.

.האומרה בלבבה

Compare Obad. v. 3.

5.- a terror- that is, an object of terror. The image (says Bishop Lowth in his Note on Isa. xxiv. 17.) is taken from a line strung with feathers of all colours, which fluttering in the air, scared and frightened the wild beasts into the toils, or pit, which was prepared for them.

Ibid.-every one before it] That is, before the terror.

7. CONCERNING IDUMEA] The destruction of Edom, or Idumea, is likewise foretold by Ezekiel, xxv. 12.-14. xxxv. 2, &c. Joel, iii. 19. Amos, i. 11, 12. and by the prophet Obadiah.

Ibid. from the prudent]

"ap for ann. An Ellipsis of the

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preposition may, I think, be often observed, when the word begins with the same letter.

Ibid. Hath their wisdom overshot itself?] o signifies to be redundant or luxuriant, like the branches of a vine. Hence Dr Taylor has explained this passage, "Is their wisdom become luxuriant? Doth it shoot out into proud, vain, foolish conceit?" See Taylor's Concordance.---Compare Obad. 7. 8.

8.---Retire deep for to dwell] The meaning of this is, that they should go into those deep caverns to hide themselves from the enemy, whither the people of those parts used to retire on the like occasions. See Judg. vi. 2. 1 Sam. xiii. 6. Isa. ii. 10, 19. and Bishop Lowth's Note on the latter of those verses.


Ibid.---The time of his visitation] For np one MS. reads another nip, and in a third the two last letters are upon a rasure. The Vulg, and Chald. countenance p, which is conformable ta the usual mode of expression. See Ch. viii. 12. x. 15. xi. 23. xxiii. 12. xlvi. 21. xlviii. 44. 1. 27. li. 18. But besides the present instance there are two other exceptions, Ch. vi. 15. I. 31. See the Notes on both those places. Should however the true reading be np, I should rather consider np to be contractedly written for so as to be the noun plural in regimine, rather than the verb. plural noun is sometimes used to denote an intense degree; and accordingly 7 might signify, his sore visitation,

9.---They shall not leave any gleanings] Our Translators have placed an interrogation here; but there is no sign of it in the original. The meaning is, that when the enemy came to spoil, they should meet with no interruption, but should glean quite clean, and leave nothing behind through haste. The same thing is expressed in the two next hemistichs, where it is obvious we should read my instead of

n; as the LXX. and Vulg. evidently did.


10. For-] So should here be rendered, and not, But. For the reason is here assigned for what was said in the preceding verse, that the Edomites should be totally stripped and plundered; "Because," says JEHOVAH, "I have exposed them naked and defenceless to the invaders."

Ibid.---conceal himself] For

27 twelve, perhaps fourteen, MSS. And this is no doubt one of the many places, where the and are put by mistake for each other.

.ונחבא and one Edition, read

Ibid.—And there is nothing of him left] The sense of this, and of the following verse, has been sadly perplexed by a wrong combination of 2, which now stands at the beginning of ver. 11. but which being divided, and 217, or 217, given to the end of this verse, and the

, as a mark of interrogation, prefixed to the next word, so that the verse may begin with 'n'n, a very clear and consistent sense is restored; the interrogations in ver. 11. amounting to an absolute negative.

12.-whose right it was not to have drunken] This must be under

stood comparatively; for it cannot be said, that the Jewish people did not deserve to be punished; but in comparison with the Edomites, and other neighbouring nations, they were in a manner innocent, or rather less deserving of the evil that befel them. Compare Prov. xi. 31. 1 Pet. iv. 17, 18. Or their near relation to God might have appeared sufficient to exempt them from such rigorous treatment. See Ch. xxv. 29. Obad. ver. 16. There is a peculiar emphasis in the pronoun RM, which follows, and denotes that Edom was HE, the very person, to whom the punishment was peculiarly due.


13.-a reproach-] The conjunction is placed before three MSS. and in the LXX. and before both and 2073 in the Syr. and Vulgate. In the Editions of the LXX 27 is omitted; but in MS. Pachom. there is a word corresponding to it; es apanoor, και εις αβατον, και εις κατάρασιν.

15. Behold-] Four MSS. among which is the ancient Bodleian No. 1. together with the LXX. omit at the beginning of this verse, where it is at least superfluous.

Ibid.-Contemptible among the men of whom thou art horribly afraid] One MS. after 2 reads nx. "Contemptible art thou, or shalt thou be, among men." In the book which the Jews called Rabboth (see Kennicot. Dissert. Gen. § 42.) instead of 72 72, this place is cited thus, 8 12 78, as it stands in the text, Obad. ver. 2. But the true emendation here required is, to recal non from the beginning of the next verse, and to connect it with this. ben properly signifies terror or trembling, as is evident from the use of the verb in Hithpahel, Job ix. 6. So that the men of thy terror mean, according to a common Hebraism, those of whom thou art greatly afraid. In further justification of this construction it may be observed, that not only the sense and metre are improved by it, but a grammatical error saved. For according to the principles of grammar, it would be wrong


on account of the difference of השיא with תפלצתך to construct

der. The next verse proceeds afterwards exactly as Obad. ver. 3.

16.-within the incirclings of the rock] "an is a word that occurs only here, in the parallel passage Obad. 3. and Cant. ii. 14. Our translators have rendered it "the clefts" of the rock, but for no other reason, as far as I can perceive, than because the context seemed to require such a sense. For it does not appear connected with any root in the kindred dialects, that has a signification like it. It seems rather to come from 21, to incircle, and in that case may signify the windings or incirclings of the rock. Whether it may have been a mistake by transposition for 72, or not, I will not pretend to say; but such transpositions are often to be met with in the MSS; and in one MS. this very word is written 22, by a still farther protrusion of the Vau. Perhaps by dwelling within the incirclings of the rock may be intended the general situation of the cities and towns of Idumea, surrounded for the most part with steep rocks and mountains. But I am more inclined to think, that the circular extent or limits of the city Selah are particularly designed; which city is spoken of as belonging to the Edomites, 2 Kings

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xiv. 7. and there called, as it is here, hon, THE ROCK, by way of eminence; and by the Greeks, ПETPA, for the same reason. Strabo describes it as "built upon a plain and level surface, but fortified all "round with the natural rock, being externally a steep precipice, but "within having plenty of springs, that supply water for other uses, and "for the purposes of gardening.” Lib. xvi. p. 779. Κειται γαρ επί ४०९.४ τ' αλλα ομαλά και επιπεδες, κύκλω δε πέτρα φρεζέμενε, τα μὲν εκτός. κρήμνει απόδομές, τα δέντος πηγάς αφθονες εχοντος εις σε υδρειαν και κήπειαν.

17. - and shall hiss---] See Note on Ch. xix. 8.

19. Behold as a lion cometh up, &c.] It has already been observed in a Note on Ch. xii. 5. that the river Jordan is subject to very rapid inundations, which force the wild beasts out of the thickets by the river side, and drive them to infest and disturb the neighbouring plains. We are here presented by way of similitude with the image of a Lion, thus driven from his covert, and running up with great force from the wa* * ter towards the sheep-folds.


Ibid.---when I throw her into disorder]

is considered as an adverb both in our English, and in the ancient versions; but it has certainly the form of a verb; and as I have already observed in Note on Ch. xxxi. 35. that a signifies to agitate or disturb, so I see no reason why we may not render 5, "when I shall agitate" or "throw her into disorder." See afterwards Ch. 1. 34. The similitude will here

by be rendered complete ; "When I shall occasion a like commotion in her, Idumea, as a fierce and strong lion may be supposed to do in the sheepfolds, when he falleth upon them, then will I cause him (namely, the son of man, of whom it was said in the preceding verse, that he should not reside or sojourn in her) to run away from her, as the af frighted shepherds and their flocks from before the lion."

Ibid.---And him that is chosen will I commission against her] That is, I will authorize him, whom I have selected for the purpose, to command the expedition against her. Nebuchadnezzar is here designed, as the commissioned agent against Idumea; as Cyrus is meant, Ch.1. 44. against Babylon. p is used in the like sense Ch. li. 27, as

.here אפקד


Ibid who shall prescribe to me '] properly signifies to direct or fix authoritatively what is to be done.


Ibid.who is that shepherd---] That leader or commander, that can stand the brunt of an attack from me? The word y, shepherd, is used, in correspondence with the sheepfolds before mentioned..

20. Surely they shall be dragged away from the little ones of the flock] Two reasons occur with great force against rendering with our Translators, "the least of the flock shall draw them out ;" or as ane properly signifies, “shall drag them," as dogs do dead carcasses, tearing and rending them. See Ch. xv. 3. The first is, that in order to express the superlative degree we should read wy, with the article prefixed. And secondly, it would be unnatural to speak of sheep or lambs dragge ing any other creatures about with violence. The text therefore 1

think should be read thus, a', and rendered, "they shall be dragged, or torn away, from the little ones of the flock," that is, from their wives and children.---After having made the above remark, I found that the same division of the words was suggested by Houbigant, but he makes the subject of the verb; raptabuntur parvuli gregis. Either way the sense is a good one; which is preferable, I leave to the determination of the learned.

Ibid.---their habitation] Twenty seven MSS. and five Editions read in the plural. But the LXX, Syr. and Vulg. confirm the present reading of the text. If by "their habitation" or "habitations" we understand by metonymy the persons dwelling in them, or "their families," it will, I think, tend to confirm the interpretation I have proposed in the preceding part of the verse, "They shall be torn away from their wives and children by force, to the great amazement of their families and domestics, who shall be witnesses of the calamity."


21. It crieth out, at the Red sea is heard the voice thereof] For p thirty three, perhaps thirty five, MSS. and four Editions, read

which seems to be ,צעקה certainly best suits with קולח But קולם .ועשה as well as הארץ a verb agreeing with

But the LXX. evidently found no such word as either p or p in their copy. Without it the sense would be complete, considering pr as the infinitive mood used as a substantive with the affix, to be thus rendered, The cry thereof is heard at the Red Sea.

The similar passage Ch. 1. 46. favours the rejection of hip or hip. 22. Behold he shall mount and fly like an eagle] Compare Ch. xlviii. 40, 41.

קולם קולח

23. CONCERNING DAMASCUS] Damascus was the capital of the kingdom of Syria, and had seemingly at this time swallowed up all the other petty sovereignties of that country. Isaiah had before uttered a prophecy concerning it of a calamitous import, Ch. xvii. which had been fulfilled by Tiglath-pileser's taking it, and carrying the people captives to Kir, 2 Kings xvi. 9. Amos also had foretold the same event, Ch. i. 3---5. But it had recovered itself after the fall of the Assyrian empire, and is here doomed to suffer again the like calamities from the resentment of Nebuchadnezzar, probably about the same time with the other neighbouring nations. See note on Ch. xlviii. 1.

Ibid.---Hamath is confounded, and Arphad] Hamath and Arphad are elsewhere joined together, see 2 Kings xviii. 34. xix. 13. Isai. x. 9. Hamath was the capital of a part of Syria bearing the same name, and which formed once an independent kingdom. It was situate on the northern frontier of the land of Israel, whence we find frequent mention of "the entrance of Hamath," Num. xxxiv. 8. &c. The city of Hamath, Josephus tells us, was that which the Mecedonians afterwards called Epiphania. Ant. Lib. 1. Cap. 6. Ed. Hudson. And Jerome in his Commentary on Isai. x. 9. says the same; Hemath, quam Syri usque hodie Epiphaniam vocant---Arphad or Arvad is with good reason held to be the island of Aradus in the Mediterranean sea; as

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