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.ותצהלו and fourteen MSS . and two Editions ; תפושו
MSS. and one Edition, qwon, and ten MSS. and two Editions,
; . . Ibid.---like a heifer that treadeth] Twenty four MSS. and five Editions read 1711, instead of NW7; and in one MS. the x is upon a rasure. This reading seems preferable to the common one; for by the law of Moses the ox was not to be muzzled when he trod out the corn, but allowed to eat freely ; Deut. xxv. 4. by which high feeding he was likely to grow fat. Heifers are spoken of as used for the same purpose; Hos. x. 11,
Ibid.-neighed like steeds] So the margin of our English Bibles. And 50% is elsewhere used for the neighing of a horse ; but no where, as I know, for the bellowing of a bull
. 017538 also is more commonly used for war-horses, high-mettled steeds. See Çh. viii. 16. xlvii. 3. Judg. V. 22.
13.-she shall not be re-established] wn-sy. I much question whether the verb aw' in Kal will admit of being rendered passively, to be inhabited. It signifies however, to be, or abide, in a stable perma. nent state. Ch. xvii. 25. Ps.cxxii. 5. cxxv. 1. And when spoken of cities that have been ruined and overthrown, it seems to denote their settling again after such a state of confusion and disorder, and being re-established in their former condition of tranquillity and civil polity. This,
, I think, will appear from considering it in the following passages. ver. 39. Isa, xiii. 20. Ezek. xxvi. 20. xxix. 11, xxxvi. 35. Zech. i. 11. ii. 4. vii. 7. ix. 5. xii. 6. xiv. 10, 11, &c. &c.
Ibid.---And shall hiss---] See Note on Ch. xix. 8.
14. Order ye---] Our Translators render 1378, “ Set yourselves in array,” as if the verb had been in Hithpahel ; but I think it rather means, * Order
ye the bow," or direct it. See Ch. xlvi. 3. 15.--She hath surrendered herself] Literally, “She hath given her hand," no doubt, in token of subjection and homage. The phrase occurs in the same sense, i Chron. xxix. 24. Lam. v. 6. Some have thought it may be derived from the manner in which Abraham required his servant to engage to do what he required of him, by putting his hand under his thigh, Gen. xxiv. 2. and again, Jacob in like manner exacted the same of his son Joseph ; Gen. xlvii. 29. But this seems to be rather a form of administering and taking an oath. Dare manus in Latin signifies to yield; and most probably alludes to the act of the vanquished, who, throwing down his arnis, and stretching forth his defenceless hands, acknowledges himself to be in the victor's power.
Ibid.---her battlements---] The word in the text is :7DYWN; but it is corrected by the Masora, which reads 7'777'UN, with the consent of twenty four MSS, and five Editions. The ancient Bodleian MS. reads Is ; . ; ; ;
. Amidst all this 'variety it is not easy to determine which is right ; and no such word occurring elsewhere in Hebrew, the signification itself becomes uncertain. Our Translators' render, “her foundations ;" but the falling of foundations, which are laid in the
; אשיותה one ;אשוותיה two ;אשיתיה
.two MSS ; אשות'ה ls
.עצֶם ממנו was the same as עצמו he
may עצמו But I think
ground, is not very intelligible. The LXX. render swanges, the battlements ;" and indeed it appears to me not improbable from the apparent.connection of nuwx with Wix, that the battlements may be meant, where the men stood and fought in defence of the walls ; or perhaps the furrets filled with men, which were constructed in the wall at due disa tances. And in this sense we may understand the words 2017! N'WN), Ezra iv. 12. “They sewed together,"
They sewed together," or connected “the turrets," by building the wall in the intervals. Now NVN differs from NIWN only in its Chaldee termination.
Ibid.Because it is the avenging of JEHOVAH] This I take to mean, that it was the cause or quarrel of JEHOVAH, which they were engaged in, the avenging him of his enemies ; on which account they were not to be slack in their execution.
17. And this latter hath picķed him to the bone] Our Translators have rendered 12Xy,“ hath broken bis bones ;" because bly signifies "a bone.". But the usual signification of the yerb Oxy is, to be xtrong or mighty in doing any thing, or to exceed and prevail over anather. The Syr. accordingly here renders," hath been stronger than " .
I be rendered, “ hath picked him to the bone, " made him a mere bone or skeleton;" the latter prince having gone greater lengths in op pression than his predecessor. 19.and Gilead --] The LXX, and Syr. seem to countenance
. But the article is sometimes used before 1953, though it be a proper name; and we might here render in the mountain of Ephraim and of Gilead." See Gen. xxxi. 21, 23, 25..
20. And at that time-] See note on yer. 4. The promise contained in this verse seems evidently to respect the Gospel times, and the remnant that shall be saved according to the election of grace.”. Compare Ch. xxxi, 34. xxxiii. 8. Isa. lix. 20. Rom. xi. 5. 26, 27.
Ibid.-shall inquiry be made after the iniquity of Israel] Here we have the same construction as has been already taken notice of and accounted for in nate on Ch. xxxv. 14..
: 21.of bitternesses--] binya and 7po in this verse are both rendered by our Translators as proper names. And the latter is so considered by the Chaldee Paraphrast. But all the other ancient versions agree in representing on as an appellative, and to as a verb. And as there is no certainty, and indeed little probability, that there were any places, to which these belonged as proper names, I see no reason for understanding them so. D'nin is the Dual number of non which may signify either bitterness, or rebellion; and I am inclined to think that Babýlon is called “the land of bitternesses," or " of redoubled bitterness," because it had proved such to the Jewish nation, whose country had been ruined, and the people held in slavery there. -The LXX. Syr. and Vulg. appear to have read 07'2wn for ywn; which being admitted, the construction of ypas an imperative verb, and 277 as ą noun in the vocative case, will perfectly spit the context both before and after.
.וחגלעד instead of ובגלעד
Ibid.--their posterity-] bank-so the word often signifies : see Ch. xxxii. 40. Ps. xlix. 13, &c. &c.
25. For this is the work of the Lord-] For 1997 199897 one MS. reads 998 771074; the ancient Bodleian MS. No. 1. ricing only; and two other MSS. one of them ancient broyler77773. Upon these grounds, and for the same reasons as are assigned, Ch. xlvi. 10. I have ventured here also to prefix the 3 to the word 771074.
26. from end to end] Or, from one end to the other. So vpn and 173pn seem to signify. See Ch.li. 16, 31. Gen. xix. 4. Isa. xlii. 10.
Ibid. her fattening stalls] This is the proper sense of 77DINO; and I conceive her cities to be meant, where the inliabitants were pampered like beasts fattened for the slaughter. See what follows in the
29. Commanders have proclaimed concerning Babylon] Our Trans
, archers;" all the ancient versions have rendered it " many;" and all make it the accusative following the imperative verb rout. "But I rather think bar to signify the geneials or commanders of the Medes and Persjans, who are reported by those that brought the news' to Sion to have given out public orders to their soldiers to act against Babylon in the manner hereafter specified. That 27 signifies a general or principal officer, appears frequently in this book, where O'n20-37 is constantly rendered captain of the guards, although perhaps it should be, commander in chief of the army, or soldiers; tor Oina, slaughter-mer, denote those whose profession it is to slay. See Note' on Ch. xxxix. 3.
Ibid.---Let none of her escape] Literally, “Let there not be one escaped of her.”
So the LΧΧ. μη εσω αντης ανασωζομενος. Νor does there appear any deficiency in the text, although the Masoretes have supplied fis after inty, and are countenanced by twenty MSS. and five Editions, be sides four MSS. which have 77008 with two letters erased before it. But against the insertion of oth it must be observed, that it tends to produce an error in the Syntax; for in that case 778998 must be a feminine noun, which could not properly agree with '77 on account of the different gender.
31. O proud one-] 7777 is the abstract, pride; but is here used by metonymy for the concrete ; and again in the next verse:
Ibid. --The time of thy visitation--] An the ancient versions appear: to have read 707p5-niy; and so it actually stands in the first printed Edition ; and two MSS. read 70typo. See Note on Ch. xlix. 8.
-34.--So as to cause a commotion in the earth] This sense of 17 accords so well with the parallel hemistich, as to afford a fresh argument in favour of the explanation given of that verb in the Notes on Ch. vi. 16. xxxi. 35. xlix. 19.
35.--the Chaldeans) For 02 the ancient Bodleian MS. No. 1. and six more read & TUTT2, and one has a letter erased before bigwa. itwa signifies the province of Chaldea ; as opp does Egypt; and I think it may be observed, that whenever " the Chaldeans” are intended, we always find the article 07 prefixed, unless excluded by some general rule.
36.--the impostors---] By 519277 are meant the pretenders to the knowledge of future events by astrology, or the arts of divination. See Isa. xliv. 25. The Syr. Chald. and Vulg. seem to have read 17992, “ her impostors;" which carries a face of probability. The LXX. according to the Roman Edition, omit the four first words of this verse, but in the Complutensian we find, Maxalpay to tous peavless, t, upports
37.---upon her horses, and upon her chariots] It is not easy to account why the masculine affix is found in 1'010 and 1337, nor to what antecedent they can be referred. It is obvious therefore that we should read 7700ró and 1237, in uniformity with the rest of the context. The MS. Pachom. of the LXX. renders IT tous auras, and
a great QUINS,
and not avrwv, as in the printed Editions.
38. A sword upon her waters---] Our Translators after the example of the Vulg. and others, have rendered 377 in this place differently from the sense given to it in the preceding verses, as supposing that a sword has nothing to do with waters. But the sword is used metaphorically to denote either the instrument of divine vengeance generally, or the operations and effects of war in particular; in either of which senses it may be applied to waters as well as to treasures. And the allusion here is evidently to the stratagem of Cyrus, who drained off the waters of the Euphrates, which ran through the city of Babylon, by means of which his troops by night marched along the bed of the river, into the heart of the city, and surprised it.
39.---Therefore shall wild cats with jackals dwell, &c.] What ground there is for rendering s'y and Egy by these names, may be seen at large by consulting Bochart. De sacr. Animal. Par. I. Lib. iii. Cap. 12. and 14. Compare with this passage the parallel one, Isa. xiii. 19.---22. and see Bishop Lowth's Notes there.
Ibid.---she shall not be re-established] See Note on ver. 13. 42.--in orderly array.--) See Note on Ch. vi. 23.
44. Behold, as a lion, &c.] See the Notes on Ch. xlix. 19. from which this verse differs only in the word 6x978, for which the Masora directs to read 01998, with the concurrence of fifteen MSS. and three Editions. In the parallel place we find 193973, and the singular affix is understood to refer to the son of man mentioned in the preceding verse. Here where the affix is plural, both ws and E7-132 in ver, 40. must be considered as the antecedents ; both inhabitants and sojourners being caused to run away from Babylon on account of the commotions that were raised there.
45.---against the inhabitants of Chaldea---) Four MSS. for prix read sw'; three MSS. and one in the margin, "W"; and the LXX. seem to have read thus, who render επι τους κατοικούντας Χαλδαιους. Or according to MS. Pachom. επι παντας τους κατοικούντας Χαλδαιαν. The Chaldee renders, 870) NYX any, expressing both words,
w and pon. This agrees with one MS. which with the first printed Edition reads pIN 122°; and with two ancient Editions, which read yn awr!. Compare the rest of the verse with the parallel place, Ch. xlix. 20. and see the notes there.
1.---against those that dwell in the heart of mine adversaries] Instead of op 3, the LXX. render as if they had read orgwa, Chaldea. And the other ancient versions seem greatly perplexed, and differ in their interpretation of this passage. But as, the heart,” is used for the interior part, or midst, of any thing. See Deut. iv. 11. Ps. xlvi. 2. &c. &c. Accordingly ap 22 may fairly be understood to signify those that dwell in the heart, that is, the centre of the country of mine adversaries, of those that rise up against me; and is by circumlocution the same as Babylon itself.
2.---For they shall be---] It is probable that instead of unary the original reading was 1977-3, the : having been lost in the concurrence with the same letter preceding. A mistake of which the collated MSS. afford many instances,
Ibid.---by the way side---] The two first words of ver. 3. as they stand in the present text, 7779-27, have greatly perplexed all the Commentators. The Masora admits 777 only once ; and it is not repeated in ninety four, perhaps ninety five, MSS. and three Editions. But this is not sufficient to clear away the difficulty. For the context seems to require a command to the enemies of Babylon to use their bows, and not a prohibition, which the particle 27x denotes, when it precedes 2 verb. The LXX. begin the third verse with inwp 7777 777', omitting 777-43 entirely. It seems however better to read 777-5, and to join those words to the end of ver. 2. which will both afford a good sense, and complete an hemistich, Fory, or 777-4x very properly signifies in, or by, the way; and to be, or stand, against one in i he way, is to be ready to use force and violent opposition against him, See Numb. xxii. 22, 23, 31, 34.
3.--- And let him not lift up himself in his brigandine] This is exactly parallel in sense to the preceding hemistich, if the posture of him that stoops to bend the bow be considered. For in using the large and strong steel bows, which could not be bent by the force of the arms, they'rested one end upon the ground, and pressing the other with thę foot or knee, they drew back the arrow with their hands as far as ever they could, in order that it might fly with greater force. Hence the archer is called nwp 75794, one that treađeth the bow. And there fore when he is bid not to lift himself up in his coat of mail, it is the same as bidding him not to desist from shooting with his bow.
5. For Israel is not forsaken, &c.] DR DURELL supposes a transpostion in the worlds, and that 175 ND should have preceded 77177") ;