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city; for the inhabitants themselves, who had possessions there, ana to whom the city belonged, were not disposed to fight from the very beginning; and now the less so, because they had been beaten ; but the foreigners, which were very numerous, would force them to fight so much the more, insomuch that there was a clamour and a tumult among them, as all mutually angry one at another. And when Titus heard this tumult, for he was not far from the wall, he cried out, “ Fellow soldiers, now is the time; and why do we make any delay, when God is giving up the Jews to us ? Take the victory which is given you : do not you hear what a noise they make ? Those that bave escaped our hands are in an uproar against one another. We have the city, if we make haste: but besides haste, we must undergo some labour, and use some courage; for no great thing uses to be accomplished without danger : accordingly, we must not only prevent their uniting again, which necessity will soon compel them to do, but we must also prevent the coming of our own men to our assistance, that as few as we are we may conquer so great a multitude, and may ourselves alone take the city.”
5. As soon as ever Titus had said this, he leaped upon his horse, and rode apace down to the lake; by which lake he marched, and entered the city the first of them all, as did the others soon after him. Hereupon those that were upon the walls were seized with a terror at the boldness of the attempt, nor durst any one venture to fight with him, or to hinder him; so they left guarding the city, and some of those that were about Jesus fled over the country, while others of them ran down to the lake, and met the enemy in the teeth, and some were slain as they were getting up into the ships, but others of them, as they attempted to overtake those that were already gone abroad. There was also a great slaughter made in the city, while those foreigners that had not filed away already, made opposition ; but the natural inhabitants were killed without fighting: for in hopes of Titus's giving them his right hand for their security, and out of consciousness that they had not given any consent to the war, they avoided fighting, till Titus had slain the authors of this revolt, and then put a stop to any further slaughters out of commiseration of these inhabitants of the place. But for those that had fled to the lake, upon seeing the city taken, they sailed as far as they possibly could from the enemy.
6. Hereupon Titus sent one of his horsemen to his father, and let him know the good news of what he had done : at which, as was natural, he was very joyful, both on account of the courage and glorious actions of his son; for he thought now the greatest part of the war was over. He then came thither himself, and set men to guard the city, and gave them command to take care that nobody got privately out of it, but to kill such as attempted so to do. And on the next day he went down to the lake, and commanded that vessels should be fitted up in order to pursue those that escaped in the ships. These vessels were quickly gotten ready accordingly, because there was great plenty of materials, and a great number of artificers also.
7. Now this lake of Gennesareth is so called from the country adjoining it. Its breadth is forty furlongs, and its length one hundred and forty ; its waters are sweet, and very agreeable for drinking, for they are finer than the thick water of other fens; the lake is also pure, and on every side ends directly at the shores, and at the sands; it is also of a temperate nature when you draw it up, and of a more gentle nature than river or fountain water, and yet always cooler than one could expect in so diffuse a place as
this is : now, when this water is kept in the open air, it is as cold as that snow which the country people are accustomed to make by night in summer. There are several kinds of fish in it, different both to the taste and sight of those elsewhere. It is diveded into two parts by the river Jordan. Now Panium is thought to be the fountain of Jordan, but in reality is carried thither after an occult manner from the place called Phiala : this place lies as you go up to Trachonitis, and is a hundred and lwenty furlongs from Cesarea, and is not far out of the road on the right hand; and indeed it hath its name of Phiala (vial or bowl] very justly from the round. ness of its circumferance, as being round like a wheel; its water continues always up to its edges, without either sinking or running over. And as this origin of Jordan was formerly not known, it was discovered so to be when Philip was tetrarch of Trachonitis : for he had chaff thrown into Phiala, and it was found at Panium, where the ancients thought the fountain-head of the river was, whither it had been therefore carried [by the waters.] As for Panium itself, its natural beauty had been improved by the royal liberality of Agrippa, and adorned at his expenses. Now Jordan's visible stream arises from this cavern, and divides the marshes and fens of the lake of Semehonitis; when it has run another hundred and twenty furlongs, it first passes by the city of Julias, and then passes through the middle of the lake of Gennesareth ; after which it runs a long way over a desert, and then makes its exit into the lake Asphaltitis.
8. The country also that lies over against this lake hath the same name of Gennesareth ; its nature is wonderful, as well as its beauty; its soil is so fruitful that all sorts of trees can grow upon it, and the inhabitants accordingly plant all sorts of trees there; for the temper of the air is so well mixed that it agrees very well with those several sorts, particularly walnuts, which require the coldest air, flourish there in vast plenty; there are palm-trees also, which grow best in hot air; fig-trees also and olives grow near them, which yet require an air that is more temperate. One may call this place the ambition of nature, where it forces those plants that are naturally enemies to one another to agree together; it is a happy con. tention of the seasons; as if every one of them laid claim to this country : for it not only nourishes different sorts of autumnal fruit beyond men's expectation, but preserves them a great while; it supplies men with the principal fruits, with grapes and figs, continually,* during ten months of the year, and the rest of the fruits as they become ripe together through the whole year : for besides the good temperature of the air, it is also watered from a most fertile fountain. The people of the country call it Capharnaum: some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the Coracin fish as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria. The length of this country extends itself along the banks of this lake, that bears the same name, for thirty furlongs, and is in breadth twenty. And this is the nature of that place.
* It may be worth our while to observe here, that near this lake of Gennesareth grapes and figs bang on the trees ten months of the year. We may observe also, that in Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechis. xviii. & 3. which was delivered not long before Easter, there were no fresh leaves of tig-trees, nor bunches of fresh grapes, in Judea; so that when St. Mark says, chap. xi. ver. 13. that our Saviour, soon after the same time of the year, came and “found leaves" on a fig-tree near Jerusalem, but “no figs, because the time of” new “figs” ripening “ was not yet,” he says very true; nor were they there. fore other thar old leaves which our Saviour saw, and old figs which he expected, and which even with us commonly hang on the trees all winter long.
9. But now, when the vessels were gotten ready, Vespasian put upon ship-board as many of his forces as he thought sufficient to be too bard for those that were upon the lake, and set sail after them. Now those which were driven into the lake, could neither fly to the land, where all was in their enemies' hand, and in war against them; nor could they fight upon the level by sea, for their ships were small and fitted only for piracy; they were too weak to fight with Vespasian's vessels, and the mariners that were in them were so few, that they were afraid to come near the Romans, who attacked them in great numbers. However, as they sailed round about the vessels, and sometimes as they came near them, they threw stones at the Romans when they were a good way off, or came closer and fought them; yet did they receive the greatest harm themselves in both cases. As for the stones they threw at the Romans, they only made a sound one after the other, for they threw them against such as were in their armour, while the Roman darts could reach the Jews themselves; and when they ventured to come near the Romans, they became sufferers themselves before they could do any harm to the other, and were drowned, they and their ships together. As for those that endeavoured to come to an actual fight, the Romans ran many of them through with their long poles. Sometimes the Romans leaped into their ships with swords in their hands, and slew them ; but when some of them met the vessels, the Romans caught them by the middle, and destroved at once their ships and themselves who were taken in them. And for such as were drowning in the sea, if they lifted their heads up abore the water, they were either killed by darts, or caught by the vessels ; but if, in the desperate case they were in, they attempted to swim to the enemies, the Romans cut off either their haads or their hands; and indeed they were destroyed after various manners every where, till the rest being put to flight were forced to get upon the land, while the vessels encompassed them about (on the sea ;] but as many of these were repulsed when they were getting ashore, they were killed by the darts upon the lake; and the Romans leaped out of their vessels, and destroyed a great many more upon the land: one might then see the lake all bloody, and full of dead bodies, for not one of them escaped. And a terrible stink, and a very sad sight, there was on the following days over that country; for as for the shores, they were full of shipwrecks, and of dead bodies all swelled; and as the dead bodies were inflamed by the sun, and putrified, they corrupted the air, insomuch that the misery was not only the object of commiseration to the Jews, but to those that hated them, and had been the authors of that misery. This was the upshot of the sea-fight. The number of the slain, including those that were killed in the city before, was six thousand and five hundred.
10. After this fight was over, Vespasian sat upon his tribunal at Taricheæ, in order to distinguish the foreigners from the old inhabitants; for those foreigners appeared to have begun the war. So he deliberated with the other commanders, whether he ought to save those old inhabitants or not. And when those commanders alleged that the dismission of them would be to his own advantage, because, when they were once set at liberty, they would not be at rest, since they would be people destitute of proper habitations, and would be able to compel such as they fled to, to fight against us, Vespasian acknowledged that they did not deserve to be saved, and that if they had leave given them to fly away, they would make use of it against those that gave them leave. But still he considered with himself, after what manner they should be slain ;* for if he had them slain there, he suspected the people of the country would thereby become his enemies ; for that to be sure they would never bear it, that so many that had been supplicants to him should be killed ; and to offer violence to them, after he had given them assurances of their lives, he could not himself bear to do it. However, his friends were too hard for him, and pretended that nothing against the Jews could be any impiety, and that he ought to prefer what was profitable before what was fit to be done, where both could not be consistent. So he gave them an ambiguous liberty to do as they advised, and permitted the prisoners to go along no other road than that which led to Tiberias only. So they readily believed what they desired to be true, and went along securely, with their effects, the way which was allowed them, while the Romans seized upon all the road that led to Tiberias, that none of them might go out of it, and shut them up in the city. Then came Vespasian, and ordered them all to stand in the stadium, and commanded them to kill the old men together with the others that were useless, who were in number a thousand and two hundred. Out of the young men he chose six thousand of the strongest, and sent them to Nero, to dig through the Isthmus. and sold the remainder for slaves, being thirty thousand and four hundred, besides such as he made a present of to Agrippa; for as to those that belonged to his kingdom, he gave him leave to do what he pleased with them : however, the king sold these also for slaves ; but for the rest of the multitude, who were Trachonites, and Gaulanites, and of Hippos, and some of Gadara, the greatest part of them were seditious persons and fugitives, who were of such shameful characters, that they preferred war before peace. These prisoners were taken on the eighth day of the month Gorpieus [Elul.]
CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF ABOUT ONE YEAR.FROM THE SIEGE OF GAMALA TO TAE COMING OF TITUS TO BESIBGE JERUSALEM.
The Siege and Taking of Gamala. 81. Now all those Galileans who, after the taking of Jotapata, had revolted from the Romans, did upon the conquest of Taricheæ deliver themselves up to them again. And the Romans received all the fortresses and the cities, excepting Gischala and those that had been seized upon Mount Tabor; Gamela also, which is a city over against Taricheæ, but on
• This is the most cruel and barbarous action that Vespasian ever did in this whole war, as he did it with great reluctance also. It was dove both after public assurance given of sparing the prisoners' lives, and when all knew and confessed that these prisoners were no way guilty of any sudition against the Romans. Nor indeed did Titus now give his consent, so far as appears, nor ever act of himself so harbarously; nay, soon after this, Titus grew quite weary of shedding blood, and of punishing the innocent with the guilty, and gave the people of Gischala leave to keep the Jewish sabbath, b. iv. chap. ii. $ 3, 5. in the midst of their siege. Nor was Vespasian disposed to do what he did, till his officers persuaded him, and that from two principal topics, viz. that nothing could be unjust that was done against the Jews, and that when both cannot be consistent, advantage must prevail over justice. Admirable court doctrines these !
the other side of the lake, conspired with them. This city lay upon the borders of Agrippa's kingdom, as also did Sogana and Seleucia. And these were both parts of Gaulan tis, for Sogana was a part of that called the upper Gaulanitis, as waz Gamala of the lower; while Seleucia was situated at the lake Semechonitis, which lake is thirty furlongs in breadth, and sixty in length; its marshes reach as far as the place Daphne, which in other respects is a delicious place, and hath such fountains as supply water to what is called Little Jordan, under the temple of the golden calf, where it is sent into Great Jordan. Now Agrippa had united Sogana and Seleucia by leagues to himself, at the very beginning of the revolt from the Romans; yet did not Gamala accede to them, but relied upon the difficulty of the place, which was greater than that of Jotapata, for it was situated upon a rough ridge of a high mountain, with a kind of neck in the middle; where it begins to ascend, it lengthens itself, and declines as much downwards before as behind, insomuch that it is like a camel in figure, from whence it is so named, although the people of the country do not pronounce it accurately : both on the side and the face there are abrupt parts divided from the rest, and ending in vast deep valleys; yet are the parts behind, where they are joined to the mountain, somewhat easier of ascent than the other ; but then the people belonging to the place have cut an oblique ditch here, and made that hard to be ascended also. On its acclivit, which is straight, houses are built, and those very thick and close to one another. The city also hangs so strangely, that it looks as if it would fall down upon itself, so sharp is it at the top. It is exposed to the south, and its southern mount, which reaches to an immense height, was in the nature of a citadel to the city; and above that was a precipice, not walled about, but extending itself to an immense depth. There was also & spring of water within the wall, at the utmost limits of the city.
2. As the city was natuaally hard to be taken, so had Josephus, by building a wall about it, made it still stronger, as also by ditches and mines under ground. The people that were in it were made more bold by the nature of the place, than the people of Jotapata had been, but had much fewer fighting men in it; and they had such a confidence in the situation of the place, that they thought the enemy could not be too many for them: for the city had been filled with those that had fled to it for safety, on account of its strength ; on which account they had been able to resist those whom Agrippa sent to besiege it for seven months together.
3. But Vespasian removed from Emmaus, where he had last pitched his camp before the city Tiberias, (now Emmaus, if it be interpreted, may be rendered a warm bath, for therein is a spring of warm water, useful for healing,) and came to Gamala ; yet was its situation such, that he was not able to encompass it all round with soldiers to watch it ; but where the places were practicable, he sent men to watch it, and seized upon that mountain which was over it. And as the legions, according to their usual custom, were fortifying their camp upon that mountain, he began to cast up banks at the bottom, at the part towards the east, where the highest tower of the whole city was, and where the fifteenth legion pitched their
• Here we have the exact situation of one of Jeroboam's golden calves, at the exit of Little Jordan into Great Jordan, near a place called Daphne, but of old Dan. See the noie on Antiq. b. vii, chap. viii. 9 2. But Read) suspects, that even here we should read Dan instead of Daphne, there being no where else any mention of a place called Daphne hereabouts.