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rest already; as did those that were under torture in the prisons declare, that, upon this comparison, those that lay unburied were the happiest. These inen, therefore, trampled upon all the laws of men, and laughed at the laws of God: and for the oracles of the prophets, they ridiculed them as the tricks of jugglers ; yet did these prophets foretell many things concerning the rewards of] virtue, and (punishments of] vice, which when these Zealots violated, they occasioned the fulfilling of those very prophecies belonging to their own country : for there was a certain very ancient oracle of those men, that “the city should then be taken and the sanctuary burnt,* by right of war, when a sedition should invade the Jews, and their own hand should pollute the temple of God.” Now while those Zealots did not [quite] disbelieve these predictions, they made themselves the instruments of their accomplishment.

CHAP. VII. How John tyrannized over the rest ; and what Mischiefs the Zealots did at

Masada. How also Vespasian took Gadara ; and what Actions were performed by Placidus.

§ 1. By this time John was beginning to tyrannize, and thought it beneath him to accept of barely the same honours that others had; and joining to himself by degrees a party of the wickedest of them all, he broke off from the rest of the faction. This was brought about by the still disagreeing with the opinions of others, and giving out injunctions of his own in a very imperious manner, so that it was evident he was setting up a monarchia) power. Now some submitted to him out of their fear of him, and others out of their good-will to him; for he was a shrewd man to entice men to him, both by deluding them and putting cheats upon them. Nay, many there were that thought they should be safer themselves, if the causes of their past insolent actions should now be reduced to one head, and not to a great many. His activity was so great, and that both in action and in counsel, that he had not a few guards about him : yet was there a great party of his antagonists that left him : among whom envy at him weighed a great deal, while they thought it a very heavy thing to be in subjection to one that was formerly their equal. But the main reason that moved men against him was the dread of monarchy, for they could not hope easily to put an end to his power, if he had once obtained it ; and yet they knew that he would have this pretence always against them, that they had opposed him when he was first advanced ; while every one chose rather to suffer any thing whatsoever in war, than that when they had been in a voluntary slavery for some time, they should afterward

• This prediction, That “the city (Jerusalemn) should then be taken, and the sanctuary burnt, by right of war, when a sedition should invade the Jews, and their own hands should pollute that temple ;" or, as it is, b. vi. chap. ii. 9 1. “ when any one should begin to slay his countrymen in the city,” is wanting in our present copies of the Old Testament. See Essay on the Old Test. p. 104-112. But this prediction, as Josephus well remarks here, though, with the other predictions of the prophets, it was now laughed at by the seditious, was by their very means soon exactly fulfilled. However I cannot but here take notice of Grotius's positive assertions upon Mat. xxvi. 9. here quoted by Dr. Hudson, That" it ought to be taken for granted, as a certain truth, that many predictions of the Jewish prophets were preserved, not in writing, but by memory ;'' whereas it seems to me so far from certain, that I think it has no evidence nor proba. bility at all.

perish. So the sedition was divided into two parts, and John reigned in opposition to his adversaries over one of them ; but for their leaders they watched one another, nor did they at all, or at least very little, meddle with arms in their quarrels ; but they fought earnestly against the people, and contended one with another which of them should bring home the greatest prey. But because the city had to struggle with three of the greatest misfortunes, war, and tyranny, and sedition, it appeared upon the comparisou, that the war was the least troublesome to the populace of them all. Accordingly, they ran away from their own houses to foreigners, and obtained that preservation from the Romans, which they despaired to obtain among their own people.

2. And now a fourth misfortune arose, in order to bring our nation to destruction. There was a fortress of very great strength not far from Jerusalem, which had been built by our ancient kings, both as a repository for their effects in the hazards of war, and for the preservation of their bodies at the same time. It was called Masada, Those that were called Sicarii had taken possession of it formerly, but at this time they over-ran the countries, aiming only to procure to themselves necessaries ; for the fear they were then in prevented farther ravages. But when once they were informed that the Roman army lay still, and that the Jews were divided by sedition and tyranny, they boldly undertook greater matters; and at the feast of unleavened bread, which the Jews celebrate in memory of their deliverance from the Egyptian bondage, when they were sent back into the country of their forefathers, they came down by night, without being discovered by those that could have prevented them, and over-ran a certain small city called Engaddi. In which expedition they prevented those citizens that could have stopped them, before they could arm themselves, and fight them. They also dispersed them, and cast them out of the city: as for such as could not run away, being women and children, they slew of them above seven hundred. Afterward, when they had carried every thing out of their houses, and had seized upon all the fruits that were in a flourishing condition, they brought them into Masada. And indeed these men laid all the villages that were about the fortress waste, and made the whole country desolate; while there came to them every day, from all parts, not a few men as corrupt as themselves. At that time all the other regions of Judea that had bitherto been at rest were in motion, by means of the robbers. Now, as it is in a human body, if the principal part be inflamed, all the members are subject to the same distemper, so by means of the disorder that was in the metropolis, had the wicked men that were in the country opportunity to ravage the same. Accordingly, when every one of them had plundered their own villages, they then retired into the desert : yet were these men that now got together and joined in the conspiracy by parties, too small for an army, and too many for a gang of thieves : and thus did they fall upon the holy places, * and the cities : yet did it now so happen that they were sometimes very ill treated by those

• By these iera or "holy places," as distinct from cities, must be meant“ proseuchæ," or “houses of prayer,'' out of cities ; of which we find mention made in the New Testament and other authors. See Luke vi 12. Acts xvi. 13, 16. Antiq. b. 14. chap. x.

23. his Life, 6 54. “In qua te quero proseucha ?” Juvenal Sat, iii. ver. 296. They were situated sometimes by the side of rivers, Acts xvi. 13. or by the sea side. Antig, in. xiv. chap. X. § 23. So did the LXXII interpreters go to pray every morning by the sea side before they went to their work, b. 12. chap. ii, § 12.

upon whom they fell with such violence, and were taken by them as men are taken in war : but stiil they prevented any further punishmeut as do robbers, who as soon as their ravages are discovered] run their way. Nor was there now any part of Judea that was not in a miserable condition, as well as its most eminent city also.

3. These things were told Vespasian by deserters; for although the seditious watched all the passages out of the city, and destroved all, whosoever they were, that came thither, yet were there some that had concealed themselves, and when they had fled to the Romans, persuaded their general to come to their city's assistance, and save the remainder of the people ; informing him withal, that it was upon account of the people's good-will to the Romans that many of them were already slain, and the survivors in danger of the same treatment. Vespasian did indeed already pity the calamities these men were in, and arose, in appearance, as though he was going to besiege Jerusalem, but in reality to deliver them from a [worse] siege they were already under. However, he was obliged first to overthrow what remained elsewhere, and to leave nothing out of Jerusalem behind him, that might interrupt him in that siege. Accordingly, he marched against Gadara, the metropolis of Perea, which was a place of strength, and entered that city on the fourth day of the month Dystrus [Adar ;] for the men of power had sent an embassage to him, without the knowledge of the seditious, to treat about a surrender; wbich they did out of the desire they had of peace, and for saving their effects, because many of the citizens of Gadara were rich men. This embassy the opposite party knew nothing of, but discovered it as Vespasian was approaching near the city. However, they despaired of keeping possession of the city, as being inferior in number to their enemies who were within the city, and seeing the Romans very near to the city; so they resolved to fly, but thought it dishonourable to do it without shedding some blood, and revenging themselves on the authors of this surrender; so they seized upon Dolesus, (a person not only the first in rank and family in that city, but one that seemed the occasion of sending such an embassy,) and slew him, and treated his dead body after a barbarous manner, so very violent was their anger at him, and then ran out of the city. And as now the Roman army was just upon them, the people of Gadara admitted Vespasian with joyful acclamations, and received from him the security of his right hand, as also a garrison of horsemen and footmen, to guard them against the excursions of the runagates ; for as to their wall, they had pulled it down before the Romans desired them so to do, that they might thereby give them assurance that they were lovers of peace, and that, if they had a mind, they could not now make war against them.

4. And now Vespasian sent Placidus against those that had fled from Gadara, with five hundred horsemen, and three thousand footmen, while he returned himself to Cesarea with the rest of the army. But as soon as these fugitives saw the horsemen that pursued them just upon their backs, and before they came to a close fight, they ran together to a certain village, which was called Bethennabris, where finding a great multitude of young men, and arming them, partly by their own consent, partly by force, they rashly and suddenly assaulted Placidus and the troops that were with him. These horsemen at the first onset gave way a little, as contriving to entice them further off the wall, and when they had drawn them into a place fit for their purpose, they made their horse encompass them round, and threw

their darts at them. So the horsemen cut off the flight of the fugitives, while the foot terribly destroyed those that fought against them: for those Jews did no more than show their courage, and then were destroved, for as they fell upon the Romans, when they were joined close together, and, as it were, walled about with their entire armour, they were not able to find any place where the darts could enter, nor were they any way able to break their ranks, while they were themselves run through by the Roman darts, and, like the wildest of beasts, rushed upon the point of other's swords; so some of them were destroyed, as cut with their enemies' swords upon their faces, and others were dispersed by the horsemen.

5. Now Placidus's concern was to exclude them in their flight from getting into the village, and causing his horse to march continually on that side of them, he then turned short upon them, and at the same time his men made use of their darts, and easily took their aim at those that were nearest to them, as they made those that were farther off turn back by the terror they were in, till at last the most courageous of them brake through those horsemen, and fled to the wall of the village. And now those that guarded the wall were in great doubt what to do; for they could not bear the thoughts of excluding those that came from Gadara, because of their own people that were among them; and yet if they should admit them, they expected to perish with them, which came to pass accordingly ; for as they were crowding together at the wall, the Roman horsemen were just ready to fall in with them. However, the guards prevented them and shut the gates, when Placidus made an assault upon them, and fighting courageously till it was dark, he got possession of the people on the wall, and of them that were in the city, when the useless multitude were destroyed, but those that were more potent ran away, and the soldiers plundered the houses, and set the village on fire. As for those that ran out of the village, they stirred up such as were in the country; and exaggerating their own calamities, and telling them that the whole army of the Romans were upon them, they put them into great fear on every side; so they got in great numbers together, and fled to Jericho, for they knew no other place that could afford them any hope of escaping, it being a city that had a strong wall, and a great multitude of inhabitants. But Placidus relying much upon his horsemen, and his former good success, followed them, and slew all that he overtook, as far as Jordan: and when he had driven the whole multitude to the river side, where they were stopped by the current, (for it had been augmented lately by rains, and was not fordable,) he put his soldiers in array over against them, so the necessity the others were in provoked them to hazard a battle, because there was no place whither they could flee. They then extended themselves a very great way along the banks of the river, and sustained the darts that were thrown at them, as well as the attacks of the horsemen, who beat many of them and pushed them into the current. At which fight, hand to hand, fifteen thousand of them were slain, while the number of those that were unwillingly forced to leap into Jordan was prodigious. There were besides two thousand and two hundred taken prisoners. A mighty prey was taken also, consisting of asses, and sheep, and camels, and oxen.

6. Now this destruction that fell upon the Jews, as it was not inferior to any of the rest in itself, so did it still appear greater than it really was; and this, because not only the whole country through which they fled was filled with slaughter, and Jordan could not be passed over by reason of the dead bodies that were in it, but because the lake Asphaltitis was also full of dead bodies, that were carried down into it by the river. And now, Placidus, after this good success that he had had, fell violently upon the neighbouring smaller cities and villages ; when he took Abila, and Julias, Bezemoth, and all those that lay as far as the lake Asphaltitis, and put such of the deserters into each of them as he thought proper. He then put his soldiers on board the ships, and slew such as had fled to the lake, insomuch, that all Perea had either surrendered themselves, or were taken by the Romans, as far as Macherus.

CHAP. VIII. How Vespasian, upon hearing some Commotions in Gall,* made haste to finish

the Jewish War. A Description of Jericho, and of the Great Plain ; with an Account besides of the Lake Asphaltitis.

6 1. In the meantime an account came, that there were commotions in Gall, and that Vindex, together with the men of power in that country, had revolted from Nero; which affair is more accurately described elsewhere. This report, thus related to Vespasian, excited him to go on briskly with the war; for he foresaw already the civil wars which were coming upon them, nay, that the very government was in danger, and he thought, if he could first reduce the eastern parts of the empire to peace, he should make the fears for Italy the lighter ; while therefore the winter was his hindrance, [from going into the field,] he put garrisons into the villages and smaller cities for their security; he put decurions also into the villages, and centurions into the cities; he besides this built many of the cities that had been laid waste, but at the beginning of the spring he took the greatest part of his army, and led it from Cesarea to Antipatris, where he spent two days in settling the affairs of that city, and then, on the third day, he marched on, laying waste and burning all the neighbouring villages. And when he had laid waste all the places about the toparchy of Thampas, he passed on to Lydda and Jamnia, and when both these cities had come over to him, he placed a great many of those that had come over to him [from other places as inhabitants] therein, and then came to Emmaus, where he seized upon the passages which led thence to their metropolis, and fortified his camp, and, leaving the fifth legion therein, he came to the toparchy of Bethleptephon. He then destroyed that place and the neighbouring places by fire, and fortified at proper places the strong holds all about Idumea ; and when he had seized upon two villages, which were in the very midst of Idumea, Betaris and Caphartobas, he slew about ten thousand of the people, and carried into captivity above a thousand, and drove away the rest of the multitude, and placed no small part of his own forces in them, who over-ran and laid waste the whole mountainous country; while he with the rest of his forces returned to Emmaus, whence he came down through the country of Samaria, and hard by the city by others called Neapolis (or Sichem,) but by the people of that country Mabortha, or Cores, where he pitched his camp, on the second day of the month Desius. (Sivan :) and on the day following he came to Jericho, on which day Trajan, one of his commanders, joined him with the forces he brought out of Perea, all the places beyond Jordan being subdued already.

2. Hereupon a great multitude prevented their approach, and came out

+ Gr. Galatia, and so every where.

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