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beneath the resolution they show when they undergo pain. And it was in Gessius Florus' time that the nation began to grow mad with this distemper, who was our procurator, and who occasioned the Jews to go wild with it by the abuse of his authority, and to make them revolt from the Romans, And these are the sects of Jewish philosophy.

CHAP. II. How Herod and Philip built several Cities in Honour of Cæsar. Concerning

the Succession of Priests and Procurators; as also what befell Phraates and the Parthians.

$1. When Cyrenius had now disposed of Archelaus's money, and when the taxings were come to a conclusion, which were made in the thirtyseventh of Cæsar's victory over Antony at Actium, he deprived Joazer of the high priesthood, which dignity had been conferred on him by the mula titude, and he appointed Ananus, the son of Seth, to be high priest; while Herod and Philip had each of them received their own tetrarchy, and settled the affairs thereof. Herod also built a wall about Sepphoris, (which is the security of all Galilee,) and made it the metropolis of the country. He also built a wall round Betharamptha, which was itself a city also, and called it Julias, from the name of the emperor's wife. When Philip also had built Paneas, a city at the fountains of Jordan, he named it Cesarea. He also advanced the village Bethsaida, situate at the lake of Gennesareth, unto the dignity of a city, both by the number of inhabitants it contained, and its other grandeur, and called it by the name of Julias, the same name with Cæsar's daughter.

2. As Coponius, who we told you was sent along with Cyrenius, was exercising his office of procurator, and governing Judea, the following acci. dents happened. As the Jews were celebrating the feast of unleavened bread, which we call the passover, it was customary for the priests to open the temple gates just after midnight. When, therefore, those gates were first opened, some of the Samaritans came privately into Jerusalem, and threw about the dead men's bodies in the cloisters; on which account, the Jews afterward excluded them out of the temple, which they had not used to do at such festivals ; and on other accounts also they watched the temple more carefully than they had formerly done. A little after which accident, Coponius returned to Rome, and Marcus Ambivius came to be his successor in that government; under whom Salome, the sister of king Herod, died, and left to Julia [Cæsar's wife,] Jamnia, all its toparchy, and Phasaelis in the plain, and Archelais, where is a great plantation of palm-trees, and their fruit is excellent in its kind. After him came Annius Rufus, under whom died Cæsar, the second emperor of the Romans, the duration of whose reign was fifty-seven years, besides six months and two days, (of which time Antonius ruled together with him fourteen years ; but the duration of his life was seventy-seven years ;) upon whose death Tibcrius Nero, his wife Julia's son, succeeded. He was now the third em. peror; and he sent Valerius Gratus to be procurator of Judea, and to succeed Annius Rufus. This man deprived Ananus of the high priesthood, and appointed Ishmael, the son of Phabi, to be high priest. He also deprived him in a little time, and ordained Eleazar, the son of Ananus, who had been high priest before, to be high priest; which office, when he had held it for a year, Gratus deprived him of, and gave the high priesthood to Simon, the son of Camithus, and, when he had possessed that dignity no longer than a year, Joseph Caiaphas was made his successor. When Gratus had done those things, he went back to Rome, after he had tarried in Judea eleven years, when Pontius Pilate came as his successor.

3. And now Herod the tetrarch, who was in great favour with Tiberius, òuilt a city of the same name with him, and called it Tiberias. He built t in the best part of Galilee at the lake of Gennesareth. There are warm baths at a little distance from it, in a village named Emmaus. Strangers came, and inhabited this city; a great number of the inhabitants were Galileans also ; and many were necessitated by Herod to come thither out of the country belonging to him, and were by force compelled to be its inhabitants ; some of them were persons of condition. He also admitted poor people, such as those that were collected from all parts, to dwell in it, Nay, some of them were not quite freemen, and these he was benefactor to, and made them free in great numbers; but obliged them not to forsake the city, by building them very good houses at his own expense, and by giving them land also; for he was sensible, that to make this place a habitation, was to transgress the ancient Jewish laws, because many sepulchres were to be here taken away, in order to make room for the city Tiberias;* whereas our laws pronounce that such inhabitants are unclean for seven days.t

4. About this time died Phraates, king of the Parthians, by the treachery of Phraataces his son, upon the occasion following: When Phraates had had legitimate sons of his own, he had also an Italian maid-servant, whose name was Thermusa, who had been formerly sent to him by Julius Cæsar, among other presents. He first made her his concubine, but, he being a great admirer of her beauty, in process of time having a son bv her, whose name was l’hraataces, he made her his legitimate wife, and had a great respect for her. Now, she was able to persuade him to do any thing that she said, and was earnest in procuring the government of Parthia for her son ; but still she saw that her endeavours would not succeed, unless she could contrive how to remove Phraates' legitimate sons (out of the kingdom ;] so she persuaded him to send those his sons as pledges of his fidelity to Rome; and they were sent to Rome accordingly, because it was not easy for him to contradict her commands. Now, while Phraataces was alone brought up in order to succeed in the government, he thought it very tedious to expect that government by his father's donation (as his successor :] he therefore formed a treacherous design against his father, by his mother's assistance, with whom, as the report went, he had criminal conversation also. So he was hated for both these vices, while his subjects esteemed this (wicked] love of his mother to be no way inferior to his parricide; and he was by them, in a sedition, expelled out of the country before he grew too great, and died. But, as the best sort of Parthians agreed together, that it was impossible they should be governed without a king, while also it was their constant practice to choose one of the family

• We way here take notice, as well as in the parallel parts of the books of the War, b. ii. chap. ix. § 1. that after the death of Herod the Great, and the succession of Archelaus, Josephus is very brief in his accounts of Judea, till near his own time. I suppose the reason is, that alter the large history of Nicolaus of Damascus, including the lite of Herod, and probably the succession and first actions of his sons, he had but few good histories of those times before him.

Numb. xix. Il--14.

of Arsaces, [nor did their law allow of any others; and they thought this kingdom had been sufficiently injured already by the marriage with an Italian concubine, and by her issue,] they sent ambassadors, and called Orodes (to take the crown ;] for the multitude would not otherwise have borne them; and though he were accused of very great cruelty, and was of an untractable temper, and prone to wrath, yet still he was one of the family of Arsaces. However, they made a conspiracy against him, and slew him, and that, as some say, at a festival, and among their sacrifices ; (for it is the universal custom there to carry their swords with them :) but as the more general report is, they slew him when they had drawn him out a-hunting. So they sent ambassadors to Rome, and desired they would send one of those that were his pledges, to be their king. Accordingly, Vonones was preferred before the rest, and sent to them ; (for he seemed capable of such great fortune, which two of the greatest kingdoms under the sun now offered him, his own, and a foreign one.) However, the bar. barians soon changed their minds, they being naturally of a mutable disposition, upon the supposal, that this man was not worthy to be their governor ; for they could not think of obeying the commands of one that had been a slave, (for so they called those that had been hostages,) nor could they bear the ignominy of that name; and this was the more intoleraable, because then the Parthians must have such a king set over them, not by right of war, but in time of peace. So they presently invited Artabanus, king of Media, to be their king, he being also of the race of Arsaces. Artabanus complied with the offer that was made him, and came to them with an army. So Vonones met him; and at first the multitude of the Parthians stood on his side, and he put his army in array; but Artabanus was beaten, and fled to the mountains of Media. Yet did he a litle while after gather a great army together, and fought with Vonones, and beat him ; whereupon Vonones fled away on horseback, with a few of his attendants about him, to Selencia, [upon Tigris.) So when Artabanus had slain a great number, and this after he had gotten the victory, by reason of the very great dismav the barbarians were in, he retired to Ctesiphon with a great number of his people ; and so he now reigned over the Parthians. But Vonones fled away to Armenia : and as soon as he came thither, he had an inclination to have the government of the country given him, and sent ambassadors to Rome (for that purpose. But because Tiberius refused it him, and because he wanted courage, and because the Parthian king threatened him, and sent ambassadors to him to denounce war against him if he proceeded, and because he had no way to take to regain any other kingdom, (for the people of authority among the Armenians about Niphates joined themselves to Artabanus,) he delivered up himself to Silanus, the president of Syria, who, out of regard to his education at Rome, kept him in Syria, while Artabanus gave Armenia to Orodes, one of his own sons.

5. At this time died Antiochus, the king of Commagene, whereupon the multitude contended with the nobility, and both sent ambassadors (to Rome;] for the men of power were desirous that their form of government might be changed into that of a (Roman) province; as were the multitude desirous to be under kings, as their fathers had been. So the senate made a decree, that Germanicus should be sent to settle the affairs of the east, fortune hereby taking a proper opportunity for depriving him of his life; for when he had been in the east, and settled all affairs there,

his life was taken away by the poison which Piso gave him, as hath been related elsewhere.*

CHAP. III. A Sedition of the Jews against Pontius Pilate. Concerning Christ, and what

befeli Paulina and the Jews at Rome. $ 1. But now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Cæsarea to Jerusalem, to take their winter quarters there, in order to abolish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Cæsar's effigies, which were upon the ensigns, and brought them into the city; whereas our law forbids us the very making of images ; on which account the former procurators were wont to make their entry into the city with such ensigns as had not those ornaments. Pilate was the first who brought those images to Jerusalem, and set up there; which was done without the knowledge of the people, because it was done in the night time; but as soon as they knew it, they came in multitudes to Cæsarea, and interceded with Pilate many days that he would remove the images; and when he would not grant their requests, because it would tend to the injury of Cæsar, while yet they persevered in their request, on the sixth day he ordered his soldiers to have their weapons privately, while he came and sat upon his judgment-seat, which place was so prepared in the open place of the city, that it concealed the army that lay ready to oppress them; and when the Jews petitioned him again, he gave a signal to the soldiers to encompass them round, and threatened that their punishments should be no less than immediate death, unless they would leave off disturbing him, and go their wavs home. But they threw themselves upon the ground, and laid their necks bare, and said they would take their death very willingly rather than the wisdom of their laws should be transgressed; upon which Pilate was deeply affected with their firm resolution to keep their laws inviolable, and presently commanded the images to be carried back from Jerusalem to Cæsarea.

2. But Pilate undertook to bring a current of water to Jerusalem, and did it with the sacred money, and derived the origin of the stream from the distance of two hundred furlongs. However, the Jewst were not pleased with what had been done about this water; and many ten

• This citation is now wanting.

+ These Jews, as they are here called, whose blood Pilate shed on this occasion, may very well be those very Galilean Jews' whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacri. fices,' Luke xiii. 1, 2. these tumults being usually excited at some of the Jews' great festivals, when they slew abundance of sacrifices, and the Galileans being commonly much more busy in such tumults than those of Judea and Jerusalem, as we learn from the history of Archelaus, Antiq. b. xvii. chap. is. $ 3. and chap. x. § 2, 9. though indeed Josephus's present copies say not one word of those eighteen upon whom the Lower in Siloam fell and slew them,' which the 4th verse of the same 13th chapter of St. Luke informs us of. But since our Gospel teaches us, Luke xxiii, 6, 7. that " when Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whe:her Sesus were a Galilean? And as soon as he knew that he belonged to Herod's jur.sdiction, he sent him to Herod ;" and ver. 12. “ The same day Pilot and Herod were made friends together; for before they had been at enmity between themselves;" take the very probable key of this matter, in the words of the learned Noldius, de Herod. No. 249. "The cause of the enmity between Herod and Pilate (says be) seems to have been this, that Pilate intermeddled with the tetrarch's jurisdiction, and 'had slain some of his Galilean subjects, Luke xlii. 1. and, as he was willing to correct that error, he sent Christ w Herod at this time.

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