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and his father's concern about them provoked his indignation against them, upon this supposal, that they would become greater than ever his brothers had been; while Archelaus, a king, would support his daughter's sons, and Pheroras, a tetrarch, would accept of one of the daughters as a wife to uis son. What provoked him also was this, that all the multitude would so commiserate these fatherless children, and so hate him, [for making them fatherless,] that all would come out, since they were no strangers to his vile disposition towards nis brethren. He contrived, therefore, to overturn his father's settlements, as thinking it a terrible thing that they should be so related to him, and be so powerful withal. So Herod yielded to him, and changed his resolution at his entreaty: and the determination now was, that Antipater himself should marry Aristobulus's daughter, and Antipater's son should marry Pheroras' daughter. So the espousals for the marriages were changed after this manner, even without the king's real approbation.
3. Now Herod the king had at this time nine wives ; * one of them Anti. pater's mother, and another, the high priest's daughter, by whom he had a son of his own name : he had also one who was his brother's daughter, and another his sister's daughter, which two had no children. One of his wives also was of the Samaritan nation, whose sons were Antipas and Archelaus, and whose daughter was Olympias ; which daughter was afterward married to Joseph, the king's brother's son; but Archelaus and Antipas were brought up with a certain private man at Rome. Herod had also to wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem, and by her he had his sons Herod and Philip; which last was also brought up at Rome ; Pallas also was one of his wives, who bare him his son Phasaelus. And besides these, he had for his wives Phedra and Elphis, by whom he had his daughters Roxana and Salome. As for his elder daughters, by the same mother with Alexander and Aristobulus, and whom Pheroras neglected to marry, he gave the one in marriage to Antipater, the king's sister's son, and the other to Phasaelus, his brother's son. And this was the posterity of Herod.
CHAP. II. Concerning Zamaris, the Babylonian Jew. Concerning the Plots laid by An
tiputer against his Father; and somewhat about the Pharisees.
1. And now it was that Herod, being desirous of securing himself on the side of the Trachonites, resolved to build a village as large as a city for the Jews, in the middle of that country, wbich might make his own country difficult to be assaulted, and whence he might be at hand to make sallies upon them, and do them a mischief. Accordingly, when he understood that there was a man that was a Jew come out of Babylon, with five hundred horsemen, all of whom could shoot their arrows as they rode on horseback, and with a hundred of his relations, had passed over Euphrates, and now abode at Antioch by Daphne of Syria, where Saturninus, who was then president, had given them a place for habitation, called Valatha, he sent for this man, with the multitude that followed him, and
• Those who have a mind to know all the family and descendants of Antipater the Idumean, and of Herod the Great, his son, and have a memory to preserve them all distinctly, may consult Josephus, Antiq. b. xviii. chap. v. § 4. and of the War, b. i. chap. xxviii. 9 4. and Noldius in Havercanıp's edition, p. 336. and Spanheim, ibid. p. 402-405. and Keland, Palestiu. part i. p. 175, 176.
promised to give him land in the toparchy called Batanea, which country is bounded by Trachonitis, as desirous to make that his habitation a guard to himself. He also engaged to let him hold the country free from tribute, and that they should dwell entirelr without paying such customs as used to be paid, and gave it him tax free.
2. The Babylonian was induced by these offers to come hither; so he took possession of the land, and built in it fortresses and a village, and named it Bathyra. Whereby this man became a safeguard to the inhabitants against the Trachonites, and preserved those Jews who came out of Babrlon to offer their sacrifices at Jerusalem, from being hurt by the Tra. chonite robbers; so that a great number came to him from all those parts where the ancient Jewish laws were observed, and the country became full of people, by reason of their universal freedom from taxes. This continued during the life of Herod; but when Philip, who was (tetrarch? after him, took the government, he made them pay some small taxes, and that for a little while only; and Agrippa the Great, and his son of the same name, although they harassed them greatly, yet would they not take their liberty away. From whom, when the Romans have now taken the government into their own hands, they still give them the privilege of their freedom, but oppress them entirely with the imposition of taxes. Of which matter I shall treat more accurately in the progress of this history.*
3. At length Zamaris, the Babylonian, to whom Herod had given that country for a possession, died; having lived virtuously, and left children of a good character behind him; one of whom was Jacimus, who was famous for his valour, and taught his Babylonians how to ride their horses : and a troop of them were guards to the forementioned kings. And when Jacimus was dead in his old age, he left a son whose name was Philip, one of great strength in his hands, and in other respects also more eminent for his valour than any of his contemporaries ; on which account there was a confidence and firm friendship between him and king Agrippa. He had also an army which he maintained as great as that of a king; which he exercised and led wheresoever he had occasion to march.
4. When the affairs of Herod were in the condition I have described, all the public affairs depended upon Antipater; and his power was such, that he could do good turns to as many as he pleased, and this by his father's concession, in hopes of bis good-will and fidelity to him; and this till he ventured to use his powers still farther, because his wicked designs were concealed from his father, and he made him believe every thing be said. He was also formidable to all, not so much on account of the power and authority he had, as for the shrewdness of his vile attempts beforehand: but he who principally cultivated a friendship with him was Pheroras, who received the like marks of his friendship; while Antipater had cunningly encompassed bim about by a company of women, whom he placed as guards about him; for Pheroras was greatly enslaved to his wife, and to her mother, and to her sister; and this notwithstanding the hatred he bore them, for the indignities they had offered to bis virgin daughters. Yet did he bear them, and nothing was to be done without the women, who had got this man into their circle, and continued still to assist each other in all things, insomuch that Antipater was entirely addicted to them, both by himself and by his mother; for these four woment said all one
• This is now wanting.
and the same thing ; but the opinions of Pheroras and Antipater were different in some points of no consequence. But the king's sister (Salome was their antagouist, who for a good while had looked about all their affairs, and was apprized that this their friendship was made in order to do Herod some mischief, and was disposed to inform the king of it. And since these people knew that their friendship was very disagreeable to Herod, as tending to do him a mischief, they contrived that their meetings should not be discovered; so they pretended to hate one another, and to abuse one another when time served, and especially when Herod was present, or when any one was there that would tell him ; but still their intimacy was firmer than ever when they were in private. And this was the course they took; but they could not conceal from Salome neither their first contrivance, when they set about these their intentions, nor when they had made some progress in them; but she searched out every thing; and, aggravating the relations to her brother, declared to him, “ As well their secret assemblies and compotations, as their counsels taken in a clandestine manner, which, if they were not in order to destroy him, they might well enough have been open and public. But, to appearance, they are at variance, and speak about one another as if they intended one another a mischief, but agree so well together when they are out of the sight of the multitude ; for when they are alone by themselves, they act in concert, and profess that they will never leave off their friendship, but will fight again those from whom they conceal their designs.” And thus did she search out these things, and get a perfect knowledge of them, and then told her brother of them ; who understood also of himself a great deal of what she said, but still durst not depend upon it, because of the suspicions he had of his sister's calumnies. For there was a certain sect of men that were Jews, who valued themselves highly upon the exact skill they had in the law of their fathers, and made men believe they were bighly favoured by God, by whom this set of women were inveigled. These are those that are called the sect of the Pharisees, who were in a capacity of greatly opposing kings. A cunning set they were, and soon elevated to a pitch of open fighting, and doing mischief. Accordingly, when all the people of the Jews gave assurance of their good-will to Cæsar, and to the king's government, these very men did not swear, being above six thousand; and when the king imposed a fine upon them, Pheroras' wife paid their fine for them. In order to requite which kindness of hers, since they were believed to have the foreknowledge of things to come by divine inspiration, they foretold how God had decreed that Herod's government should cease, and his posterity should be deprived of it; but that the kingdom should come to her and Pheroras, and to their children. These predictions were not concealed from Salome, but were told the king; as also how they had perverted some persons about the palace itself: so the king slew such of the Pharisees as were principally accused, and Bagoas, the eunuch, and one Carus, who exceeded all men of that time in comeliness, and one that was his catamite. He slew also those of his own family who had consented to what the Pharisees foretold; and for Bagoas, he had been puffed up by them as though he should be named the father and the benefactor of him by the prediction, was foretold to be their appointed king : for that this king would have all things in his power, and would enable Baguos to marry, and to have children of his own body begotten.
CHAP. III. Concerning the Enmity between Herod and Pheroras ; how Herod sent Anti.
pater to Cæsar ; and of the Death of Pheroras. $ 1. When Herod had punished those Pharisees who had been convicted of the foregoing crimes, he gathered an assembly together of his friends, and accused Pheroras' wife; and ascribing the abuses of the virgins to the impudence of that woman, brought an accusation against her for the dishonour she had brought upon them; that “ she had studiously introduced a quarrel between him and his brother, and by her ill temper, had brought them into a state of war, both by her words and actions ; that the fines which he had laid had not been paid, and the offenders had escaped punishment by her means; and that nothing which had of late been done had been done without her: for which reason Pheroras would do well, if he would, of his own accord, and by his own command, and not at my entreaty, or as following my opinion, put this his wife away, as one that will still be the occasion of war between thee and me. And now Pheroras, if thou valuest thy relation to me, put this wife of thine away; for by this means thou wilt continue to be a brother to me, and wilt abide in thy love to me.” Then said Pheroras, (although he were pressed hard by the former words,) that “ as he would not do so unjust a thing as to renounce his brotherly relation to him, so would he not leave off his affection for his wife; that he would rather choose to die than to live and be deprived of a wife that was so dear unto him.” Hereupon Herod put off his anger against Pheroras on these accounts, although he himself thereby underwent a very uneasy punishment. However, he forbade Antipater and his mother to have any conversation with Pheroras, and bade them to take care to avoid the assemblies of the women : which they promised to do; but still got together when occasion served, and both Pheroras and Antipater had their own merry meetings. The report went also, that Antipater had criminal conversation with Pheroras' wife, and that they were brought together by Antipater's mother.
2. But Antipater had now a suspicion of his father, and was afraid that the effects of his hatred to him might increase : so he wrote to his friends at Rome, and bade them to send to Herod, that he would immediately send Antipater to Cæsar ; which, when it was done, Herod sent Antipater thither, and sent most noble presents along with him ; as also his testament, wherein Antipater was appointed to be his successor : and that if Antipater should die first, his son [Herod Philip] by the high priest's daughter should succeed. And, together with Antipater, there went to Rome, Sylleus the Arabian, although he had done nothing of all that Cæsar had enjoined. Antipater also accused him of the same crimes of which he had been formerly accused by Herod. Sylleus was also accused by Aretas, that without his consent he had slain many of the chief of the Arabians at Petra; and particularly Sohemus, a man that deserved to be honoured by all men; and that he had slain Fabatus, a servant of Cæsar. These were the things of which Sylleus was accused, and that on the occasion following: there was one Corinthus, belonging to Herod, of the guards of the king's hody, and one who was greatly trusted by him. Sylleus had persuaded this man with the offer of a great sum of money, to kill Herod; and he had promised to do it. When Fabatus had been ac