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peror Tiberus's son, and contracted a friendship with Antonia, the wife of Drusas the Great, who had his mother Bernice in great esteem, and was very desirous of advancing her son. Now, as Agrippa was by nature magnanimous and generous in the presents he made, while his mother was alive, this inclination of his mind did not appear, that he might be able to avoid her anger for such his extravagance; but when Bernice was dead, and he was left to his own conduct, he spent a great deal extravagantly in his daily way of living, and a great deal in the immoderate presents he made, and those chiefly among Cæsar's freed men, in order to gain their assistance, insomuch that he was in a little time reduced to poverty, and could not live at Rome any longer. Tiberius also forbade the friends of his deceased son to come into his sight, because on seeing them he should be put in mind of his son, and his grief would thereby be revived.

2. For these reasons he went away from Rome, and sailed to Judea, but in evil circumstances, being dejected with the loss of that money which he once had, and because he had not wherewithal to pay his creditors, who were many in number, and such as gave him no room for escaping them. Whereupon he knew not what to do; so, for shame of his present condition, he retired to a certain tower, at Malatha, in Idumea, and had thoughts of killing himself; but his wife Cypros perceived his intentions, and tried all sorts of methods to divert him from his taking such a course : so she sent a letter to his sister Herodias, who was now the wife of Herod the tetrarch, and let her know Agrippa's present design, and what necessity it was which drove them thereto, and desired her, as a kinswoman of his, to give him her help, and to engage her husband to do the same, since she saw how she alleviated these her husband's troubles all she could, although she had not the like wealth to do it withal. So they sent for him, and allotted him Tiberias for his habitation, and appointed him some income of money for his maintenance, and made him a magistrate of that city, by way of honour to him. Yet did not Herod long continue in that resolu. tion of supporting hiin, though even that support was not sufficient for him; for, as once they were at a feast at Tyre, and in their cups, and reproaches were cast upon one another, Agrippa thought that was not to be borne, while Herod bit him in the teeth with his poverty, and with owing his necessary food to hiin. So he went to Flaccus, one that had been consul, and had been a very great friend to him at Rome formerly, and was now president of Syria.

3. Hereupon Flaccus received him kindly, and he lived with him. Flaccus had also with him there Aristobulus, who was indeed Agrippa's brother, but was at variance with him ; yet did not their enmity to one another hinder the friendship of Flaccus to them both, but still they were honourably treated by him. However, Aristobulus did not abate of his ill-will to Agrippa, till at length he brought him into ill terms with Flaccus: the occasion of bringing on which estrangement was this : the Damascens were at difference with the Sidonians about their limits, and when Flaccus was about to hear the cause between them, they understood that Agrippa had a mighty influence on him ; so they desired that he would be of their side, and for that favour promised him a great deal of money; so he was zealous in assisting the Damascens as far as he was able. Now, Aristobulus had gotten intelligence of this promise of money to him, and accused him to Flaccus of the same ; and when, upon a thorough examination of the matter, it appeared plainiy so to be, he rejected Agrippa out of the number

of his friends. So he was reduced to the utmost necessity, and came to Ptolemais; and because he knew not where else to get a livelihood, he thought to sail to Italy; but as he was restrained from so doing by want of money, he desired Marsyas, who was his freed man, to find some me. thod for procuring him so much as he wanted for that purpose, by borrowing such a sum of some person or other. So Marsyas desired of Peter, who was the freed man of Bernice, Agrippa's mother, and by the right of her testament was bequeathed to Antonio, to lend so much upon Agrippa's own bond and security ; but he accused Agrippa of having defrauded him of certain sums of money, and so obliged Marsyas, when he made the bond of 20,000 Attic drachmæ, to accept of 2,500 drachmæ* less than what he desired, which the other allowed of, because he could not help it. Upon the receipt of this money, Agrippa came to Anthedon, and took shipping, and was going to set sail ; but Herennius Capito, who was the procurator of Jamnia, sent a band of soldiers to demand of him 300,000 drachmæ of silver, which were by him owing to Cæsar's treasury while he was at Rome, and so forced him to stay. He then pretended that he would do as he bade him : but when night came on, he cut his cables, and went off, and sailed to Alexandria, where he desired Alexander the alabarcht to lend him 200,000 drachmæ ; but he said he would not lend it to him, but would not refuse it to Cypros, as greatly astonished at her affection to her husband, and at the other instances of her virtue ; so she undertook to repay it. Accordingly, Alexander paid them five talents at Alexandria, and promised to pay them the rest of that sum at Dicearchia [Puetoli ;] and this he did out of the fear he was in that Agrippa would soon spend it. So this Cypros set her husband free, and dismissed him to go on with his navigation to Italy, while she and her children departed for Judea.

4. And now Agrippa was come to Puetoli, whence he wrote a letter to Tiberius Cæsar, who then lived at Capreæ, and told him, that he was come so far in order to wait on him, and to pay him a visit ; and desired that he would give him leave to come over to Capreæ : so Tiberius made no difficulty, but wrote to him in an obliging wav in other respects, and withal told him, he was glad of his safe return, and desired him to come to Capreæ ; and when he was come he did not fail to treat him as kindly as he had promised him in his letter to do. But the next day came a letter to Cæsar from Herennius Capito, to inform him, that Agrippa had borrowed 300,000 drachmæ, and not paid it at the time appointed; but, when it was demanded of him, he ran away like a fugitive, out of the places under his government, and put it out of his power to get the money of him. When Cæsar had read this letter, he was much troubled at it, and gave order that Agrippa should be excluded from his presence until he had paid that debt : upon which he was no way daunted at Cæsar's anger, but entreated Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius, who was afterwards Cæsar himself, to lend him those 300,000 drachmæ, that he might not be deprived of Tiberius's friendship ; so, out of regard to the memory of Bernice his mother, (for these two women were very familiar with one another), and out of regard to his and Claudius's education together, she lent him the money; and, upon the payment of this debt, there was no

• Spanheim observes, that we have here an instance of the Attic quantity of use. money, which was the eighth part of the original sun, or twelve and a half per cent. for such is the proportion of 2,500 to 20,000.

+ The governor of the Jews there.

thing to hinder Tiberius's friendship to him. After this, Tiberius Cæsar recommended to him his grandson,* and ordered that he should always accompany him when he went abroad. But, upon Agrippa's kind reception by Antonia, he betook himself to pay his respects to Caius, who was her grandson, and in very high reputation, by reason of the good-will they bore his father.t Now there was one Thallus, a freed man of Cæsar, of whom he borrowed a million of drachmæ, and thence repaid Antonia the debt he owed her; and by spending the overplus in paying his court to Caius, became a person of great authority with him.

5. Now as the friendship which Agrippa had for Caius was come to a great height, there happened some words to pass between them, as they once were in a chariot together, concerning Tiberius; Agrippa praying (to God,] (for they two sat by themselves,) that Tiberius might soon go off the stage, and leave the government to Caius, who was in every respect more worthy of it. Now, Eutychus, who was Agrippa's freed man, and drove his chariot, heard these words, and at that time said nothing of them ; but when Agrippa accused him of stealing some garments of his, (which was certainly true,) he ran away from him ; but when he was caught, and brought before Piso, who was governor of the city, and the man was asked why he ran away? he replied, that he had somewhat to say to Cæsar, that tended to his security and preservation: So Piso bound him, and sent him to Capreæ. But Tiberius, according to his usual custom, kept him still in bonds, being a delayer of affairs, if ever there was any other king or tyrant that was so; for he did not admit ambassadors quickly, and no successors were despatched away to governors or procurators of the provinces, that had been formerly sent, unless they were dead; whence it was, that he was so negligent in hearing the causes of prisoners; insomuch, that when he was asked by his friends, what was the reason of his delay in such cases ? he said, that" he delayed to hear ambassadors, lest, upon their quick dismission, other ambassadors should be appointed, and return upon him; and so he should bring trouble upon himself in their public reception and dismission : that he permitted those governors who had been sent once from their government (to stay there a great while,] out of regard to the subjects that were under them ; for that all governors are naturally disposed to get as much as they can, and that those who are not to fix there, but to stay a short time, and that an uncertainty, when they shall be turned out, do the more severely hurry themselves on to fleece the people ; but that, if their government be long continued to them, they are at last satiated with the spoils, as having gotten a vast deal, an l so become at length less sharp in their pillaging; but that, if successors are sent quickly, the poor subjects, who are exposed to them as a prey, will not be able to bear the new ones, while they shall not have the same time allowed them, wherein their predecessors had filled themselves, and so grow more unconcerned about getting more ; and this because they are removed before they have had time [for their oppressions.] He gave them an example to show his meaning: “A great number of flies came about the sore places of a man that had been wounded ; upon which one of the standers by pitied the man's misfortune, and thinking he was not able to drive those flies away himself, was going to drive them away for him ; but he prayed him to let them alone : the other, by way of reply, asked him the reason of such a preposterous proceeding. in preventing relief from his present misery; to which he answered, If thou drivest • Tiberius junior.

+ Germanicus.

these flies away, thou wilt hurt me worsc; for, as these are already sull of my blood, they do not crowd about me, nor pain me so much as before, but are sometimes more remiss, while the fresh ones that come almost famished, and find me quite tired down already, will be my destruction. For this cause, therefore, it is, that I am myself careful not to send such new governors perpetually to those my subjects, who are already sufficiently harassed by many oppressions, as many, like these flies, furiher distress them; and so, besides their natural desire of gain, may have this additional incitement to it, that they expect to be suddenly deprived of that pleasure which they take in it." And, as a further attestation to what I say of the dilatory nature of Tiberius, I appeal to this his practice itself; for, although he were emperor twenty-two years, he sent in all but two procurators to govern the nation of the Jews, Gratus, and his successor in the government, Pilate. Nor was he in one way of acting with respect to the Jews, and in another with respect to the rest of his subjects. He further in. formed them, that even in the hearing of the causes of prisoners, he made sucb delays, “because immediate death to those that must be condemned to die, would be an alleviation of their present miseries, while those wicked wretches have not deserved any such favour; but I do it, that, by being harassed with the present calamity, they may undergo greater misery.”

6. On this account it was that Eutychus could not obtain a hearing, but was kept still in prison. However, some time afterward, Tiberius came from Capreæ to Tusculanum, which is about a hundred furlongs from Rome. Agrippa then desired of Antonia, that she would procure a hearing for Eutychus, let the matter whereof he accused him prove what it would. Now, Antonio was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, for the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus's wife, and from her eminent chastity;* for though she were still a young woman, she continued in her wldowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; vet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach. She had also been the greatest benefactress to Tiberius, when there was a very dangerous plot laid against him by Sejanus, a man who had been her husband's friend, and who had the greatest authority, because he was general of the army, and when many members of the senate, and many of the freed men joined with him, and the soldiery was corrupted, and the plot was come to a great

• This high commendation of Antonia for marrying bat once, given here, and supposed elsewhere, Antiq. b. xvii. chap. xii. $ 4. and this, potwithstanding the strongest temptations, shows how honourable single marriages were both among the Jews and Romans, in the days of Josephus and of the apostles, and takes away much of that sur. prise which the modern Protestants have at those laws of the apostles, where no widows, but those who had been the wives of one husband only, are taken into the church list, and no bishops, priests, or deacons, are allowed to marry more than once without leaving off to officiate as clergyınen any longer. See Luke ii. 36. 1 Tim. v. 11, 12. iii. 2, 12. Tit. i. 10. Constit. Apost. b. ii. s 1, 2. b. vi. $ 17. Can. b. xvii. Grot. in Luke, ii. 31. and Respons. ad Consult. Casand. p. 44. and Cotelet. in Constitut. b. vi. $ xvii. And note, that Tertullian owns i his law, against second marriages of the clergy, and had been once at least executed in his time; and heavy complai ts elsewhere, that the breach thereof had not been always punished by the Catholics as it ought to have been. Jerome, speaking of the ill reputation of marrying twice, says, That no such person could be chosen into the clergy in his days; which Augustine testifies also : and for Epiphanius, rather earlier, he is clear and full to the same purpose, and says, that law obtained over the whole Catholic church in his days; as the places in the fore-cited authors inform us.

height. Now Sejanus had certainly gainea his point, bad not Antonia's boldness been more wisely conducted tuan Sejanus' malice ; for, when she had discovered his designs against Tiberius, she wrote him an exact account of the whole, and gave the letter to Pallus, the most faithful of her servants, and sent him to Capreæ to Tiberius, who, when he understood it, slew Sejanus and his confederates ; so that Tiberius, who had her in great esteem before, now looked upon her with still greater respect, and de. pended upon her in all things. So, when Tiberius was desired by this Antonia to examine this Eutychus, he answered, “ If indeed Eutychus had falsely accused Agrippa in what he hath said of him, he hath had sufficient punishment by what I have done to him already; but if, upon examination, the accusation appears to be true, let Agrippa have a care, lest, out of desire of punishing his freed man, he do not rather bring a punishment upon himself.” Now when Antonia told Agrippa of this, he was still much more pressing that the matter might be examined into ; so Antonia, upon Agrippa's lying hard at her continually to beg his favour, took the following opportunity: As Tiberius lay once at his ease upon his sedan, and was carried about, and Cajus, her grandson, and Agrippa, were before him after dinner, she walked by the sedan, and desired him to call Eutychus, and have him examined; to which he replied, “ O Antonia ! the gods are my witnesses, that I am induced to do what I am going to do, not by my own inclination, but because I am forced to it by thy prayers.” When he had said this, he ordered Macro, who succeeded Sejanus, to bring Eutychus to him; accordingly, without any delay, he was brought. Then Tiberius asked him, what he had to say against a man who had given him his liberty ? Upon which he said, “O my lord ! this Caius, and Agrippa with him, were once riding in a chariot, when I sat at their feet, and among other discourses that passed, Agrippa said to Caius, O that the day would once come, when this old fellow will die, and name thee for the governor of the habitable earth! for then this Tiberius, his grandson, would be no hinderance, but would be taken off by thee, and that earth would be happy, and I happy also.” Now, Tiberius took these to be truly Agrippa's words, and bearing a grudge withal at Agrippa, because, when he had commanded him to pay his respects to Tiberius his grandson, and the son of Drusus, Agrippa had not paid him that respect, but had disobeyed his commands, and transferred all his regard to Caius; he said to Macro, “ Bind this man.” But Macro, not distinctly knowing which of them it was whom he bade him bind, and not expecting that he would have any such thing done to Agrippa, he forbore, and came to ask more distinctly what it was that he said ? But, when Cæsar had gone round the hippodrome, he found Agrippa standing; “ For certain,” said he, “ Macro, this is the man I meant to have bound;" and when he still asked, “ Which of these is to be bound ?” he said, “ Agrippa.” Upon which Agrippa betook himself to make supplication for himself, putting him in mind of his son, with whom he was brought up, and of Tiberius [his grandson] whom he had educated: but all to no purpose, for they led him about bound even in his purple garments. It was also very hot weather, and they had but little wine to their meal, so that he was very thirsty; he was also in a sort of agony, and took this treatment of him heinously; as he therefore saw one of Caius' slaves, whos name was Thaumastus, carrying some water in a vessel, he desired that he would let him drink; so the servant gave him some water to drink, and he drank heartily, and said, “ O thou boy! this

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