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2 Samuel 1.
19 «Thy glory, O Israel, is slain upon thy high places !

How are the mighty fallen !
20 Tell it not in Gath,

Publish it not in the streets of Ashkelon,
Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice,

Lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph.
21 Ye mountains of Gilboa,

Let there be no dew nor rain upon you, neither fields of offerings :
For there the shield of the mighty was vilely cast away,

The shield of Saul, not anointed with oil.
22 From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty,

The bow of Jonathan turned not back,

And the sword of Saul returned not empty.
23 Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives,

And in their death they were not divided ;
They were swifter than eagles,

They were stronger than lions.
24 Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul,

Who clothed you in scarlet a delicately,

Who put ornaments of gold upon your apparel.
25 How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle!

Jonathan is slain upon thy high places.
26 I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan :

Very pleasant hast thou been unto me:
Thy love to me was wonderful,

Passing the love of women.
27 How are the mighty fallen,

And the weapons of war perished !

II. The Rival Kingdoms.
66. DAVID IS ANOINTED KING OVER JUDAH.

2 Samuel 2:1-4a. I And it came to pass after this, that David inquired of the LORD, saying, Shall I go up into any of the cities of Judah ? And the LORD said unto him, Go up. And David said, Whither shall I go up ? And he said, Unto Hebron. 2 So David went up thither, and his two wives also, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite. 3 And his men that were with him did David bring up, every man with his household : and they dwelt in the city of Hebron. 4. And the men of Judah came, and there they anointed David king over the house of Judah.

67. DAVID'S MESSAGE TO THE MEN OF JABESH-GILEAD.

2 Samuel 2:467. 46 And they told David, saying, The men of Jabesh-gilead were they that buried Saul. 5 And David sent messengers unto the men of Jabesh-gilead, and said unto them, Blessed be ye of the LORD, that ye have shewed this kindness unto your lord, even unto Saul, and have buried him. 6 And now the LORD shew kindness and truth unto you: and I also will requite you this kindness, because ye have done this thing. 7 Now therefore let your hands be strong, and be ye valiant : for Saul your lord is dead, and also the house of Judah have anointed me king over them.

a Or, “The gazelle.” 60r, "defiled.” Or," as of one not anointed.” d Heb.“ with delights." Or, “O Jonathan, slain," etc.

68. ISH-BOSHETH IS MADE KING OVER ISRAEL.

2 Samuel 2:8-11. 8 Now Abner the son of Ner, captain of Saul's host, had taken • Ish-bosheth the son of Saul, and brought him over to Mahanaim; and he made him king over Gilead, and over the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, and over all Israel. 10 (Ish-bosheth Saul's son was forty years old when he began to reign over Israel, and he reigned two years.) But the house of Judah followed David. 11 And the time that Davidwas king in Hebron over the house of Judah was seven years and six months.

69. THE CIVIL WAR.

2 Samuel 2:12-3:1. 12 And Abner the son of Ner, and the servants of Ish-bosheth the son of Saul, went out from Mahanaim to Gibeon. 13 And Joab the son of Zeruiah, and the servants of David, went out, and met them by the pool of Gibeon; and they sat down, the one on the one side of the pool, and the other on the other side of the pool. 14 And Abner said to Joab, Let the young men, I pray thee, arise and play before us. And Joab said, Let them arise. 15 Then they arose and went over by number; twelve for Benjamin, and for Ish-bosheth the son of Saul, and twelve of the servants of David. 16 And they caught every one his fellow by the head, and thrust his sword in his fellow's side ; so they fell down together : wherefore that place was called - Helkath-hazzurim, which is in Gibeon. 17 And the battle was very sore that day; and Abner was beaten, and the men of Israel, before the servants of David. 18 And the three sons of Zeruiah were there, Joab, and Abishai, and Asahel: and Asahel was as light of foot as a wild roe. 19 And Asahel pursued after Abner; and in going he turned not to the right hand nor to the left from following Abner. 20 Then Abner looked behind him, and said, Is it thou, Asahel? And he answer, It is I. 21 And Abner said to him, Turn thee aside to thy right hand or to thy left, and lay thee hold on one of the young men, and take thee his i armour. But Asahel would not turn aside from following of him. 22 And Abner said again to Asahel, Turn thee aside from following me: wherefore should I smite thee to the ground ? how then should I hold up my face to Joab thy brother? 23 Howbeit he refused to turn aside : wherefore Abner with the hinder end of the spear smote him in the belly, that the spear came out behind him; and he fell down there, and died in the same place: and it came to pass, that as many as came to the place where Asahel fell down and died stood still. 24 But Joab and Abishai pursued after Abner: and the sun went down when they were come to the hill of Ammah, that lieth before Giah by the way of the wilderness of Gibeon. 25 And the children of Benjamin gathered themselves together after Abner, and became one band, and stood on the top of an hill. 26 Then Abner called to Joab, and said, Shall the sword devour for ever? knowest thou not that it will be bitterness in the latter end ? how long shall it be then, ere thou bid the people return from following their brethren ? 27 And Joab said, As God liveth, if thou hadst not spoken, surely then in the morning the people had gone away, nor followed every one his brother. 28 So Joab blew the trumpet, and all the people stood still, and pursued after Israel no more, neither fought they any more. 29 And Abner and his men went all that night through the Arabah; and they passed over Jordan, and went through all Bithron, and came to Mahanaim. 30 And Joab returned from following Abner : and when he had gathered all the people together, there lacked of David's servants nineteen men and Asahel. 31 But the servants of David had smitten of Benjamin, and of Abner's men, so that three hundred and threescore men died. 32 And they took up Asahel, and buried him in the sepulchre of his father, which was in Beth-lehem. And Joab and his men went all night, and the day brake upon them at Hebron.

i Now there was long war between the house of Saul and the house of David : and David waxed stronger and stronger, but the house of Saul waxed weaker and weaker.

a In 1 Chronicles 8 : 33 and 9:39, "Eshbaal." See $18, (2). 6 The Vulgate and Syriac have, “ Geshurites," cHeb. "them together." dl.e., "The field of the sharp knives." Heb." as one of the roes that are in the field." for, "spoil." See Judges 14: 19. & See ver. 14, above. h Heb. "from the morning."

70. DAVID'S FAMILY IN HEBRON.• 2 Samuel 3: 2-5.

i Chronicles 3:1-4a. 2 And unto David were sons born in Hebron: Now these were the sons of David, which and his firstborn was Amnon, of Ahinoam the were born unto him in Hebron : the firstborn, Jezreelitess; 3 and his second, Chileab, of Abi-| Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, gail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite ; and the Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess; 2 the third, third, Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter of Talof Talmai king of Geshur; 4 and the fourth, mai king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the Adonijah the son of Haggith; and the fifth, son of Haggith; 3 the fifth, Shephatiah of Abital; Shephatiah the son of Abital ; 5 and the sixth, the sixth, Ithream by Eglah his wife. 4a Six Ithream, of Eglah David's wife. These were were born unto him in Hebron. born to David in Hebron.

III. Events leading to David's Elevation to the Throne of Israel.

71. ABNER'S QUARREL WITH ISH-BOSHETH.

2 Samuel 3:6-11. 6 And it came to pass, while there was war between the house of Saul and the house of David, that Abner made himself strong in the house of Saul. 7 Now Saul had a concubine, whose name was Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah : and Ish-bosheth said to Abner, Wherefore hast thou gone in unto my father's concubine? 8 Then was Abner very wroth for the words of Ish-bosheth, and said, Am I a dog's head that belongeth to Judah? This day do I shew kindness unto the house of Saul thy father, to his brethren, and to his friends, and have not delivered thee into the hand of David, and yet thou chargest me this day with ca fault concerning this woman. 9 God do so to Abner, and more also, if as the LORD hath sworn to David, I do not even so to him; io to translate the kingdom from the house of Saul, and to set up the throne of David over Israel and over Judah, from Dan even to Beer-sheba. 11 And he could not answer Abner another word, because he feared him.

72. ABNER'S DESERTION TO DAVID: MICHAL RESTORED TO DAVID.

2 Samuel 3:12–21. 12 And Abner sent messengers to David d on his behalf, saying, Whose is the land ? saying also, Make thy league with me, and, behold, my hand shall be with thee, to bring about all Israel unto thee. 13 And he said, Well; I will make a league with thee: but one thing I require of thee, that is, thou shalt not see my face, except thou first bring Michal Saul's daughter, when thou comest to see my face. 14 And David sent messengers to Ish-bosheth Saul's son, saying, Deliver me my wife Michal, whom I betrothed to me for an hundred foreskins of the Philistines. 15 And Ish-hosheth sent, and took her from her husband, even from Paltiel the son of Laish. 16 And her husband went with her, weeping as he went, and followed her to Bahurim. Then said Abner unto him, Go, return: and he returned.

17 And Abner had communication with the elders of Israel, saying, In times past ye sought for David to be king over you : 18 now then do it: for the LORD hath spoken of David, saying, By the hand of my servant David I will save my people Israel out of the hand of the Philistines, and out of the hand of all their enemies. 19 And Abner also spake in the ears of Benjamin : and Abner went also to speak in the ears of David in Hebron all that seemed good to Israel, and to

a Cf. $98. 6Or, "shewed himself strong for.” cOr, " the fault of this woman.” dOr, “where he was." In 1 Samuel 25: 44, “ Palti." See $55.

2 Samuel 3. the whole house of Benjamin. 20 So Abner came to David to Hebron, and twenty men with him. And David inade Abner and the men that were with him a feast. 21 And Abner said unto David, I will arise and go, and will gather all Israel unto my lord the king, that they may make a covenant with thee, and that thou mayest reign over all that thy soul desireth. And David sent Abner away; and he went in peace.

73. JOAB'S MURDER OF ABNER: DAVID'S LAMENTATION,

2 Samuel 3: 22-39. 22 And, behold, the servants of David and Joab came from a a soray, and brought in a great spoil with them : but Abner was not with David in Hebron ; for he had sent him away, and he was gone in peace. 23 When Joab and all the host that was with him were come, they told Joab, saying, Abner the son of Ner came to the king, and he hath sent him away, and he is gone in peace. 24 Then Joab came to the king, and said, What hast thou done ? behold, Abner came unto thee; why is it that thou hast sent him away, and he is quite gone? 25 Thou knowest Abner the son of Ner, that he came to deceive thee, and to know thy going out and thy coming in, and to know all that thou doest. 26 And when Joab was come out from David, he sent messengers after Abner, and they brought him back from the b well of Sirah : but David knew it not. 27 And when Abner was returned to Hebron, Joab took him aside into the midst of the gate to speak with him quietly, and smote him there in the belly, that he died, for the blood of Asahel his brother. 28 And afterward when David heard it, he said, I and my kingdom are guiltless before the LORD for ever from the blood of Abner the son of Ner: 29 let it fall upon the head of Joab, and upon all his father's house; and let there not fail from the house of Joab one that hath an issue, or that is a leper, or that leaneth on a staff, or that falleth by the sword, or that lacketh bread. 30 So Joab and Abishai his brother slew Abner, because he had killed their brother Asahel at Gibeon in the battle.

31 And David said to Joab, and to all the people that were with him, Rend your clothes, and gird you with sackcloth, and mourn before Abner. And king David followed the bier. 32 And they buried Abner in Hebron : and the king lifted up his voice, and wept at the grave of Abner; and all the people wept. 33 And the king lamented for Abner, and said,

Should Abner die as a fool dieth ?
34 Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet put into fetters :

As a man falleth before the children of iniquity, so didst thou fall. And all the people wept again over him. 35 And all the people came to cause David to eat bread while it was yet day; but David sware, saying, God do so to me, and more also, if I taste bread, or aught else, till the sun be down. 36 And all the people took notice of it, and it pleased them: as whatsoever the king did pleased all the people. 37 So all the people and all Israel understood that day that it was not of the king to slay Abner the son of Ner. 38 And the king said unto his servants, Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel ? 39 And I am this day weak, though anointed king; and these men the sons of Zeruiah be too hard for me: the LORD reward the wicked doer according to his wickedness.

74. THE MURDER OF ISH-BOSHETH.

2 Samuel 4: 1-3, 5-7. i And when Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, heard that Abner was dead in Hebron, his hands became feeble, and all the Israelites were troubled. 2 And Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, had two men that were captains of bands: the name of the one was Baanah, and the name of the other Rechab, the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, of the children of Benjamin : (for Beeroth also is reckoned to Benjamin : 3 and the Beerothites fled to Gittaim, and have been sojourners there until this day.)

a Heb. “the troop.” 6 Or, " cistern."

2 Samuel 4. 5 And the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, Rechab and Baanah, went, and came about the heat of the day to the house of Ish-bosheth, as he took his rest at noon. 6a And they came thither into the midst of the house, as though they would have fetched wheat ; and they smote him in the belly : and Rechab and Baanah his brother escaped. 7 Now when they came into the house, as he lay on his bed in his bedchamber, they smote him, and slew him, and beheaded him, and took his head, and went by the way of the Arabah all night.

75. DAVID PUNISHES THE MURDERERS OF ISH-BOSHETH.

2 Samuel 4:8-12. 8 And they brought the head of Ish-bosheth unto David to Hebron, and said to the king, Behold the head of Ish-bosheth the son of Saul thine enemy, which sought thy life; and the LORD hath avenged my lord the king this day of Saul, and of his seed. 9 And David answered Rechab and Baanah his brother, the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, and said unto them, As the LORD liveth, who hath redeemed my soul out of all adversity, so when one told me, saying, Behold, Saul is dead, thinking to have brought good tidings, I took hold of him, and slew him in Ziklag, which was the reward I gave him for his tidings. U How much more, when wicked men have slain a righteous person in his own house upon his bed, shall I not now require his blood of your hand, and take you away from the earth ? 12 And David commanded his young men, and they slew them, and cut off their hands and their feet, and hanged them up beside the pool in Hebron. But they took the head of Ish-bosheth, and buried it in the grave of Abner in Hebron.

PART II.
THE PERIOD OF DAVID'S WARS.
76. DAVID IS MADE KING OVER ISRAEL.
2 Samuel 5:1-3.

1 Chronicles 11:1-3. i Then came all the tribes of Israel to David i Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto Hebron, and spake, saying, Behold, we are unto Hebron, saying, Behold, we are thy bone thy bone and thy flesh. 2 In times past, when and thy flesh. 2 In times past, even when Saul Saul was king over us, it was thou that leddest was king, it was thou that leddest out and out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD said broughtest in Israel : and the LORD thy God to thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and said unto thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, thou shalt be prince over Israel. 3 So all the and thou shalt be prince over my people Israel. elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron ; 13 So all the elders of Israel came to the king to and king David made a covenant with them in Hebron ; and David made a covenant with them Hebron before the LORD: and they anointed in Hebron before the LORD; and they anointed David king over Israel.

David king over Israel, according to the word of | the LORD by the hand of Samuel.

77. DATA CONCERNING THE NUMBER OF WARRIORS WHO MADE

DAVID KING.

i Chronicles 12: 23-40. 23 And these are the numbers of the heads of them that were armed for war, which came to David to Hebron, to turn the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the word of the LORD. 24 The

a The Sept. has, “ And, behold, the woman that kept the door of the house was winnowing wheat, and she slumbered and slept ; and the brethren, Rechab and Baanah, went privily into the house." 6 Or, “ There came ... men fetching wheat. c Or, leader."

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