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Winds, as if their Boughs and Leaves had been par'd or shaven off on that side.
It is also observ'd that the Western Wind, which is the most violent and boisterous of all with us in England, which comes froin off the great Atlantick Ocean, is of longest continuance, Julius Cæfar, in his 5th Book of Commentaries de bello Gallico, faith of it, Magnam partem omnis temporis in his locis fluere consuevit ; it is wont to blow in these quarters a great part of the whole Year. Which Observation holds true at this day, the Wind lying in that corner at least three quarters of the Year.
Since this Motion of the Winds is constant, there is doubtless a constant and setled Cause of it, which deserves to be enquir’d into and search'd out by the Study and Endeavours of the most fagacious Naturalists. But however the Wind be rais’d, it may more easily blow from Sea to Land, than from Land to Sea, because the Superficies of the Sea being even or level, there is nothing to stop its Course ; but on the Land there are not only Woods, but Mountains to hinder and divert it.
Having my self seen so much of the bottom of the Sea round about the Coafts of England, and a great part of the Low Countries, of Italy and Sicily, I must needs adhere to what I deliver'd, That where the bottom of the Sea is not Rocky, but Earth, Owze or Sand, and that is incomparably the greatest part of it, it is by the Motion of the Waters, so far as the Reciprocation of the Sea extends to the button, brought
to a level; and if it should be now unequal, would in tiine be leveld again. By level I do not mean so as to have no declivity (for the Reciprocation preserves that, the Flood hindring the constant carrying down of the bottom) but only to have an equal and uniform descent from the Shores to the Deeps. Now all those relations of Urinators belong only to those places where they have dived, which are always rocky: for there is no reason why they should dive where the bottom is level and fandy. That the Motion of the Water descends to a good depth, I prove
from those Plants that grow deepest in the Sea, because they all generally grow flat in manner of a Fan, and not with branches on all sides like Trees, which is so contriy'd by the providence of Nature, fot that the edges of them do in that posture with most eafe cut the Water flowing to and fro ; and should the flat side be objected to the stream, it would soon be turn'd edge-wise by the force of it, because in that site it doth least resist the Motion of the Water : whereas did the Branches of these Plants
grow round, they would be thrown backward and forward every Tide. Nay, not only the Herbaceous and Woody Submarine Plants, but also the * Lithophyta themfelves affect this manner of growing, as I have obsery'd in various kinds of Corals and Pori. Hence I suspect all those Relations concerning Trees growing at the bottom of the Sea, and bringing forth Fruit there : and as for the Maldiva Nut, till better Information, I adhere to Garcias's Opinion, which may be seen in Clusius. Further I do believe, that in the great depths of the Sea there grow no Plants at all, the bottom being too remote from the external Air, which though it may pierce the Water fo low, yet I doubt whether in quantity sufficient for the Vegetation of Plants : Nay, we are told that in those deep and bottomless Seas there are no Fish at all; yet not because there are no Plants or Insects to feed them, for that they can live upon Water alone, Rondeletius's Experiment about keeping them in a Glass doth undeniably prove, but because their Spawn would be lost in those Seas, the bottom being too cold for it to quicken there ; or rather because being lighter than the Water, there, it would not link to the bottom, but be buoy'd up by it, and carried away to the Shallows.
* Stone Plaors.
Again, The great use and convenience, the beauty and variety of so many Springs and Fountains, so many Brooks and Rivers, so many Lakes and standing Pools of Water, and these so scatter'd and dispers’d all the Earth over, that no great part of it is destitute of them, without which it must, without a supply otherways, be desolate and void of Inhabitants ; afford abundant Arguments of Wisdom and Counsel. That Springs should break forth on the sides of Mountains inost remote from the Sea. That there Mould way be made for Rivers thro' Straits and Rocks, and subterraneous Vaults, fo that one would think that Nature had cut a way on purpose to derive the Water, which elfe
would overflow and drown whole Countries. That the Water passing thro' the Veins of the Earth, should be rendred fresh and potable, which it cannot be by any percolations we can make, but the faline Particles will pass through a tenfold Filtre. That in some places there should spring forth Metallick and Mineral Waters, and hot Baths, and these so constant and permanent for many Ages; fo convenient for divers Medicinal Intentions and Ules, the Causes of which things, or the Means and Methods by which they are perforin'd, have not been as yet certainly discover'd ; only in general Pliny's Re
be true, Tales funt aquæ, qualis terra per quam fluunt. Herice they are Cold, Hot, Sweet, Stinking, Purgative, Diuretick or Ferrugineous, Saline, Petrefying, Bituminose, Venenose, and of other qualities.
Lastly, The Earth, which is the Basis and Support of all Animals and Plants, and affords them the hard and solid part of their Bodies, yielding us Food and Sustenance, and partly also Clothing ; for I do not think that Water supplies Man and other Animals, or even Plants themselves, with their nourishment, but serves chiefly for a Vehicle to the alimentary Particles, to convey and distribute them to the several parts of the Body. Water, as it exists in the World, is not a simple unmix'd Body, but contains the terrestrial component Parts of the Bodies of Animals and Plants : Simple Elementary Water nourishes not at all. How variously is the Surface of this Earth distinguish'd into
Hills, and Valleys, and Plains, and high Mountains, affording pleasant Prospects? How curiously cloath'd and adorn’d with the grateful verdure of Herbs and stately Trees, either dispers’d and scatter'd singly, or as it were assembled in Woods and Groves, and all these beautified and illustrated with elegant Flowers and Fruits, quorum omnium incredibilis multitudo, insatiabili varietate diftinguitur, as Tully faith. This also Thews forth to them that consider it, both the Power and Wisdom of God : So that we may conclude with Solomon, Prov. 3. 19. The Lord by Wifilom hath founded the Earth, by Understanding bath he establish'd the Heavens.
But now, if we pass from Simple to Mix'd Bodies, we shall still find more matter of Admiration, and Argument of Wisdom. Of these we shall first consider those they call imperfectly Mix’d, or Meteors.
As first of all Rain, which is nothing elfe but Water by the heat of the Sun divided into very small invisible Parts, ascending in the Air, till encountsing the Cold, it be by degrees condensd into Clouds, and descends in Drops; this, though it be exhaled from the Salt Sea, yet by this Natural Distillation is render'd fresh and potable, which our Artificial Distillations have hitherto been hardly able to cffect; notwithstanding the eminent use it would be of to Navigators, and the Rewards promisod to those that