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all the offerings at Delphi. It was made by Glaucus the Chian, who first invented the art of inlaying iron.

After the death of Alyattes, his son Crcesus, who was then thirty-five years of age, succeeded to the kingdom. He attacked the Ephesians before any other Grecian people. The Ephesians, being besieged by him, consecrated their city to Diana, by fastening a rope from the temple to the wall. The distance between the old town, which was then besieged, and the temple is seven stadia. Croesus then attacked these the first, and afterward the several cities of the Ionians and Æolians one after another, alleging different pretences against different states, imputing graver charges against those in whom he was able to discover greater causes of blame, and against some of them alleging frivolous pretences. After he had reduced the Grecians in Asia to the payment of tribute, he formed a design to build ships and attack the Islanders. But when all things were ready for the building of ships, Bias of Priene (or, as others say, Pittacus of Mitylene), arriving at Sardis, put a stop to his ship-building, by making this reply, when Cresus inquired if he had any news from Greece:

O king, the Islanders are enlisting a large body of cavalry, with intention to make war upon you and Sardis." Crasus, thinking he had spoken the truth, said, “ May the gods put such a thought into the Islanders as to attack the sons of the Lydians with horse.” The other answering said: “Sire, you appear to wish above all things to see the Islanders on horseback upon the continent; and not without reason. But what can you imagine the Islanders more earnestly desire, after having heard of your resolution to build a fleet in order to attack them, than to catch the Lydians at sea, that they may revenge on you the cause of those Greeks who dwell on the continent, whom you hold in subjection?” It is related, that Cresus was very much pleased with the conclusion, and that, being convinced (for he appeared to speak to the purpose), he put a stop to the ship-building, and made an alliance with the Ionians that inhabit the islands.

In course of time nearly all the nations that dwelt within the river Halys, except the Cilicians and Lycians, were subdued; for Cræsus held all the rest in subjection: and they were the following: the Lydians, Phrygians, Mysians, Mariandynians, Chalybians, Paphlagonians, Thracians, both the Thynians and Bithynians, Carians, Ionians, Dorians, Æolians, and Pamphylians. When these nations were subdued, and Cræsus had added them to the Lydians, all the other wise men of that time, as each had opportunity, came from Greece

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to Sardis, which had then attained to the highest degree of prosperity; and among them Solon, an Athenian, who, having nade laws for the Athenians at their request, absented himself for ten years, having sailed away under pretence of seeing the world, that he might not be compelled to abrogate any of the laws he had established: for the Athenians could not do it themselves, since they were bound by solemn oaths to observe for ten years whatever laws Solon should enact for them. Solon, therefore, having gone abroad for these reasons, and for the purpose of observation, arrived in Egypt at the court of Amasis, and afterward at that of Croesus at Sardis. On his arrival he was hospitably entertained by Creesus, and on the third or fourth day, by order of the king, the attendants conducted him round the treasury, and showed him all their grand and costly contents; and when he had seen and examined everything'sufficiently, Croesus asked him this question: "My Athenian guest, your great fame has reached even to us, as well of your wisdom as of your travels, how that as a philosopher you have travelled through various countries for the purpose of observation; I am therefore desirous of asking you, who is the most happy man you have seen ?” He asked this question, because he thought himself the most happy of men. But Solon, speaking the truth freely, without any Hattery, answered, “Tellus the Åthenian." Creesus, astonished at his answer, eagerly asked him, “On what account do you deem Tellus the happiest?” He replied: "Tellus, in the first place, lived in a well-governed commonwealth; had sons who were virtuous and good; and he saw children born to them all, and all surviving in the next place, when he had lived as happily as the condition of human affairs will permit

, he ended his life in a most glorious manner. For coming to the assistance of the Athenians in a battle with their neighbours of Eleusis, he put the enemy to flight, and died nobly. The Athenians buried him at the public charge in the place where he fell, and honoured him greatly."

When Solon had aroused the attention of Crosus by relating many and happy circumstances concerning Tellus, Crceşus, expecting at least to obtain the second place, asked whom he had seen next to him. “Cleobis,” said he,

" "and Biton, for they, being natives of Argos, possessed a sufficient fortune, and had withal such strength of body that they were both alike victorious in the public games. And moreover the following story is related of them: when the Argives were celebrating a festival of Juno, it was necessary that their mother should be drawn to the temple in a chariot; the oxen

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did not come from the field in time, and the young men therefore, being pressed for time, put themselves beneath the yoke, and drew the car in which their mother sat; and having conveyed it forty-five stadia, they reached the temple. After they had done this in sight of the assembled people, a most happy termination was put to their lives; and in them the Deity clearly showed that it is better for a man to die than to live. For the men of Argos, who stood round, commended the strength of the youths, and the women blessed her as the mother of such sons; but the mother herself, transported with joy both on account of the action and its renown, stood before the image and prayed that the goddess would grant to Cleobis and Biton, her own sons, who had so highly honoured her, the greatest blessing man could receive. After this prayer, when they had sacrificed and partaken of the feast, the youths fell asleep in the temple itself, and never awoke more, but met with such a termination of life. Upon this the Argives, in commemoration of their piety, caused their statues to be made and dedicated at Delphi.” Thus Solon adjudged the second place of felicity to these youths. But Creesus, being enraged, said, “My Athenian friend, is my happiness then so slighted by you as nothing worth, that you do not think me of so much value as private men?” He answered: “ Cresus, do you inquire of me concerning human affairs of me, who know that the divinity is always jealous, and delights in confusion? For in lapse of time men are constrained to see many things they would not willingly see, and to suffer many things they would not willingly suffer. Now I put the term of man's life at seventy years, these seventy years then give twentyfive thousand two hundred days, without including the intercalary month; and if we add that month' to every other year, in order that the seasons arriving at the proper time may agree, the intercalary months will be thirty-five more in the seventy years, and the days of these months will be one thousand and fifty. Yet in all this number of twenty-six thousand two hundred and fifty days, that compose these seventy years, one day produces nothing exactly the same as another. Thus, then, O Creesus, man is altogether the sport of fortune. You appear to me to be master of immense treasures, and king of many nations; but as relates to what you inquire of me, I can not say till I hear you have ended your life happily. For

"If the first number 25, 200 is correct, it follows that the year was 360 days; if the number of intercalary days was 1,050 in 70 years, there will be altogether 26,259, which will give 375 days to the year; so that in spite of the precaution the seasons will be confused.-Larcher.

the richest of men is not more happy than he that has a sufficiency for a day unless good fortune attend him to the grave, so that he ends his life in happiness. Many men who abound in wealth are unhappy; and many who have only a moderate competency are fortunate. He that abounds in wealth, and is yet unhappy, surpasses the other only in two things; but the other surpasses the wealthy and the miserable in many things. The former, indeed, is better able to gratify desire, and to bear the blow of adversity. But the latter surpasses him in this; he is not indeed equally able to bear misfortune or satisfy desire, but his good fortune wards off these things from him; and he enjoys the full use of his limbs, he is free from disease and misfortune, he is blessed with good children and a fine form, and if, in addition to all these things, he shall end his life well, he is the man you seek, and may justly be called happy; but before he die we ought to suspend our judgment, and not pronounce him happy, but fortunate. Now it is impossible for any one man to comprehend all these advantages: as no one country suffices to produce everything for itself, but affords some and wants others, and that which affords the most is the best; so no human being is in all respects self-sufficient, but possesses one advantage, and is in need of another; he therefore who has constantly enjoyed the most of these, and then ends his life tranquilly, this man, in my judgment,' king, deserves the name of happy. We ought therefore to consider the end of everything, in what way it will terminate; for the Deity having shown a glimpse of happiness to many, has afterward utterly overthrown them.” When he spoke thus to Cræsus, Creesus did not confer any favour on him, and holding him in no account, dismissed him; for he considered him a very ignorant man, because he overlooked present prosperity, and bade men look to the end of

After the departure of Solon, the indignation of the gods fell heavily upon Crasus, probably because he thought himself the most happy of all men. A dream soon after visited him while sleeping, which pointed out to him the truth of the misfortunes that were about to befall him in the person of one

For Crosus had two sons, of whom one was grievously afflicted, for he was dumb; but the other, whose name was Atys, far surpassed all the young men of his age. Now the dream intimated to Creesus that he would lose this Atys by a wound inflicted by the point of an iron weapon; he, when he awoke, and had considered the matter with himself, dreading the dream, provided a wife for his son; and


of his sons.

though he was accustomed to command the Lydian troops, he did not ever after send him out on that business; and causing all spears, lances, and such other weapons as men use in war to be removed from the men's apartments, he had them laid up in private chambers, that none of them being suspended might fall upon his son. While Cræsus was engaged with the nuptials of his son, a man oppressed by misfortune, and whose hands were polluted, a Phrygian by birth, and of royal family, arrived at Sardis. This man, having come to the palace of Cresus, sought permission to obtain purification according to the custom of the country. Cræsus purified him (now the manner of expiation is nearly the same among the Lydians and the Greeks); and when he had performed the usual ceremonies, Cresus inquired whence he came, and who he was, speaking to him as follows: “Stranger, who art thou, and from what part of Phrygia hast thou come as a suppliant to my hearth? and what man or woman hast thou slain?” The stranger answered: “Sire, I am the son of Gordius, son of Midas, and am called Adrastus; having unwittingly slain my own brother, and being banished by my father and deprived of everything, I am come hither." Cræsus answered as follows: “You are born of parents who are our friends, and you are come to friends, among whom, if you will stay, you shall want nothing; and by bearing your misfortune as lightly as possible, you will be the greatest gainer." So Adrastus took up his abode in the palace of Cræsus.

At this same time a boar of enormous size appeared in Mysian Olympus, and, rushing down from that mountain, ravaged the fields of the Mysians. The Mysians, though they often went out against him, could not hurt him, but suffered much from him. At last deputies from the Mysians having come to Cresus, spoke as follows: “O king, a boar of enormous size has appeared in our country, and ravages our fields : though we have often endeavoured to take him, we can not. We therefore earnestly beg that you would send with us your

from the country.” Such was their entreaty, but Cræsus, remembering the warning of his dream, answered: “Make no further mention of my son, for I shall not send him with you, because he is lately married, and that now occupies his attention; but I will send with you chosen Lydians, and the whole hunting train, and will order them to assist you with their best endeavours in driving the monster from your country.” Such was his answer; and when the Mysians were content with this, the son of Cræsus, who had heard of their

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