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the districts of the Calasiries: Thebes, Bubastis, Aphthis, Tanis, Mendes, Sebennys, Athribis, Pharbæthis, Thmuis, Onuphis, Anysis, Mycephoris; this district is situated in an island opposite the city Bubastis. These are the districts of the Calasiries, being in number, when they are most numerous, two hundred and fifty thousand men; neither are these allowed to practise any art, but they devote themselves to military pursuits alone, the son succeeding to his father. Whether the Greeks learned this custom from the Egyptians I am unable to determine with certainty, seeing that the Thracians, Scythians, Persians, Lydians, and almost all barbarous nations hold in less honour than their other citizens those who learn any art and their descendants, but deem such to be noble as abstain from handicrafts, and particularly those who devote themselves to war. All the Greeks, moreover, have adopted the same notion, and especially the Lacedæmonians; but the Corinthians hold handicraftsmen in least disesteem. To these alone of all the Egyptians, besides the priests, the following special privileges are attached: To each twelve chosen acres free from tribute: the acre contains a square of one hundred Egyptian cubits, and the Egyptian cubit is equal to that of Samos: these privileges were attached to them all, but others enjoyed them by turns, and the same persons never more than once. A thousand of the Calasiries, and as many of the Hermotybies, each served for a year as the king's body-guard : to these accordingly was given the following allowance daily, in addition to the acres, to each five minæ in weight of baked bread, two minæ of beef, and four arysters of wine. This was the constant allowance of the bodyguard.
When therefore Apries, leading his auxiliaries, and Amasis, all the Egyptians, met together at Momemphis, they came to an engagement, and the foreigners fought well, but being far inferior in numbers, were, on that account, defeated. Apries is said to have been of opinion that not even a god could deprive him of his kingdom, so securely did he think himself established: now, however, when he came to an engagement he was beaten, and being taken prisoner, he was carried back to Sais, to that which was formerly his own palace, but which now belonged to Amasis : here he was maintained for some time in the royal palace, and Amasis treated him well. But at length the Egyptians complaining that he did not act rightly in preserving a man who was the greatest enemy both to them and to him, he thereupon delivered Apries to the Egyptians; and they strangled him, and afterward buried him in his ancestral sepulchre; this is in the sacred precinct of Minerva, very near the temple, on the left hand as you enter. The Saitæ used to bring all the kings sprung from this district within the sacred precinct; however, the tomb of Amasis is further from the temple than that of Apries and his progenitors, but even this is in the court of the sacred precinct, consisting of a large stone chamber, adorned with columns, made in imitation of palm trees, and with other ornaments; inside this chamber are placed folding doors, and within the doors is the sepulchre. At Sais also, in the sacred precinct of Minerva, behind the chapel and joining the whole of the wall, is the tomb of one whose name I consider it impious to divulge on such an occasion. And in the inclosure stand large stone obelisks, and there is a lake near, ornamented with a stone margin, formed in a circle, and in size, as appeared to me, much the same as that in Delos, which is called the Circular. In this lake they perform by night the representation of that person's adventures, which they call mysteries. On these matters, however, though accurately acquainted with the particulars of them, I must observe a discreet silence. And respecting the sacred rites of Ceres, which the Greeks call Thesmophoria, although I am acquainted with them, I must observe silence except so far as it is lawful for me to speak of them. The daughters of Danaus were they who introduced these ceremonies from Egypt, and taught them to the Pelasgian women: but afterward, when almost the whole Peloponnese was depopulated by the Dorians, these rites were lost; but the Arcadians, who were the only Peloponnesians left, and not expelled, alone preserved them.
Apries being thus dethroned, Amasis, who was of the Saitic district, reigned in his stead; the name of the city from which he came was Siuph. At first the Egyptians despised, and held him in no great estimation, as having been formerly a private person, and of no illustrious family; but afterward he conciliated them by his address, without any arrogance. He had an infinite number of other treasures, and besides a golden foot-pan, in which Amasis himself, and all his guests, were accustomed to wash their feet. Having then broken this in pieces, he had made from it the statue of a god, and placed it in the most suitable part of the city; and the Egyptians, flocking to the image, paid it the greatest reverence. But Amasis, informed of their behaviour, called the Egyptians together, and explained the matter to them, saying that the statue was made out of the foot-pan in which the Egyptians formerly vomited, made water, and washed their feet, and which they then so greatly reverenced; now then, he proceeded to say, the same had happened to him as to the foot-pan; for though he was before but a private person, yet he was now their king; he therefore required them to honour and respect him: by this means he won over the Egyptians, so that they thought fit to obey him. He adopted the following method of managing his affairs : Early in the morning, until the time of fullmarket, he assiduously despatched the business brought before him; after that he drank and jested with his companions, and he talked loosely and sportively. But his friends, offended at this, admonished him, saying, “ You do not, O king, control yourself properly, in making yourself too common. For it becomes you, who sit on a venerable throne, to pass the day in transacting public business; thus the Egyptians would know that they are governed by a great man, and you would be better spoken of. But now you act in a manner not at all becoming a king." But he answered them as follows: “They who have bows, when they want to use them, bend them; but when they have done using them, they unbend them; for if it were kept always bent, it would break, so that he could not use it when he had need. Such is the condition of man; if he should incessantly attend to serious business, and not give himself up sometimes to sport, he would unawares become mad or stupefied. I, being well aware of this, give up a portion of my time to each.” Thus he answered his friends. Amasis is said to have been, even when a private person, fond of drinking and jesting, and by no means inclined to serious business; and when the means failed him for drinking and indulging himself, he used to go about pilfering. Such persons as accused him of having their property, on his denying it, used to take him to the oracle of the place, and he was oftentimes convicted by the oracles, and oftentimes acquitted. When, therefore, he came to the throne, he acted as follows: Whatever gods had absolved him from the charge of theft, of their temples he neither took any heed, nor contributed anything toward their repair; neither did he frequent them, and offer sacrifices, considering them of no consequence at all, and as having only lying responses to give. But as many as had convicted him of the charge of theft, to them he paid the highest respect, considering them as truly gods, and delivering authentic responses.
Moreover, he built an admirable portico to the Temple of Minerva at Sais, far surpassing all others both in height and size, as well as in the dimensions and quality of the stones; he likewise dedicated large statues, and huge andro-sphinxes, and brought other stones of a prodigious size for repairs : of these he brought some from the quarries near Memphis; but those of the greatest magnitude, from the city of Elephantine, distant from Sais a passage of twenty days. But of these, that which I not the least, rather the most admire, is this: he brought a building of one stone from the city of Elephantine, and two thousand men, who were appointed to convey it, were occupied three whole years in its transport, and these men were all pilots. The length of this chamber, outside, is twenty-one cubits, the breadth fourteen, and the height eight. This is the measure of the outside of the one-stoned chamber. But inside, the length is eighteen cubits and twenty digits, and the width twelve cubits, and the height five cubits. This chamber is placed near the entrance of the sacred precinct; for they say that he did not draw it within the precinct for the following reason: the architect, as the chamber was being drawn along, heaved a deep sigh, being wearied with the work, over which so long a time had been spent; whereupon Amasis, making a religious scruple of this, would not suffer it to be drawn any farther. Some persons, however, say that one of the men employed at the levers was crushed to death by it, and that on that account it was not drawn into the precinct. Amasis dedicated in all the most famous temples works admirable for their magnitude; and among them at Memphis, the reclining colossus before the Temple of Vulcan, of which the length is seventy-five feet; and on the same base stand two statues of Ethiopian stone, each twenty feet in height, one on each side of the temple. There is also at Sais another similar statue, lying in the same manner as that at Memphis. It was Amasis also who built the temple to Isis at Memphis, which is spacious and well worthy of notice.
Under the reign of Amasis Egypt is said to have enjoyed the greatest prosperity, both in respect to the benefits derived from the river to the land, and from the land to the people; and it is said to have contained at that time twenty thousand inhabited cities. Amasis it was who established the law among the Egyptians, that every Egyptian should annually declare to the governor of his district by what means he maintained himself; and if he failed to do this, or did not show that he lived by honest means, he should be punished with death. Solon the Athenian, having brought this law from Egypt, established it at Athens; and that people still continue to observe it, as being an unobjectionable regulation. Amasis, being partial to the Greeks, both bestowed
temple beland of the Dorians
other favours on various of the Greeks, and moreover gave the city of Naucratis for such as arrived in Egypt to dwell in; and to such as did not wish to settle there, but only to trade by sea, he granted places where they might erect altars and temples to the gods. Now, the most spacious of these sacred buildings, which is also the most renowned and frequented, called the Hellenium, was erected at the common charge of the following cities: Of the Ionians, Chios, Teos, Phocæa, and Clazomenæ; of the Dorians, Rhodes, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, Phaselis; and of the Æolians, Mitylene alone. So that this temple belongs to them, and these cities appoint officers to preside over the mart: and whatever other cities claim a share in it, claim what does not belong to them. Besides this, the people of Ægina built a temple to Jupiter for themselves; and the Samians another to Juno, and the Milesians one to Apollo. Naucratis was anciently the only place of resort for merchants, and there was no other in Egypt: and if a man arrived at any other mouth of the Nile, he was obliged to swear that he had come there against his will; and having taken such an oath, he must sail in the same ship to the Canopic mouth; but if he should be prevented by contrary winds from doing so, he was forced to unload his goods, and carry them in barges round the Delta until he reached Naucratis. So great were the privileges of Naucratis. When the Amphyctions contracted to build the temple that now stands at Delphi for three hundred talents (for the temple that was formerly there had been burned by accident, and it fell upon the Delphians to supply a fourth part of the sum), the Delphians went about from city to city and solicited contributions; and doing this they brought home no small amount from Egypt. For Amasis gave them a thousand talents of alum, and the Grecians who were settled in Egypt twenty minæ.
Amasis also contracted a friendship and an alliance with the Cyrenæans; and resolved to take a wife from that country, either out of a desire of having a Grecian woman, or from some peculiar affection to the Cyrenæans. He therefore married, as some say, the daughter of Battus; others, of Arcesilaus; though others, of Critobulus, a person of distinction among the citizens; her name was Ladice. Whenever Amasis lay with her he was unable to have connection with her, which was not the case with respect to other women: upon the continuance of this for a long time, Amasis said to this woman, who was called Ladice: “O woman, you have used charms against me, and no contrivance can prevent your perishing by the most cruel death of all women.” But Ladice,