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ing not to show any indulgence, sent a messenger to the persons by whom the son who was driven out was entertained, and forbade them to receive him in their houses. But he, when being driven out from one house he came to another, was driven from this also, since Periander threatened all that received him, and required them to expel him. Being thus driven about, he went to some other of his friends; and they, though in dread, yet received him as the son of Periander. At last Periander made a proclamation that whoever should either receive him in his house, or converse with him, should pay a sacred fine to Apollo, mentioning the amount. In consequence of this proclamation, therefore, no one would either converse with him or receive him into their houses; besides, he himself did not think it right to attempt what was forbidden, but, persisting in his purpose, strayed among the porticoes. On the fourth day Periander, seeing him reduced to a state of filth and starvation, felt compassion, and relaxing his anger, approached him, and said: “My son, which of these is preferable, your present mode of life or, by accommodating yourself to your father's wishes, to succeed to the power and riches which I now possess? You, who are my son, and a prince of wealthy Corinth, have chosen a vagabond life, by opposing and showing anger toward him whom, least of all, you ought so to treat. For if any calamity has occurred in our family on account of which you have conceived any suspicion of me, it has fallen upon me, and I bear the chief burden of it, inasmuch as I murdered her. Do you, therefore, having learned how much better it is to be envied than pitied, and at the same time what it is to be angry with parents and superiors, return to your home.” With these words Periander endeavoured to restrain him. He, however, gave his father no other answer, but said that he had made himself liable to pay the sacred fine to the god by having spoken to him. Periander therefore perceiving that the distemper of his son was impracticable and invincible, put him on board a ship, and sent him out of his sight to Corcyra, for he was also master of that island. Periander having sent him away, made war on his father-in-law Procles, as being the principal author of the present troubles; and he took Epidaurus, and took Procles himself and kept him prisoner. But when, in lapse of time, Periander grew old, and became conscious that he was no longer able to superintend and manage public affairs, having sent to Corcyra, he recalled Lycophron to assume the government, for he did not perceive in his eldest son any capacity for government, but he appeared to him

dull of intellect. But Lycophron did not deign to give an answer to the bearer of the message. Nevertheless Periander, having a strong affection for the youth, next sent to him his sister, who was his own daughter, thinking she would be most likely to persuade him. On her arrival she thus addressed him: "Brother, would you that the government should pass to others, and that your father's family should be utterly destroyed, rather than yourself return and possess it? Come home, then, and cease to punish yourself

. Obstinacy is a sorry possession: think not to cure one evil by another. Many have preferred equity to strict justice; and many, ere this, in seeking their mother's rights have lost their father's inheritance. A kingdom is an uncertain possession, and many are suitors for it. He is now old, and past the vigour of life. Do not give your own to others.Thus she, having been instructed by her father, said what was most likely to persuade him. But he in answer said that he would never return to Corinth so long as he should hear his father was living. When she brought back this answer, Periander sent a third time by a herald to say that he himself intended to go to Corcyra; and urged him to return to Corinth and become his successor in the kingdom. The son consenting to this proposal, Periander prepared to set out for Corcyra, and his son for Corinth; but the Corcyræans being informed of each particular, in order that Periander might not come to their country, killed the young man: and in return for this Periander took vengeance on the Corcyræans.

The Lacedæmonians, arriving with a great armament, besieged Samos, and having attacked the fortifications, they had passed beyond the tower that faced the sea near the suburbs; but afterward, when Polycrates himself advanced with a large force, they were driven back. Immediately after, the auxiliaries and many of the Samians poured down from the upper tower, which stands on the ridge of the mountain; and having withstood the Lacedæmonians for a short time, they fled back again, and the enemy pursued them with great slaughter. Now, if all the Lacedæmonians who were present on that day had behaved as well as Archias and Lycopas, Samos would have been taken. For Archias and Lycopas alone rushing on with the Samians as they fled to the wall, and being shut out from retreat, died in the city of the Samians. Another Archias, the son of Samius, son of Archias, the third in descent from this Archias, I myself met with, in Pitane, for he was of that tribe. He esteemed the Samians above all other strangers, and said that the surname of Samian

was given to his father, because he was son to that Archias who fell so gloriously at Samos; and he said that he honoured the Samians, because his grandfather had been buried by them at the public charge. The Lacedæmonians, after forty days had been spent in besieging Samos, finding their affairs were not at all advanced, returned to Peloponnesus; though a groundless report has gone abroad, for it is said that Polycrates, having coined a large quantity of the country money in lead, had it gilded and gave it to them; and that they, having received it, thereupon took their departure. This was the first expedition that the Lacedæmonian Dorians undertook against Asia.

Those of the Samians who had fomented the war against Polycrates, when the Lacedæmonians were about to abandon them, set sail for Siphnus, for they were in want of money. The affairs of the Siphnians were at that time in a flourishing condition, and they were the richest of all the islanders, having in the island gold and silver mines, so that from the tenth of the money accruing from thence a treasure is laid up at Delphi equal to the richest, and they used every year to divide the riches that accrued from the mines. When, therefore, they established this treasure, they consulted the oracle, whether their present prosperity should continue with them for a long time, but the Pythian answered as follows: “When the Prytaneum in Siphnus shall be white, and the market white-fronted, then there is need of a prudent man to guard against a wooden ambush and a crimson herald.” The market and Prytaneum of the Siphnians were then adorned with Parian marble. This response they were unable to comprehend, either then on the moment or when the Samians arrived. For as soon as the Samians reached Siphnus they sent one of their ships conveying ambassadors to the city. Formerly all ships were painted red. And this it was that the Pythian forewarned the Siphnians, bidding them beware of a wooden ambush and a crimson herald. These ambassadors, then, having arrived, requested the Siphnians to lend them ten talents; but when the Siphnians refused the loan, the Samians ravaged their territory. But the Siphnians having heard of it, came out to protect their property, and, having engaged, were beaten, and many of them were cut off from the city by the Samians; and they afterward exacted from them a hundred talents. From the Hermionians they received an island instead of money, Thyrea, near Peloponnesus, and gave it in charge to the Troezenians; and they themselves founded Cydonia in Crete; though they did not sail thither for that purpose, but to expel the Zacynthians from the island. They continued in this settlement, and were prosperous for five years; so much so that these are the people who erected the sacred precincts that are now in Cydonia, and the Temple of Dictynna. But in the sixth year the Æginetæ, having vanquished them in a sea-fight, reduced them to slavery, together with the Cretans; and they cut off the prows of their ships, which represented the figure of a boar, and dedicated them in the Temple of Minerva in Ægina. The Æginetæ did this on account of a grudge they bore the Samians; for former Samians, when Amphicrates reigned in Samos, having made war against Ægina, did the Æginetæ much mischief, and suffered in return. This, then, was the cause.

I have dwelt longer on the affairs of the Samians, because they have three works the greatest that have been accomplished by all the Greeks. The first is of a mountain, one hundred and fifty orgyæ in height; in this is dug a tunnel, beginning from the base, with an opening at each side. The length of the excavation is seven stades, and the height and breadth eight feet each; through the whole length of it is dug another excavation twenty cubits deep, and three feet broad, through which the water conveyed by pipes reaches the city, drawn from a copious fountain. The architect of this excavation was a Megarian, Eupalinus, son of Naustrophus. This, then, is one of the three. The second is a mound in the sea round the harbour, in depth about one hundred orgyæ; and the length of the mound is more than two stades. The third work of theirs is a temple, the largest of all we have ever seen; of this, the first architect was Rhæcus, son of Phileus, a native. On account of these things I have dwelt longer on the affairs of the Samians.

While Cambyses, son of Cyrus, tarried in Egypt, and was acting madly, two magi, who were brothers, revolted. One of these Cambyses had left steward of his palace. He accordingly revolted, having been informed of the death of Smerdis, and that it was kept secret, and that there were few of the Persians who were acquainted with it, for the generality thought him still alive. Therefore, having formed the following design, he determined to make an attempt on the throne. He had a brother, who, I have said, joined him in the revolt, in person very like Smerdis, son of Cyrus, whom Cambyses, although he was his own brother, had put to death. The magus Patizithes, having persuaded this man that he would manage everything for him, set him on the throne; and having done this, he sent heralds in various directions,


and particularly to Egypt, to proclaim to the army that they must in future obey Smerdis, son of Cyrus, and not Cambyses. The other heralds, therefore, made this proclamation; and he, moreover, who was appointed to Egypt, finding Cambyses and his army at Ecbatana in Syria, standing in the midst, proclaimed what had been ordered by the magus. Cambyses having heard this from the herald, and believing that he spoke the truth, and that he had himself been betrayed by Prexaspes (for that he, when sent to kill Smerdis, had not done so), looked toward Prexaspes, and said, “Prexaspes, hast thou thus performed the business I enjoined thee?" But he answered: Sir, it is not true that your brother Smerdis has revolted against you, nor that you can have any quarrel, great or small, with him. For I myself put your order in execution, and buried him with my own hands. If, however, the dead rise again, expect that Astyages the Mede will rise up against you. But if it is now as formerly, nothing new can spring up to you from him. It appears to me, however, that we should pursue the herald, and find out by inquiry from whom he comes to proclaim to us that we are to obey King Smerdis.” When Prexaspes had spoken thus, as the advice was approved by Cambyses, the herald was immediately pursued, and brought back. When he arrived Prexaspes questioned him as follows: “Friend, since you say that you come as the messenger of Smerdis, son of Cyrus, now speak the truth, and depart in peace. Whether did Smerdis himself appear in person before you, and give these orders, or some one of his ministers?” He answered: “I have not so much as seen Smerdis, son of Cyrus, since King Cambyses marched for Egypt; but the magus whom Cambyses appointed steward of his palace gave me these orders, saying that Smerdis, son of Cyrus, was the person who charged me to deliver this message to you." Thus the man spoke without adding any untruth. But Cambyses said: "Prexaspes, you, like a faithful man, having executed your instructions, have escaped all blame: but what Persian can this be who has revolted against me, usurping the name of Smerdis?" He replied: "I think I understand the whole matter, O king: the magi are the persons who have revolted against you, Patizithes, whom you left steward of the palace, and his brother Smerdis." When Cambyses heard the name of Smerdis, the truth of this account and of the dream struck him: for he fancied in his sleep that some one announced to him that Smerdis, seated on the royal throne, touched the heavens with his head. Perceiving, therefore, that he had destroyed his brother without a cause, he

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