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the Persian or Lydian customs, nor of any other people in Asia; when, therefore, it attracted his attention, he sent some of his body-guard, bidding them observe what the woman would do with the horse. The guards accordingly followed her, and she, when she came to the river, watered the horse; and having watered it, and filled her pitcher, returned by the same way, carrying the water on her head, leading the horse on her arm, and turning her spindle. Darius, surprised at what he heard from the spies, and at what he himself had seen, commanded them to bring her into his presence; and when she was brought, her brothers also made their appearance, who were keeping a lookout somewhere not far off : and when Darius asked of what country she was, the young men said that they were Pæonians, and that she was their sister. He then inquired, “Who are the Pæonians, in what part of the world do they live, and for what purpose have they come to Sardis?” They told him that they had come to deliver themselves up to him, and that Pæonia was situated on the river Strymon, and the Strymon was not far from the Hellespont; and that they were a colony of Teucrians from Troy. They then mentioned these several particulars; and he asked if all the women of that country were so industrious. They readily answered that such was the case, for they had formed their plan for this very purpose.

Thereupon Darius wrote letters to Megabyzus, whom he had left general in Thrace, commanding him to remove the Pæonians from their abodes, and to bring to him themselves, their children, and their wives. A horseman immediately hastened to the Hellespont with the message; and having crossed over, delivered the letter to Megabyzus; but he, having read it, and taking guides from Thrace, marched against Pæonia. The Pæonians, having heard that the Persians were coming against them, assembled, and drew out their forces toward the sea, thinking that the Persians would attempt to enter and attack them in that direction: the Pæonians, accordingly, were prepared to repel the army of Megabyzus at its first onset. But the Persians, understanding that the Pæonians had assembled and were guarding the approaches on the coast, having guides, went the upper road; and having escaped the notice of the Pæonians, came suddenly on their towns, which were destitute of inhabitants, and as they fell upon them when empty, they easily got possession of them. But the Pæonians, as soon as they heard that their cities were taken, immediately dispersed themselves, and repaired each to his own home, and gave themselves up to the Persians. Thus the Siropæonians and Pæoplæ, and those tribes of Pæonians as far as the lake Prasias, were removed from their abodes, and transported into Asia. But those around Mount Pangæus and near the Doberes, the Agrianæ, Odomanti, and those who inhabit Lake Prasias itself, were not at all subdued by Megabyzus. Yet he attempted to conquer those who live upon the lake in dwellings contrived after this manner: planks fitted on lofty piles are placed in the middle of the lake, with a narrow entrance from the mainland by a single bridge. These piles that support the planks all the citizens anciently placed there at the common charge; but afterward they established a law to the following effect: whenever a man marries, for each wife he sinks three piles, bringing wood from a mountain called Orbelus: but every man has several wives. They live in the following manner: every man has a hut on the planks, in which he dwells, with a trap-door closely fitted in the planks, and leading down to the lake. They tie the young children with a cord round the foot, fearing lest they should fall into the lake beneath. To their horses and beasts of burden they give fish for fodder; of which there is such an abundance that when a man has opened his trap-door he lets down an empty basket by a cord into the lake, and, after waiting a short time, draws it up full of fish. They have two kinds of fish, which they call papraces and tilones. Those of the Pæonians, then, who were subdued were taken to Asia.

When Megabyzus had subdued the Pæonians, he sent into Macedonia seven Persians as ambassadors, who next to himself were the most illustrious in the army. They were sent to Amyntas to demand earth and water for King Darius. From the lake Prasias the distance to Macedonia is very short. For near adjoining the lake is a mine, from which in later times a talent of silver came in daily to Alexander: beyond the mine, when one has passed the mountain called Dysorum, one is in Macedonia. When, therefore, the Persians who were sent arrived at the court of Amyntas, on going into the presence of Amyntas, they demanded earth and water for King Darius. He both promised to give these, and invited them to partake of his hospitality; and having prepared a magnificent feast, he entertained the Persians with great courtesy. But after supper the Persians, who were drinking freely, spoke as follows: “ Macedonian host, it is a custom with us Persians, when we have given a great feast, to introduce our concubines and lawful wives to sit by our sides : since, therefore, you have received us kindly, and have entertained us magnificently, and promise to give earth and water to King Darius, do you follow our custom.” To this Amyntas answered: “O Persians, we have no such custom, but that the men should be separated from the women; yet, since you, who are our masters, require this also, this shall also be granted to you." Amyntas, having spoken thus, sent for the women; and they, when they had come, being summoned, sat down in order opposite to the Persians. Thereupon the Persians, seeing the women were beautiful, spoke to Amyntas, saying that what had been done was not at all wise, for that it were better that the women should not have come at all than that, when they had come, they should not be placed beside them, but sit opposite to them as a torment to their eyes. Upon this, Amyntas, compelled by necessity, ordered them to sit down by the men; and when the women obeyed, the Persians, being very full of wine, began to feel their breasts; and some even attempted to kiss them. Amyntas, when he beheld this, though very indignant, remained quiet, through excessive fear of the Persians. But Alexander, son of Amyntas, who was present, and witnessed this behaviour, being a young man and inexperienced in misfortune, was no longer able to restrain himself; so that, bearing it with difficulty, he addressed Amyntas as follows: "Father, yield to your years ; and retire to rest, nor persist in drinking. I will stay here, and furnish the guests with all things necessary.” Amyntas, perceiving that Alexander was about to put some new design in execution, said: “Son, I pretty well discern by your words that you are burning with rage, and that you wish to dismiss me that you may attempt some new design. I charge you, therefore, to plan nothing new against these men, lest you cause our ruin, but endure to behold what is being done; with respect to my retiring, I will comply with your wishes." When Amyntas, having made this request, had retired, Alexander said to the Persians: “Friends, these women are entirely at your service; and whether you desire to have intercourse with them all, or with any of them, on this point make known your own wishes; but now, as the time for retiring is fast approaching, and I perceive that you have had abundance to drink, let these women, if that is agreeable to you, go and bathe, and when they have bathed expect their return.” Having spoken thus, as the Persians approved his proposal, he sent away the women, as they came out, to their own apartment; and Alexander himself, having dressed a like number of smooth-faced young men in the dress of the women, and having furnished them with daggers, led them in; and as he led them in, he addressed the Persians as follows: “ Persians, you appear to have been entertained with a sumptuous feast; for we have given you not only all we had, but whatever we could procure; and, what is more than all the rest, we now freely give up to you our mothers and sisters, that you may perceive that you are thoroughly honoured by us with whatever you deserve; and also that you may report to the king who sent you that a Greek, the prince of the Macedonians, gave you a good reception both at table and bed.” Having thus spoken, Alexander placed by the side of each person a Macedonian man, as if a woman; but they, when the Persians attempted to touch them, put them to death. By this death these perished, both they and their attendants, for they were followed by carriages, and attendants, and all kinds of baggage; but all these, with the whole of the men, disappeared. But after no long time a great search was made by the Persians for these men; but Alexander by his prudence checked their inquiry by giving a considerable sum of money, and his own sister, whose name was Gygæa, to Bubares, a Persian, the chief of those sent to search for those who were lost: thus the inquiry into the death of these Persians being suppressed, was hushed up. That these princes, who are sprung from Perdiccas, are Greeks, as they themselves affirm, I myself happen to know; and in a future part of my history I will prove that they are Greeks. Moreover, the judges présiding at the games of the Grecians in Olympia have determined that they are so; for when Alexander wished to enter the lists, and went down there for that very purpose, his Grecian competitors wished to exclude him, alleging that the games were not instituted for barbarian combatants, but Grecians. But Alexander, after he had proved himself to be an Argive, was pronounced to be a Greek, and when he was to contend in the stadium, his lot fell out with that of the first combatant. In this manner were these things transacted.

Megabyzus, leading with him the Pæonians, arrived at the Hellespont; and having crossed over, came to Sardis. In the meantime Histiæus the Milesian was building a wall round the place, which, at his own request, he had received from Darius as a reward for his services in preserving the bridge: this place was near the river Strymon, and its name was Myrcinus. But Megabyzus, having heard what was being done by Histiæus, as soon as he reached Sardis, bringing the Pæonians with him, addressed Darius as follows: “O king, what have you done, in allowing a crafty and subtle Greek to possess a city in Thrace, where there is abundance of timber fit for building ships, and plenty of wood for oars, and silver mines ? A great multitude of Greeks and barbarians dwell around, who, when they have obtained him as a leader, will do whatever he may command both by day and by night. Put a stop, therefore, to the proceedings of this man, that you may not be harassed by a domestic war; but, having sent for him in a gentle manner, stop him: and when you have got him in your power, take care that he never returns to the Greeks." Megabyzus, speaking thus, easily persuaded Darius, since he wisely foresaw what was likely to happen. Thereupon Darius, having sent a messenger to Myrcinus, spoke as follows: "Histiæus, King Darius says thus: I find on consideration that there is no man better affected to me and my affairs than thyself; and this I have learned, not by words, but actions; now, therefore, since I have great designs to put in execution, come to me by all means, that I may communicate them to thee." Histiæus, giving credit to these words, and at the same time considering it a great honour to become a counsellor of the king, went to Sardis: when he arrived, Darius addressed him as follows: “Histiæus, I have sent for you on this occasion. As soon as I returned from Scythia, and you were out of my sight, I have wished for nothing so much as to see you and converse with you again; being persuaded that a friend who is both intelligent and well affected, is the most valuable of all possessions; both of which I am able to testify from my own knowledge concur in you, as regards my affairs. Now, then, for you have done well in coming, I make you this offer. Think no more of Miletus, nor of the new-founded city in Thrace; but follow me to Susa, have the same that I have, and be the partner of my table and councils." Darius having spoken thus, and having appointed Artaphernes, his brother by the same father, to be governor of Sardis, departed for Susa, taking Histiæus with him; and having nominated Otanes to be general of the forces on the coast, whose father Sisamnes, one of the royal judges, King Cambyses had put to death and flayed, because he had given an unjust judgment for a sum of money. And having had his skin torn off, he had it cut into thongs, and extended it on the bench on which he used to sit when he pronounced judgment: and Cambyses, having so extended it, appointed as judge in the room of Sisamnes, whom he had slain and flayed, the son of Sisamnes, admonishing him to remember on what seat he sat to administer justice. This Otanes, then, who had been placed on this seat, being now appointed successor to Megabyzus in the command of the army, subdued the Byzantians and Chalcedonians, and took Antandros, which

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