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same attention as you have always done, and marry another besides her, who may bear you children.” When they spoke to this effect, Anaxandrides consented; and afterward having two wives, he inhabited two houses, doing what was not at all in accordance with Spartan usages. When no long time had elapsed, the wife last married bore this Cleomenes, and presented to the Spartans an heir apparent to the throne: and the former wife, who had before been barren, by some strange fortune then proved to be with child; and though she was really so, yet the relations of the second wife having heard of it raised a disturbance, saying that she boasted vainly, purposing to bring forward a supposititious child. As they made a great noise, when the time approached, the Ephori from distrust sat around, and watched the woman in her labour. She, however, when she had borne Dorieus, shortly afterward had Leonidas, and after him, in due course, Cleombrotus; though some say that Cleombrotus and Leonidas were twins. But she who bore Cleomenes, and who was the second wife, and daughter to Prinetades, son of Demarmenus, never bore a second time.

Cleomenes, as it is said, was not of sound mind, but almost mad; whereas Dorieus was the first of the young men of his age, and was fully convinced that by his virtues he should obtain the sovereignty. So that, being of this persuasion, when Anaxandrides died, and the Lacedæmonians, following the usual custom, appointed the eldest, Cleomenes, to be king, Dorieus, being very indignant, and disdaining to be reigned over by Cleomenes, demanded a draught of men from the Spartans, and led them out to found a colony, without having consulted the oracle at Delphi to what land he should go and settle, nor doing any of those things that are usual on such occasions. But as he was very much grieved, he directed his ships to Libya, and some Theræans piloted him. Having arrived at Cinyps, he settled near the river, in the most beautiful spot of the Libyans. But in the third year, being driven out from thence by the Macæ, Libyans, and Carthaginians, he returned to Peloponnesus. There Antichares, a citizen of Eleon, from the oracles delivered to Laius, advised him to found Heraclea in Sicily, affirming that all the country of Eryx belonged to the Heraclidæ, Hercules himself having possessed himself of it. He, hearing this, went to Delphi to inquire of the oracle whether he should take the country to which he was preparing to go. The Pythian answered that he should take it. Dorieus, therefore, taking with him the force which he had led to Libya, sailed along the coast of Italy. At that time, as the Sybarites say, they and their king Telys were preparing to make war against Crotona : and the Crotonians, being much alarmed, implored Dorieus to assist them, and obtained their request; whereupon Dorieus marched with them against Sybaris, and took Sybaris in concert with them. Now, the Sybarites say that Dorieus, and those who were with him, did this. But the Crotonians affirm that no foreigner took part with them in the war against the Sybarites, except only Callias of Elis, a seer of the Iamidæ, and he did so under the following circumstances : he had fled from Telys, King of the Sybarites, and come over to them, when the victims did not prove favourable as he was sacrificing against Crotona. Such is the account they give. Each party produces the following proofs of what they assert: The Sybarites allege a sacred inclosure and temple near the dry Crastis, which they say Dorieus, when he had assisted in taking the city, erected to Minerva, surnamed Crastian; and in the next place they mention the death of Dorieus as the greatest proof, for that he was killed for having acted contrary to the warnings of the oracle. For if he had not at all transgressed, but had done that for which he was sent, he would have taken and possessed the Erycinian country, and having taken it would have retained it, nor would he and his army have been destroyed. On the other hand, the Crotonians show selected portions of land given to Callias the Elean in the territories of Crotona, which the descendants of Callias continued to occupy even in my time; but to Dorieus, and the posterity of Dorieus, nothing was given: whereas, if Dorieus had assisted them in the Sybaritic war, much more would have been given to him than to Callias. These, then, are the proofs that each produces, and every man has the liberty of adhering to that which he judges most probable. There sailed with Dorieus also other Spartans, joint founders of a colony, as Thessalus, Parabates, Celeas, and Euryleon; who, on their arrival with the whole armament in Sicily, were killed, being defeated in battle by the Phænicians and Egestaans. Euryleon alone of the associates in founding the colony survived this disaster : he, having collected the survivors of the army, possessed himself of Minoa, a colony of the Selinuntians, and assisted in liberating the Selinuntians from their monarch Pythagoras. But afterward, when he had removed him, he himself seized the tyranny of Selinus, and continued monarch for a short time; for the Selinuntians, having risen up against him, put him to death, though he had taken sanctuary at the

* Called " dry” because its stream was dried up in summer.


altar of the Forensian Jupiter. Philippus, son of Butacides, a citizen of Crotona, accompanied Dorieus, and perished with him. He having entered into a contract of marriage with the daughter of Telys the Sybarite, fled from Crotona, but disappointed of his marriage, sailed to Cyrene; and setting out from thence, he accompanied Dorieus in a trireme of his own, with a crew maintained at his own expense; for he had been victorious in the Olympian games, and was the handsomest of the Greeks of his day; and on account of his beauty he obtained from the Egestaans what no other person ever did, for having erected a shrine on his sepulchre, they propitiate him with sacrifices. Dorieus, then, met with his death in the manner above described; but if he had submitted to be governed by Cleomenes, and had continued in Sparta, he would have become King of Lacedæmon. For Cleomenes did not reign for any length of time, but died without a son, leaving a daughter only, whose name was Gorgo.

Aristagoras, then, tyrant of Miletus, arrived at Sparta when Cleomenes held the government; and he went to confer with him, as the Lacedæmonians say, having a brazen tablet, on which was engraved the circumference of the whole earth, and the whole sea, and all rivers. And Aristagoras, having come to a conference, addressed him as follows: Wonder not, Cleomenes, at my eagerness in coming here, for the circumstances that urge are such as I will describe. That the children of Ionians should be slaves instead of free is a great disgrace and sorrow to us, and above all others to you, inasmuch as you are at the head of Greece. Now, therefore, I adjure you, by the Grecian gods, rescue the Ionians, who are of your own blood, from servitude. It is easy for you to effect this, for the barbarians are not valiant; whereas you, in matters relating to war, have attained to the utmost height of glory: their mode of fighting is this, with bows and a short spear; and they engage in battle, wearing loose trousers and turbans on their heads, so they are easy to be overcome. Besides, there are treasures belonging to those who inhabit that continent, such as are not possessed by all other nations together; beginning from gold, there are silver, brass, variegated garments, beasts of burden, and slaves; all these you may have if you will. They live adjoining one another, as I will show you. Next these Ionians are the Lydians, who inhabit a fertile country, and abound in silver.” As he said this he showed the circumference of the earth, which he brought with him, engraved on a tablet. “Next the Lydians," proceeded Aristagoras, “are these Phrygians to the eastward,

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