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who are the richest in cattle and in corn of all with whom I am acquainted. Next to the Phrygians are the Cappadocians, whom we call Syrians; and bordering on them, the Cilicians, extending to this sea in which the island of Cyprus is situated; they pay an annual tribute of five hundred talents to the king. Next to the Cilicians are these Armenians, who also abound in cattle; and next the Armenians are the Matienians, who occupy this country; and next them this territory of Cissia, in which Susa is situated on this river Choaspes, here the great king resides, and there are his treasures of wealth. If you take this city, you may boldly contend with Jupiter in wealth. But now you must carry on war for a country of small extent, and not very fertile, and of narrow limits, with the Messenians, who are your equals in valour, and with the Arcadians and Argives, who have nothing akin to gold and silver, the desire of which induces men to hazard their lives in battle. But when an opportunity is offered to conquer all Asia with ease, will you prefer anything else?” Aristagoras spoke thus, and Cleomenes answered him as follows, “ Milesian friend, I defer to give you an answer until the third day.” On that day they got so far. When the day appointed for the answer was come, and they had met at the appointed place, Cleomenes asked Aristagoras how many days' journey it was from the sea of the Ionians to the king. But Aristagoras, though he was cunning in other things, and had deceived him with much address, made a slip in this; for he should not have told the real fact if he wished to draw the Spartans into Asia; whereas he told him plainly that it was a three months' journey up there. But he, cutting short the rest of the description which Aristagoras was proceeding to give of the journey, said: “Milesian friend, depart from Sparta before sunset; for you speak no agreeable language to the Lacedæmonians in wishing to lead them a three months' journey from the sea.” Cleomenes having spoken thus, went home. But Aristagoras, taking an olive branch in his hand, went to the house of Cleomenes, and having entered in, as a suppliant, besought Cleomenes to listen to him, having first. sent away his little child; for his daughter, whose name was Gorgo, stood by him; she happened to be his only child, and was about eight or nine years of age. But Cleomenes bade him say what he would, and not refrain for the sake of the child. Thereupon Aristagoras began promising ten talents if he would do as he desired; and when Cleomenes refused, Aristagoras went on increasing in his offers, until he promised fifty talents; then the girl cried out, “ Father, this stranger will

corrupt you unless you quickly depart." Cleomenes, pleased with the advice of the child, retired to another apartment; and Aristagoras left Sparta altogether, nor could he get an opportunity to give further particulars of the route to the king's residence.

With respect to this road, the case is as follows: There are royal stations all along, and excellent inns, and the whole road is through an inhabited and safe country. There are twenty stations extending through Lydia and Phrygia, and the distance is ninety-four parasangs and a half. After Phrygia, the river Halys is met with, at which there are gates, through which it is absolutely necessary to pass, and thus to cross the river: there is also a considerable fort on it. When you cross over into Cappadocia, and traverse that country to the borders of Cilicia, there are eight-and-twenty stations, and one hundred and four parasangs; and on the borders of these people you go through two gates, and pass by two forts. When you have gone through these and made the journey through Cilicia, there are three stations and fifteen parasangs and a half. The boundary of Cilicia and Armenia is a river that is crossed in boats; it is called the Euphrates. In Armenia there are fifteen stations for resting places, and fifty-six parasangs and a half; there is also a fort in the stations. Four rivers that are crossed in boats flow through this country, which it is absolutely necessary to ferry over. First, the Tigris; then, the second and third have the same name, though they are not the same river, nor flow from the same source. For the first mentioned of these flows from the Armenians, and the latter from the Matienians. The fourth river is called the Gyndes, which Cyrus once distributed into three hundred and sixty channels. As you enter from Armenia into the country of Matiene, there are four stations; and from thence as you proceed to the Cissian territory there are eleven stations, and forty-two parasangs and a half, to the river Choaspes, which also must be crossed in boats: on this Susa is built. All these stations amount to one hundred and eleven : 1 accordingly, the resting places at the stations are so many as you go up from Sardis to Susa. Now if the royal road has been correctly measured in parasangs, and if the parasang is equal to thirty stades, as indeed it is, from Sardis to the royal palace, called Memnonia, is a distance of thirteen thousand five hundred stades, the parasangs being four hun

I The detail of stations above-mentioned gives only eighty-one instead of one hundred and eleven. The discrepancy can only be accounted for by a supposed defect in the manuscripts.

dred and fifty; and by those who travel one hundred and fifty stades every day, just ninety days are spent on the journey. Thus Aristagoras the Milesian spoke correctly when he told Cleomenes the Lacedæmonian that it was a three months' journey up to the king's residence. But if any one should require a more accurate account than this, I will also point this out to him, for it is necessary to reckon with the above the journey from Ephesus to Sardis: I therefore say that the whole number of stades from the Grecian sea to Susa (for such is the name of the Memnonian city) amounts to fourteen thousand and forty; for from Ephesus to Sardis is a distance of five hundred and forty stades. And thus the three months' journey is lengthened by three days.

Aristagoras, being driven from Sparta, went to Athens, which had been delivered from tyrants in the following manner: When Aristogiton and Harmodius, who were originally Gephyræans by extraction, had slain Hipparchus, son of Pisistratus, and brother to the tyrant Hippias, and who had seen a vision in a dream manifestly showing his own fate, after this the Athenians during the space of four years were no less, but even more, oppressed by tyranny than before. Now the vision in Hipparchus's dream was as follows: On the night preceding the Panathenaic festival, Hipparchus fancied that a tall and handsome man stood by him, and uttered these enigmatical words: “Lion, endure with enduring mind to bear unendurable ills; no one among unjust men shall escape retribution.” As soon as it was day he laid these things before the interpreters of dreams; and afterward, having attempted to avert the vision, he conducted the procession in which he perished.

The Gephyræans, of whom were the murderers of Hipparchus, were, as they themselves say, originally sprung from Eretria; but, as I find by diligent inquiry, they were Phoenicians, of the number of those Phænicians who came with Cadmus to the country now called Baotia, and they inhabited the district of Tanagra, in this country, which fell to their share. The Cadmeans having been first expelled from thence by the Argives, these Gephyræans being afterward expelled by the Baotians, betook themselves to Athens; and the Athenians admitted them into the number of their citizens, on certain conditions, enacting that they should be excluded from several privileges, not worth mentioning. These Phænicians who came with Cadmus, and of whom the Gephyræans were, when they settled in this country, introduced among the Greeks many other kinds of useful knowledge, and more par

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