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therefore, none of the Argives were sent by the commonwealth to assist them; but, on their request, volunteers went to the number of a thousand : a general, whose name was Eurybates, and who had practised for the pentathlon, led them: the greater number of these never returned home, but were slain by the Athenians in Ægina. The general, Eurybates, engaging in single combat, killed three several antagonists in that manner, but was slain by the fourth, Sophanes of Decelea. The Æginetæ, however, having attacked the fleet of the Athenians, when they were in disorder, obtained a victory, and took four of their ships with the men on board.
War was accordingly kindled between the Athenians and Æginetæ. But the Persian pursued his own design, for the servant continually reminded him to remember the Athenians, and the Pisistratidæ constantly importuned him and accused the Athenians; and at the same time Darius, laying hold of this pretext, was desirous of subduing those people of Greece who had refused to give him earth and water. He therefore dismissed Mardonius from his command, because he had succeeded ill in his expedition; and having appointed other generals, he sent them against Eretria and Athens_namely, Datis, who was a Mede by birth, and Artaphernes, son of Artaphernes, his own nephew; and he despatched them with strict orders, having enslaved Athens and Eretria, to bring the bondsmen into his presence. When these generals who were appointed left the king, and reached the Aleian plain of Cilicia, bringing with them a numerous and well-equipped army, while they were there encamped the whole naval force required from each people came up: the horse transports were also present, which Darius in the preceding year had commanded his tributaries to prepare. Having put the horses on board of these, and having embarked the land forces in the ships, they sailed for Ionia with six hundred triremes. From thence they did not steer their ships along the continent direct toward the Hellespont and Thrace; but parting from Samos they directed their course across the Icarian Sea, and through the islands; as appears to me, chiefly, dreading the circumnavigation of Athos, because in the preceding year, in attempting a passage that way, they had sustained great loss; and, besides, Naxos compelled them, not having been before captured. When, being carried out of the Icarian Sea, they arrived off Naxos (for the Persians, bearing in mind what had formerly happened, purposed to attack this place first), the Naxians Aled to the mountains, and did not await their approach: the Persians, therefore, having seized as many of them as they could lay hold of as slaves, set fire to both the sacred buildings and the city; and having done this, they proceeded against the rest of the islands.
While they were doing this, the Delians also, abandoning Delos, fled to Tenos; but as the fleet was sailing down toward it, Datis, having sailed forward, would not permit the ships to anchor near the island, but farther on, off Rhenea; and he, having ascertained where the Delians were, sent a herald and addressed them as follows: “Sacred men, why have you fled, forming an unfavourable opinion of me? For both I myself have so much wisdom, and am so ordered by the king, that in the region where the two deities were born no harm should be done either to the country itself or to its inhabitants. Return, therefore, to your houses, and resume possession of the island." This message he sent to the Delians by means of a herald; and afterward having heaped up three hundred talents of frankincense upon the altar, he burned it. Datis, accordingly, having done this, sailed with the army first against Eretria, taking with him both Ionians and Æolians. But after he had put out to sea from thence, Delos was shaken by an earthquake, as the Delians say, the first and last time that it was so affected to my time. And the deity assuredly by this portent intimated to men the evils that were about to befall them. For during the reigns of Darius, son of Hystaspes, of Xerxes, son of Darius, and of Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes; during these three successive generations, more disasters befell Greece than during the twenty generations that preceded the time of Darius; partly brought upon it by the Persians, and partly by the chief men among them contending for power. So that it is nothing improbable that Delos should be moved at that time, having been until then unmoved: and in an oracle respecting it, it had been thus written: “I will move even Delos, although hitherto unmoved.” And in the Grecian language these names meanDarius, “one who restrains ”; Xerxes, “a warrior”; and Artaxerxes, “a mighty warrior.” Thus, then, the Greeks may rightly designate these kings in their language.
The barbarians, after they had parted from Delos, touched at the islands; and from thence they took with them men to serve in the army, and carried away the sons of the islanders for hostages. And when, having sailed round the islands, they touched at Carystus, as the Carystians would not give hostages, and refused to bear arms against their neighbouring cities, meaning Eretria and Athens, they thereupon be
'Apollo and Diana,
sieged them, and ravaged their country, until at last the Carystians also submitted to the will of the Persians. The Eretrians, being informed that the Persian armament was sailing against them, entreated the Athenians to assist them; and the Athenians did not refuse their aid, but gave them as auxiliaries those four thousand men to whom had been allotted the territory of the horse-feeding Chalcidians. But the councils of the Eretrians were not at all sound: they sent for the Athenians, indeed, but held divided opinions; for some of them proposed to abandon the city, and to retire to the fastnesses of Eubea; but others of them, hoping that they should derive gain to themselves from the Persians, were planning to betray their country. But Æschines, son of Nothon, a man of rank among the Eretrians, being informed of the views of both parties, communicated to the Athenians, who had come, the whole state of their affairs; and entreated them to return to their own country, lest they too should perish. The Athenians followed this advice of Æschines, and having crossed over to Oropus, saved themselves. In the meantime the Persians, sailing on, directed their ships' course to Tamynæ, Chærea, and Ægilia, of the Eretrian territory; and having taken possession of these places, they immediately disembarked the horses, and made preparations to attack the enemy. But the Eretrians had no thoughts of going out against them and fighting, but since that opinion had prevailed, that they should not abandon the city, their only care now was, if by any means they could defend the walls. A violent attack on the walls ensuing, for six days many fell on both sides; but on the seventh, Euphorbus, son of Alcimachus, and Philargus, son of Cyneus, men of rank among the citizens, betrayed the city to the Persians. And they, having gained entrance into the city, in the first place pillaged and set fire to the temples, in revenge for those that had been burned at Sardis; and in the next, they enslaved the inhab
itants, in obedience to the commands of Darius. 10 Having subdued Eretria, and rested a few days, they sailed
to Attica, pressing them very close, and expecting to treat the Athenians in the same way as they had the Eretrians. Now as Marathon was the spot in Attica best adapted for cavalry, and nearest to Eretria, Hippias, son of Pisistratus, conducted them there. But the Athenians, when they heard of this, also sent their forces to Marathon; and ten generals led them, of whom the tenth was Miltiades, whose father, Cimon, son of Stesagoras, had been banished from Athens by Pisistratus, son of Hippocrates. During his exile it was his good fortune to obtain the Olympic prize in the fourhorse chariot race, and having gained this victory, he transferred the honour to Miltiades, his brother by the same mother; and afterward, in the next Olympiad, being victorious with the same mares, he permitted Pisistratus to be proclaimed victor; and having conceded the victory to him, he returned home under terms. And after he had gained another Olympic prize with these same mares, it happened that he died by the hands of the sons of Pisistratus, when Pisistratus himself was no longer alive: they slew him near the Prytaneum, having placed men to waylay him by night. Cimon was buried in front of the city, beyond that which is called the road through Cela, and opposite him these same mares were buried, which won the three Olympic prizes. Other mares also had already done the same thing, belonging to Evagoras the Lacedæmonian; but besides these, none others. Stesagoras, the elder of the sons of Cimon, was at that time being educated by his paternal uncle Miltiades, in the Cher
had the name of Miltiades, from Miltiades, the founder of the Chersonese. At that time, then, this Miltiades, coming from the Chersonese, and having escaped a twofold death, became general of the Athenians: for, in the first place, the Phænicians, having pursued him as far as Imbros, were exceedingly desirous of seizing him, and carrying him up to the king; and in the next, when he had escaped them, and had returned to his own country, and thought himself in safety, his enemies thereupon, having attacked him, and brought him before a court of justice, prosecuted him for tyranny in the Chersonese. But having escaped these also, he was at length appointed general of the Athenians, being chosen by the people.
And first, while the generals were yet in the city, they despatched a herald to Sparta, one Phidippides, an Athenian, who was a courier by profession, one who attended to this very business. This man, then, as Phidippides himself said and reported to the Athenians, Pan met near Mount Parthenion, above Tegea; and Pan, calling out the name of Phidippides, bade him ask the Athenians why they paid no attention to him, who was well inclined to the Athenians, and had often been useful to them, and would be so hereafter. The Athenians, therefore, as their affairs were then in a prosperous condition, believed that this was true, and erected a temple to Pan beneath the Acropolis, and in consequence of that message they propitiate Pan with yearly sacrifices and the torch race. This Phidippides, being sent by the generals at that time when he said Pan appeared to him, arrived in Sparta on the following day after his departure from the city of the Athenians, and on coming in presence of the magistrates, he said: “Lacedæmonians, the Athenians entreat you to assist them, and not to suffer the most ancient city among the Greeks to fall into bondage to barbarians : for Eretria is already reduced to slavery, and Greece has become weaker by the loss of a renowned city.” He accordingly delivered the message according to his instructions, and they resolved indeed to assist the Athenians; but it was out of their power to do so immediately, as they were unwilling to violate the law: for it was the ninth day of the current month; and they said they could not march out on the ninth day, the moon's circle not being full. They, therefore, waited for the full moon.
Meanwhile Hippias, son of Pisistratus, had led the barbarians to Marathon, having the preceding night seen the following vision in his sleep: Hippias fancied that he lay with his own mother; he inferred, therefore, from the dream, that having returned to Athens and recovered the sovereignty, he should die an old man in his own country. He drew this inference from the vision. At that time, as he was leading the way, he first of all landed the slaves from Eretria on the island of the Styreans, called Ægilia ; and next he moored the ships as they came to Marathon, and drew up the barbarians as they disembarked on land: and as he was busied in doing this, it happened that he sneezed and coughed more violently than he was accustomed; and as he was far advanced in years, several of his teeth were loose, so that through the violence of his cough he threw out one of these teeth; and as it fell on the sand, he used every endeavour to find it, but when the tooth could nowhere be found, he drew a deep sigh, and said to the bystanders: “This country is not ours, nor shall we be able to subdue it; whatever share belongeth to me, my tooth possesses." Hippias accordingly inferred that his vision had been thus fulfilled.
When the Athenians were drawn up in a place sacred to Hercules, the Platæans came to their assistance with all their forces. For the Platæans had given themselves up to the Athenians, and the Athenians had already undergone many toils on their account: and they gave themselves up on the following occasion: The Platæans, being hard pressed by the Thebans, first offered themselves to Cleomenes, son of Anaxandrides, and to the Lacedæmonians who happened to be