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afterward. But at that time those Greeks who had arrived at Artemisium, when they saw a vast number of ships drawn up at Aphetæ, and all parts full of troops, since the affairs of the barbarians turned out contrary to their expectation, in great consternation, deliberated about retiring from Artemisium to the inner parts of Greece. The Eubeans, knowing that they were deliberating on this matter, entreated Eurybiades to remain a short time longer, until they could remove their children and domestics to a place of safety. But finding they could not persuade him, they then went over to the Athenian general, and prevailed on Themistocles, by a bribe of thirty talents, to promise that they would stay and engage the enemy by sea before Eubea. Themistocles, to retain the Greeks, did as follows: of this money he gave five talents to Eurybiades, as if indeed he gave it from himself; and when he had gained him over, as Adimantus, son of Ocytus, the Corinthian commander, was the only person who resisted, affirming that he would sail away from Artemisium, and not stay; to him Themistocles said with an oath: “You shall not abandon us; for I will niake you a greater present than the King of the Medes would send you for abandoning the allies.” He at the same time said this and sent three talents of silver on board the ship of Adimantus. They therefore, being swayed by the present, were gained over, and complied with the wishes of the Eubeans; but Themistocles himself was a considerable gainer, as he secretly kept the rest; but those who took part of this money thought it came from the Athenians on that condition.

They accordingly remained in Euboea, and came to an engagement by sea. It happened in this manner: when the barbarians arrived at Aphetæ, in the afternoon, having been informed that a few Grecian ships were stationed there, and then descrying them at Artemisium, they were eager to attack, in the hope of taking them. However, they did not think it advisable to sail directly upon them, for the following reasons, lest the Greeks, seeing them sailing toward them, should betake themselves to fight, and the night should cover their retreat, by which means they would escape; but, according to their saying, they thought that not even the torch-bearer would escape alive. For this purpose, then, they had recourse to the following plan: having detached two hundred ships from the whole fleet, they sent them round, outside Sciathus, that they might not be seen by the enemy sailing round Eubea, by Caphareus and round Gerästus to the Euripus; that so they might surround them, the one party arriving at

the place appointed in that way, and intercepting their retreat, and themselves attacking them in front. Having determined on this, they despatched the ships appointed for this service, themselves not intending to attack the Greeks that day, nor before the agreed signal should be seen, given by those who sailed round, announcing their arrival. These, then, they sent round, and set about taking the number of the rest of the ships at Aphetæ. At this time, while they were taking the number of their ships, there was in this camp Scyllias of Scyone, the best diver of his time; he, in the shipwreck that happened off Pelion, had saved much of their treasure for the Persians, and had acquired a good deal for himself. This Scyllias had long before entertained the design of deserting to the Greeks, but had had no opportunity of doing so until that time. In what way he at length made his escape to the Grecians I can not certainly affirm, and I wonder whether the account given is true. For it is said that, having plunged into the sea at Aphetæ, he never rose until he reached Artemisium, having passed this distance through the sea, as near as can be, eighty stadia. Many other things are related of this man that are very like falsehood, and some that are true. If, however, I may give my opinion of this matter, it is, that he came to Artemisium in a boat. On his arrival he immediately informed the commanders of the shipwreck, how it had occurred, and of the ships that were sent round Euboea. The Greeks, having heard this, held a conference among themselves; and, after much debate, it was resolved that remaining there and continuing in their station during that day, then, when midnight was passed, they should proceed and meet the ships that were sailing round. But after this, when no ship sailed against them, having waited for the evening of the day, they sailed of themselves against the barbarians, being desirous to make trial of their manner of fighting, and of breaking through the line. The other soldiers of Xerxes, and the commanders, seeing them sailing toward them with so few ships, attributed their conduct to madness, and on their part got their ships under way, expecting that they should easily take them; and their expectations were very reasonable when they saw that the Grecian ships were few, and their own many more in number, and better sailers : taking these things into consideration, they inclosed them in the middle of a circle. Now, such of the Ionians as were well affected to the Greeks, and joined the expedition unwillingly, regarded it as a great calamity when they saw them surrounded, feeling convinced that not one of them would return; so weak did the Grecian forces appear to them to be. But such as were pleased with what was going on vied with each other how each might be the first to take an Athenian ship, and receive a reward from the king. For throughout the fleet they had the highest opinion of the Athenians. When the signal was given to the Greeks, first of all turning their prows against the barbarians, they contracted their sterns inwardly to the middle; and when the second signal was given, they began the attack, though inclosed in a narrow space, and that prow to prow. On this occasion they took thirty ships of the barbarians, and Philaon, son of Chersis, the brother of Gorgus, King of the Salaminians, a man highly esteemed in their army. Lycomedes, son of Æschreus, an Athenian, was the first of the Greeks who took a ship from the enemy, and he received the palm of valour. But night coming on, separated the combatants, who in this engagement fought with doubtful success. The Greeks returned to Artemisium, and the barbarians to Aphetæ, having fought with far different success than they expected. In this engagement Antidorus, a Lemnian, was the only one of the Greeks in the king's service who went over to the Grecians; and on that account the Athenians presented him with lands in Salamis.

When night came on, and it was now the middle of summer, heavy rain fell through the whole night, and violent thunder about Pelion; and the dead bodies and pieces of wreck were driven to Aphetæ, and got entangled round the prows of the ships, and impeded the blades of the oars. But the soldiers who were on board, when they heard the thunder were seized with terror, expecting that they must certainly perish, into such calamities had they fallen. For before they had recovered breath, after the wreck and tempest that had occurred off Pelion, a fierce engagement followed; and after the engagement impetuous rain and mighty torrents rushing into the sea, and violent thunder. Such was the night to them. But to those who had been appointed to sail round Eubea, this same night proved so much the more wild, in that it fell upon them while they were in the open sea; and the end was grievous to them; for as they were sailing, the storm and rain overtook them when they were near the Cola of Eubea, and being driven by the wind, and not knowing where they were driven, they were dashed upon the rocks.

All this was done by the deity, that the Persian might be brought to an equality with the Grecian, or at least not be greatly superior. Thus they perished near the Cola of Euboea. The barbarians at Aphetæ, when to their great joy day dawned, kept their ships at rest, and were content, after they had suffered so much, to remain quiet for the present.

But three-and-fifty Attic ships came to re-enforce the Greeks; and both these by their arrival gave them additional courage, as did the news that came at the same time that those of the barbarians who were sailing round Eubea had all perished in the late storm; therefore having waited to the same hour, they set sail and attacked the Cilician ships, and having destroyed them, as soon as it was night they sailed back to Artemisium.

On the third day the commanders of the barbarians, indignant at being insulted by so few ships, and fearing the displeasure of Xerxes, no longer waited for the Greeks to begin the battle; but encouraging one another, got under way about the middle of the day. It happened that these actions by sea and those by land at Thermopylæ took place on the same days; and the whole struggle for those at sea was for the Euripus, as for those with Leonidas to guard the pass. The one party encouraging each other not to suffer the barbarians to enter Greece; and the other, to destroy the Grecian forces, and make themselves masters of the channel. When the barbarians, having formed in line, sailed onward, the Grecians remained still at Artemisium; but the barbarians, having drawn up their ships in the form of a crescent, encircled them as if they would take them; whereupon the Greeks sailed out to meet them, and engaged. In this battle they were nearly equal to one another; for the fleet of Xerxes, by reason of its magnitude and number, impeded itself, as the ships incommoded and ran foul of one another; however, they continued to fight, and would not yield, for they were ashamed to be put to flight by a few ships. Accordingly, many ships of the Grecians perished, and many men; and of the barbarians a much greater number, both of ships and men. Having fought in this manner, they separated from each other. In this engagement the Egyptians signalized themselves among the forces of Xerxes; for they both achieved other great actions, and took five Grecian ships, with their crews. On the part of the Greeks, the Athenians signalized themselves on this day, and among the Athenians, Clinias, son of Alcibiades; who at his own expense joined the fleet with two hundred men, and a ship of his own.

When they had separated, each gladly hastened to their own stations : but the Grecians, when, having left the battle, they had withdrawn, were in possession of the dead and of the wrecks; yet having been severely handled, and especially the Athenians, the half of whose ships were disabled, they

consulted about a retreat to the interior of Greece. But Themistocles having considered with himself that if the Ionians and Carians could be detached from the Barbarian, they would be able to overcome the rest; as the Euboeans were driving their cattle down to the shore, he there assembled the Grecian commanders together, and told them that he thought he had a contrivance by which he hoped to draw off the best of the king's allies. This, then, he so far discovered to them, but in the present state of affairs he told them what they ought to do; every one should kill as many of the Eubean cattle as he thought fit; for it was better that their own army should have them than the enemy. He also advised them each to direct their own men to kindle fires; and promised that he would choose such a time for their departure, that they should all arrive safe in Greece. These things they were pleased to do; and forthwith, having kindled fires, they fell upon the cattle. For the Eubeans, disregarding the oracles of Bacis as importing nothing, had neither carried out anything to a place of safety, nor collected stores, as if war was approaching; and so had brought their affairs into a precarious state. The oracle of Bacis respecting them was as follows: “ Beware of the barbarian-tongued, when he shall cast a byblus-yoke across the sea, remove the bleating goats from Eubea.'

As they paid no attention to these verses, in the calamities then present and those that were impending, they fell into the greatest distress. They, then, were acting thus, and in that conjuncture the scout arrived from Trachis. For there was a scout stationed off Artemisium, Polyas of Anticyra, who had been ordered (and he had a well-furnished boat ready), if the fleet should be in difficulty, to make it known to those that were at Thermopylæ; and in like manner Abronychus, son of Lysicles, an Athenian, was with Leonidas, ready to carry the tidings to those at Artemisium in a triëconter if any reverse should happen to the land forces. This Abronychus then arriving, informed them of what had befallen Leonidas and his army; but they, when they heard it, no longer deferred their departure, but retired each in the order in which they were stationed, the Corinthians first and the Athenians last.

Themistocles, having selected the best sailing ships of the Athenians, went to the places where there was water fit for drinking, and engraved upon the stones inscriptions which the Ionians, upon arriving next day at Artemisium, read. The inscriptions were to this effect: “Men of Ionia, you do wrong in fighting against your fathers, and helping to enslave Greece: rather, therefore, come over to us; or, if you can not do that,

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