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enemy. He, therefore, adopted this advice, to stay there and come to a decisive engagement. Thus they at Salamis, having skirmished in words, when Eurybiades had come to a determination, made preparations to come to an engagement there. Day came, and at sunrise an earthquake took place on land and at sea. They determined to pray to the gods, and to invoke the Æacidæ as allies; and as they had determined, so they did. For having prayed to all the gods, they forthwith, from Salamis, invoked Ajax and Telamon; and sent a ship to Ægina for Æacus and the Æacidæ. Dicæus, son of Theocydes, an Athenian, and an exile at that time esteemed by the Medes, related that when the Attic territory was being devastated by the land forces of Xerxes, having been deserted by the Athenians, he happened then to be with Demaratus the Lacedæmonian in the Thriasian plain; and he saw a cloud of dust coming from Eleusis, as if occasioned by about thirty thousand men: they were wondering at the cloud of dust, from whatever it might proceed, and suddenly heard a voice, and the voice appeared to him to be that of the mystic Iacchus. Demaratus was unacquainted with the mysteries of Eleusis, and asked Dicæus what it might be that was uttered; but he said: “O Demaratus, it can not be otherwise than that some great damage will befall the king's army. For this is clear, since Attica is deserted, that what is uttered is supernatural, proceeding from Eleusis to the assistance of the Athenians and the allies. And if it should rush toward the Peloponnesus, there will be danger to the king himself and his army on the continent; but if it should turn toward the ships at Salamis, the king will be in danger of losing his naval armament. The Athenians celebrate this feast every year to the Mother and the Damsel, and whoever wishes of them and the other Greeks is initiated; and the sound, which you hear, they shout in this very festival.” To this Demaratus said: "Be silent, and tell this story to no one else; for if these words should be reported to the king, you would lose your head; and neither should I nor any other human being be able to save you. Keep quiet, therefore; and the gods will take care of the army.” He accordingly gave this advice. But from the dust and voice there arose a cloud, and being raised aloft it was borne toward Salamis, to the encampment of the Greeks. Thus they understood that the fleet of Xerxes was about to perish. This account Dicæus, son of Theocydes, gave, calling on Demaratus and others as witnesses. When the men belonging to the fleet of Xerxes, having

· Ceres and Proserpine.

viewed the Lacedæmonian loss, crossed over from Trachis to Histiæa, they remained there three days, and then sailed through the Euripus, and in three days more arrived off Phalerus. In my opinion, they were not fewer in number when they entered Athens, as well those that came by the continent as those in the ships, than when they arrived at Sepias and at Thermopylæ. For I set off against those that perished by the storm, and at Thermopylæ, and at the sea-fight at Artemisium, the following who at that time did not attend the king: the Malians, Dorians, Locrians, and Boeotians, who attended with all their forces, except the Thespians and Platæans; and, besides, the Carystians, Andrians, Tenians, and all the rest of the islanders, except the five cities whose names I have before mentioned: for the farther the Persian advanced into the interior of Greece, a greater number of nations attended him. When, therefore, all these, except the Parians, arrived at Athens, the Parians, being left behind at Cythnus, watched the war, in what way it would turn out; when, however, the rest arrived at Phalerus, then Xerxes himself went down to the ships, wishing to mix with them, and to learn the opinions of those on board. When he had arrived and taken the first seat, the tyrants and admirals of the several nations, being summoned from their ships, came and seated themselves according as the king had given precedence to each: first, the Sidonian king; next, the Tyrian; and then the others. When they had seated themselves in due order, Xerxes, having sent Mardonius, asked, in order to make trial of the disposition of each, whether he should come to an engagement by sea. When Mardonius, going round, asked the question, beginning from the Sidonian, all the others gave an opinion to the same effect, advising that battle should be given, but Artemisia spoke as follows: "Tell the king from me, Mardonius, that I say this. It is right that I, sire, who proved myself by no means a coward in the sea-fight off Euboea, and performed achievements not inferior to others, should declare my real opinion, and state what I think best for your interest. Therefore I say this, abstain from using your ships, nor risk a sea-fight; for these men are as much superior to your men by sea as men are to women. And why must you run a risk by a naval engagement? Have you not possession of Athens, for the sake of which you undertook this expedition, and have you not the rest of Greece? No one stands in your way; and those who still held out against you have fared as they deserved. In what way the affairs of your enemies will turn out, I will now say. If you should not hasten to engage in a sea-fight, but keep your fleet here, remaining near land, or even advancing to the Peloponnesus, you will easily effect what you came purposing to do. For the Greeks will not be able to hold out long against you; but you will disperse them, and they will respectively fly to their cities. For neither have they provisions in this island, as I am informed, nor is it probable, if you march your land forces against the Peloponnesus, that those of them who came from thence will remain quiet, nor will they care to fight by sea for the Athenians. But if you should hasten forthwith to engage, I fear lest the sea forces, being worsted, should at the same time bring ruin on the land forces. Besides, O king, consider this, that the good among men commonly have bad slaves, and the bad ones, good; and you, who are the best of all men, have bad slaves, who are said to be in the number of allies, such as the Egyptians, Cyprians, Cilicians, and Pamphylians, who are of no use at all.” When she said this to Mardonius, such as were well affected to Artemisia were grieved at her words, thinking she would suffer some harm at the king's hand, because she dissuaded him from giving battle by sea: but those who hated and envied her, as being honoured above all the allies, were delighted with her decision, thinking she would be ruined. When, however, the opinions were reported to Xerxes, he was very much pleased with the opinion of Artemisia ; and having before thought her an admirable woman, he then praised her much more. However, he gave orders to follow the advice of the majority in this matter, thinking that they had behaved ill at Euboea on purpose, because he was not present; he now prepared in person to behold them engaging by sea.

When they gave the signal for putting to sea, they got the ships under way for Salamis, and drew up near it, taking their stations in silence: at that time, however, there was not day enough for them to enter on a naval engagement; night was

coming on, they therefore held themselves in readiness for the next day. But fear and dismay took possession of the Greeks, and not least those from Peloponnesus. They were dismayed, because, being posted at Salamis, they were about to fight for the territory of the Athenians; and if conquered, they would be shut up and besieged in the island, having left their own country defenceless. The land forces of the barbarians marched that same night against the Peloponnesus; although every possible expedient had been contrived to hinder the barbarians from entering by the main land. For as soon as the Peloponnesians heard that those with Leonidas at Thermopylæ had perished, they flocked together from the cities and stationed themselves at the isthmus; and Cleombrotus, son of Anaxandrides, and brother of Leonidas, commanded them. Having stationed themselves, therefore, at the isthmus, and having blocked up the Scironian way, they then, as they determined on consultation, built a wall across the isthmus. As they were many myriads in number, and every man laboured, the work progressed rapidly; for stones, bricks, timber, and baskets full of sand were brought to it, and those who assisted flagged not a moment in their work, either by night or by day. Those who assisted at the isthmus with all their forces were the following of the Greeks: the Lacedæmonians, and all the Arcadians, the Eleans, Corinthians, Sicyonians, Epidaurians, Phliasians, Treezenians, and Hermionians. These were they who assisted, and were very much alarmed at the dangerous situation of Greece; but the rest of the Peloponnesians did not concern themselves about it; however, the Olympian and Carnian festivals were now past. Seven nations inhabit the Peloponnesus: of these, two, being indigenous, are now seated in the same country in which they originally dwelt, the Arcadians and Cynurians. One nation, the Achæans, never removed from the Peloponnesus, though they did from their own territory, and now occupy another. The remaining four nations of the seven are foreign, Dorians, Ætolians, Dryopians, and Lemnians. The Dorians have many and celebrated cities; the Ætolians, only Elis: the Dryopians, Hermione and Asine, situated near Cardamyle of Laconia; the Lemnians have all the Paroreatæ, The Cynurians, who are indigenous, are the only people that appear to be Ionians; but they have become Dorians by being governed by the Argives, and through lapse of time, being Orneatæ ? and neighbouring inhabitants. Of these seven nations, the remaining cities, except those I have enumerated, remained neutral; or, if I may speak freely, by remaining neutral, favoured the Mede.

Those at the isthmus, then, persevered with such zeal as having now to contend for their all, and as they did not expect to distinguish themselves by their fleet; meanwhile, those at Salamis, having heard of these things, were alarmed, not fearing so much for themselves as for the Peloponnesus. For some time one man standing by another began to talk in secret, wondering at the imprudence of Eurybiades; till at

1 Baehr takes the word Orneatæ to describe people who were transplanted from a distance, and made to dwell near Argos. One advantage in following his interpretation is, that it obviates the necessity of altering. last their discontent broke out openly, and a council was called, and much was said on the same subject. Some said that they ought to sail for the Peloponnesus, and hazard a battle for that, and not stay and fight for a place already taken by the enemy; but the Athenians, Æginetæ, and Megareans, that they should stay there and defend themselves. Thereupon Themistocles, when he saw his opinion was overruled by the Peloponnesians, went secretly out of the council; and having gone out, he despatched a man in a boat to the encampment of the Medes, having instructed him what to say: his name was Sicinnus; and he was a domestic, and preceptor to the children of Themistocles; him, after these events, Themistocles got made a Thespian, when the Thespians augmented the number of their citizens, and gave him a competent fortune. He, then, arriving in the boat, spoke as follows to the generals of the barbarians: “The general of the Athenians has sent me unknown to the rest of the Greeks (for he is in the interest of the king, and wishes that your affairs may prosper, rather than those of the Greeks) to inform you that the Greeks in great consternation are deliberating on flight; and you have now an opportunity of achieving the most glorious of all enterprises if you do not suffer them to escape. For they do not agree among themselves, nor will they oppose you; but you will see those who are in your interest, and those who are not, fighting with one another.” He having delivered this message to them, immediately departed. As these tidings appeared to them worthy of credit, in the first place, they landed a considerable number of Persians on the little island of Psyttalea, lying between Salamis and the continent; and, in the next place, when it was midnight, they got their western wing under way, drawing it in a circle toward Salamis, and those who were stationed about Ceos and Cynosura got under way and occupied the whole passage as far as Munychia, with their ships. And for this reason they got their ships under way, that the Greeks might have no way to escape, but being shut up in Salamis, might suffer punishment for the conflicts at Artemisium; and they landed the Persians at the little island of Psyttalea for this reason, that, when an engagement should take place, as they expected most part of the men and wrecks would be driven thither (for that island lay in the strait where the engagement was likely to take place), they might save the one party, and destroy the other. But these things they did in silence, that the enemy might not know what was going on. They therefore made these preparations by night, without taking any rest.

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