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some certain place, that it shall be true to say of it, “ Here it is, and not elsewhere."

The following view of the state of the departed is also founded on the principle, that the soul between death and the resurrection, is in a state of consciousness. The contrary supposition is incompatible with the idea of spirit, of which consciousness seems to be an inseparable attribute. It is opposed by the uniform tenor of Scripture. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, all the Patriarchs and Saints who are departed, are represented as “living unto God.” Of course they must be in a state of conscious enjoyment. Moses and Elias appear to our blessed Lord on the mount of transfiguration, and converse with him. The Saviour promised the penitent thief, immediately after death, the reward of bliss with him in Paradise. And the Apostle Paul, blessed with the consolations of the Divine favour, and with the comforts of the Holy Ghost, looked forward to his state after death, when he should " be with Christ, and be present with the Lord, as far better.”

The Apostle was not one of those philosophers, who think that the soul cannot exercise its functions, independently of its corporeal companion.

The expression sleep or sleeping so frequently applied in Scripture to the state of the dead, is evidently metaphorical; derived from the resemblance between a dead body and the body of a person asleep. The body is said figuratively to "sleep in the dust of the earth;” expecting a resurrection at that day, when the dead, both small and great, shall be summoned to stand before God. Hence the words cemetery and dormitory from the Greek and Latin words xoiudéw and dormio to sleep, are applied to the receptacles of the dead.

The comparison between the state of the dead, and a state of sleep, is beautiful and appropriate. Sleep is that relaxation from the toils and afflictions of life, that short suspension of the powers of corporeal sense and action, which are succeeded by a more vigorous exercise of the animal and intellectual faculties. And so death, releasing us entirely from our conflict with the trials of this mortal existence, and suspending all the corporeal functions, is followed by a reviviscence of our whole nature, in the active delights and unalloyed glories of the heavenly state.

The term sleep, applied to the state of the dead, denotes not unconsciousness, but a freedom from the cares and labours of life, and as it respects the righteous, expresses comfortable enjoyment, rest, security and felicity. It is a phrase by which, in all languages, the state of the dead is denoted. And yet the popular belief among all nations, assigned consciousness and activity to the departed.

In 5980 the SHEOL or Hell of the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel * the departed Monarchs rise from their thrones to meet and to hail the Kings of Babylon and of Egypt.

In the ädns, hades, or hell of Homer, Ulysses, having trod “the downward melancholy way,” converses with the shade of his mother, and the “forms of warriors slain 7.” And Virgil represents Æneas, in “faucibus orci 1,” in the jaws of hell, in the entrance of Orcus, or the receptacle of the dead, as encountering “variarum monstra ferarum," " of various forms unnumbered spectres.” And having passed the bank“ irremeabilis undæ" of the “irremeable flood," he holds converse with the shades of the mighty dead.

+ Odyss. xi.

* Isa, xiv. 9. Ezek. xxxi, xxxii.

| Æneid vi. 273.

-juvat usque morari
Et conferre gradum et veniendi poscere causas
“ The gladsome ghosts—
“ Delight to hover near, and long to know,
" What business brought him to the shades below.”

The Jews and the Heathens had no idea of the state of the departed as a state of insensibility and inaction.

There may be a metaphysical difficulty how the soul can exist in an incorporeal state. But does not God, who is a spirit, exert an infinite intelligence and activity, independently of material organs? Did not Jesus, the eternal Word, exist in the spirituality of the Godhead before his incarnation? Does not the Holy Spirit exert his quickening power without the aid of corporeal instruments ? Are not angels those ministering spirits ever occupied in fulfilling the commands of the great Creator -And what is there corporeal in them? When we can account how the infinite and eternal persons of the Godhead, and how the countless numbers of angelic spirits act independently of body, we may expect to determine in what mode the soul acts without the aid of corporeal organs.

But can she not thus act? Undoubtedly. Angelic spirits thus exert intelligence and activity.

And the soul thus acts in her present state. Abstraction often renders her forgetful of her corporeal companion, and almost independent of bodily functions. While the body is locked in the benumbing embrace of sleep, the soul wakes, the soul is active, the soul dreams. And may there not be dreams in the sleep of death!

“ To die, to sleep“ To sleep! perchance to dream.

Æneid vi. 487.

The sleep of the soul after death, in that sense which supposes it to be unconscious, is a modern invention, unknown to the ancient popular creed of both Jews and Heathens, repugnant to reason, and contradicted by Scripture *.

With these principles in view, that the soul exists after death in some place; and that she exists in a state of consciousness; the following are submitted, as conclusive arguments, from Scripture, of the doctrine of the existence of departed spirits in a separate place, denominated Hades or Hell, between death and the resurrection.

1. The Scriptures uniformly represent that there is but ore judgment at the last day, and that the souls of men are not allotted to Heaven or Hell until this final judgment. Previously to that event then the soul must be in some other place. See Matt. xxv. 31, 32. John v. 28, 29. and xii. 48. Acts xvii. 31. Rom. ii. 16. 2 Tim. iv. 1.

II. The happiness of Heaven and the misery of Hell are represented in Scripture as complete the happiness or misery both of soul and body. Matt. xxv. 34, 41. 1 Cor. xv. 52, 53, 54. Phil. iii. 20, 21. 1 Thess. iv. 14, &c. 2 Thess. i. 7,8,9. But until the resurrection at the last day, the body is subject to the embrace of corruption. Previously to the resurrection then, the righteous and the wicked cannot be in Heaven or Hell. They must be in some other place. Their state of happiness or misery must be different from its character in the final Heaven of happiness and Hell of torment.

III. The Apostle asserts, that the saints of the Patriarchal and Jewish dispensations have not yet arrived to the full glory of which they, with the saints of the New Testament dispensation, will finally partake. Consequently, they cannot be in Heaven, the place of the final and perfect felicity of the saints. They must be in some separate place, waiting for the perfection of their bliss. “These," says he (the saints of old)“ all having obtained a good report by faith, received not the promise: God having provided some better things for us, that they without us should not be made perfect *.”

* In the volumes of the Orthodox Churchman's Magazine, published in England, there are several pieces relative to the intermediate state, and the condition of the soul after death.

DODDRIDGE refers this perfection, which the saints of old do not yet enjoy, but which they will inherit with us, to the glory of the heavenly state; interpreting the words they without us, might not be made perfect, of God's "purpose of bringing all his children together to the full consummation of their hopes in Christ Jesus his Son, at the time of his final and triumphant appearing +."

WHITBY, in coincidence with the primitive Fathers, also maintains from this text that the souls of the Old Testament saints, as well of those who have died under the Christian dispensation, are “not exalted to the highest heavens ;” that they " had not received their full reward, yea, that they were not to expect it till the day of judgment 1."

MACKNIGHT, in his Commentary on the Epistles, advances the same sentiment, and refers to the arguments of Whitby as sustaining it g.

Wesley, in his notes on this passage observes, “though they (the Old Testament Saints) obtained a good testimony yet did not receive the great promise, the heavenly inheritance-God having provided some better thing for

* Heb. xi. 39, 40.
| Whitby on Heb. xi. 40.

+ Doddridge on Heb. xi. 40.
$ Macknight on Heb. xi. 40.

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