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general receptacle of the souls of the righteous and of the wicked, that they exist there in different conditions ; and in different regions of that unknown abode; the one in a state of happiness and the other of misery.

Although the general name for the receptacle of the departed, without particular reference to their state of happiness or misery, among the Jews was 5980, sheol; among the Greeks, ains, hades; and among the Latins, orcus and inferi, all answering to the English word Hell; they all assigned different abodes in this vast region, to the righteous and the wicked.

The Hades or Hell of the Heathen contained the souls of the departed, both good and bad. In his descent into Hades, Hell, ULYSSES not only saw the soul of Achilles “ γηθοσύνη,joyful, traversing the « ασφοδελόν λειμωνα ;” corresponding with the “amena vireta," the flowery plains of Virgil ; but other souls

-αχνύμεναι, ειρoντο δε κηδε, εκάστης» “ All wailing with unutterable woes *.”

Æneas and the Sybil his companion, traverse the abodes of the departed.

“ Perque domos Ditis vacuas, et inania regna t."

the dismal gloom they pass, and tread “ Grim Pluto's courts, the regions of the dead."

Here they view the different habitations of the wicked and the good

the gloomy Tartarus

“ the seat of night profound, and punished fiends t."

* Homer Odyss. xi. 536, &c. + Virg. Æn. vi. 269.

| Virg. Æn. vi. 542.

and the fields of Elysium

the flowery plains
“ The verdant groves where endless pleasure reigns *."

The Hell of the Jews seems also to have been distinguished into two regions, an upper and a lower Hell, answering to the Elysium and the Tartarus of the Poets; the lower Hell being the place destined for the souls of the wicked. “Thou hast delivered my soul,” saith the Psalmist, “from the lowest Hell:" on which passage, St. Austin in his Commentary observes, "we understand it, as if there were two Hells, an upper and a lower.” Moses describes the justice of God (Deut. xxxii. 22.) “a fire is kindled in mine anger, and it shall burn unto the lowest Hell” (sheol).

There is an ingenious conjecture of Peter's, in his “Critical Dissertation on the book of Job+," that the place for good souls is denoted in the Old Testament, by the phrase which so frequently occurs of “ being gathered to their Fathers,” or “their people;” “ to the assembly of good and pious souls, worshippers of the true God, who were admitted into covenant with him, and lived and died in the observance of that covenant; as the old Patriarchs the ancestors of the Jewish people did I."

But the views of the Jews with respect to a future state were comparatively obscure, because of the imperfection of their dispensation, which was only a “shadow of good things to come.”

Agreeably however, to the representation of the place

* Virg. Æn. vi. 638. + This work is quoted with respect by Abp. Magee in his Discourses on the Atonement, Note


Peter's Dissertations on Job, p. 381, 382.

of the departed of the Jews, as consisting of two great divisions for the righteous and wicked, is the account of Hades or Hell which is given in the New Testament.

Though in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus every circumstance is not to be understood literally, yet the general design of the parable certainly is to shew, what becomes of the souls of the righteous and the wicked aster death. Hell is there represented as a vast region, which, as the receptacle of departed spirits in general, contained the soul of Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, that is, “ gathered to his Fathers," in a state of blessedness with the Father of the faithful; and the soul of Dives in torment, in Hell, in the lower Sheol. But in this immeasurable region, the two abodes of the righteous and the wicked are “afar off," and between them is “a great" and impassible “gulph fixed." There appears a correspondence between this representation and the Pagan notion of the cons, Hades, or Inferi, the abodes of the departed. Homer describes Tartarus, or the place of punishment of the wicked, as far remote from Elysium, both which he comprehends under the general name of alons *.

But notwithstanding the distance between these separate regions, and his application of the general term Hades, to the dwelling of spirits not in punishment, he seems to consider them as parts of the same region of the departed t.

So Virgil describes Tartarus, as a separate part of the great region of Orcus, Hell:

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Respecit Æneas subito; et subrupe sinistra “ Mænia lata videt, triplici circumdata muro ;

* Iliad viii. 13.

+ Odyss. xi.

Quæ rapidus flammis ambit torrentibus amnis
“ Tartareus Phlegeton, torquetque sonantia saxa*.

“ The hero, looking on the left, espy'd
“A lofty tower, and strong on every side
“ With treble walls which Phlegeton surrounds ;
“ Whose fiery flood the burning empire bounds,
" And press'd betwixt the rocks, the bellowing noise resounds."

The accordance between the Hell or place of the departed of the Heathen Poets, and that of the Jews; and the division of it into two separate abodes for the souls of the righteous and the wicked, are thus clearly established by Dr. CAMBELL, in the explanation of the Parable of the rich man and Lazarus.

“The Jews did not indeed adopt the pagan fables on this subject, nor did they express themselves entirely in the same manner ; but the general train of thinking in both came pretty much to coincide. The Greek Hades they found well adapted to express the Hebrew sheol. This they came to conceive as including different sorts of habitations for ghosts of different characters. And though they did not receive the terms Elysium or Elysian fields, as suitable appellations for the regions peopled by good spirits, they took instead of them, as better adapted to their own theology, the garden of Eden or Paradise, a name originally Persian, by which the word answering to garden, especially when applied to Eden, had commonly been rendered by the Seventy. To denote the same state, they sometimes used the phrase Abraham's bosom, a metaphor borrowed from the manner in which they reclined at meals. But, on the other hand, to express the unhappy situation of the wicked in that intermediate state, they do not seem to have declined the use of the word

* Virg. Æn. vi. 548.

tartarus. The Apostle Peter, says * of evil angels that God cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment. So it stands in the common version, though neither yéerva nor äons are in the original, where the expression is, reigais ζόφου ταρταρώσας παρέδωκεν εις κρίσιν τετηρεμένους. The word is not yéeyva ; for that comes after judgment; but raptapos, which is, as it were, the prison of hades, wherein criminals are kept till the general judgment. And as in the ordinary use of the Greek word, it was comprehended under hades, as a part; it ought, unless we had some positive reason to the contrary, by the ordinary rules of interpretation, to be understood so here. There is then no inconsistency in maintaining that the rich man, though in torments, was not in gehenna, but in that part of hades called tartarus, where we have seen already that spirits reserved for judgment are detained in darkness."

According to this explication, the rich man and Lazarus were both in hades, though in very different situations, the latter in the mansions of the happy, and the former in those of the wretched. Let us see how the circumstances mentioned, and the expressions used, in the parable, will suit this hypothesis. First, though they are said to be at a great distance from each other, they are still within sight and hearing. This would have been too gross a violation of probability, if the one were considered as inhabiting the highest heavens, and the other as placed in the infernal regions. Again, the expressions used, are such as entirely suit this explanation, and no other; for, first, the distance from each other is mentioned, but no hint that the one was higher in situation than the other; secondly, the terms, whereby motion from the one to the

* 2 Peter ii. 4.

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